600     Culture and Cocoa 
	A. D. 6oo the Mayas undertook a massive migration which led this highly 
	civilised people from Central America deep into the northern regions 
	of South America. In Yucatan they established the earliest known cocoa 
	plantations. There is no doubt, however, that the Mayas must have been 
	familiar with cocoa several centuries earlier. 
1000    Beans and Figures 
	From the very early days of cocoa the peoples of Central America used 
	beans as a form of payment. The use of cocoa beans as units of calculation 
	must a1so have become established before A.D. 1000. One Zontli equalled 
	400 cocoa beans, while 8ooo beans equalled one Xiquipilli. In Mexican 
	picture scripts a basket with 8000 beans represents the figure 8000. 
1200    Chocolate War 
	By subjugating the Chimimeken and the Mayas, the Aztecs strengthened 
	their supremacy in Mexico. Records dating from this period include 
	details of deliveries of cocoa which were imposed as tributes on conquered 
1502    Columbus and the Cocoa Bean 
	On his fourth voyage to America, Columbus landed on 30th July 1502 
	in Nicaragua and was the first European to discover cocoa beans. These 
	were used by the natives as currency and also in the preparation of a 
	delightful drink. But Columbus, who was still searching for the sea 
	route to India, was not interested in cocoa. 
1513    Payment in Beans 
	Hernando de Oviedo y Valdez, who went to America in 1513 as a member 
	of Pedrarias Avila's expedition, reports that he bought a slave for 100 
	cocoa beans. 
1519    A Spanish Bank  
	Hernando Cortez, who conquered part of Mexico in 1519, finds the 
	taste of cocoa not particularly pleasant and is, therefore, much more 
	interested in the value of cocoa as a means of payment. He immediately 
	establishes in the name of Spain a cocoa plantation where, henceforth, 
	"money" will be cultivated. 
1528    Sweet Plunder  
	In 1528, Cortez brings back to Europe the first cocoa and the utensils 
	necessary for its preparation. 
1609    The first Chocology    
	"Libro en el cual se trata del chocolate" is the title of a book which appear- 
	ed in Mexico in 1609. It is the first book devoted entirely to the subject 
	of chocolate. 
1615    Fruitful Marriage     
	The Spanish princess Anna of Austria marries Louis XIII and intro- 
	duces, amongst other Spanish customs, the drinking of chocolate at 
	the French court. 
1657    A Frenchman in London 
	London's first chocolate shop is opened by a Frenchman in 1657. 
1662    A Solomon of Chocolate  
	After Pope Pius V had found cocoa so unpleasant that he declared, in 
	1569, that "this drink does not break the fast", the supreme church of 
	Rome became more and more tolerant towards the exquisite beverage. 
	The question of the fast took on a new urgency. In 1662, Cardinal Bran- 
	caccio hands down the judgment of Solomon: "Liquidum non frangit 
	In other words: "Liquids (in the form of chocolate) do not break the 
	fast." Clearly, one had to wait until Easter to indulge in the eating of 
1670    The Fate of a Seaman 
	Helmsman Pedro Bravo do los Camerinos decides that he has had enough 
	of Christian voyages of exploration and settles in the Philippines, where 
	he spends the rest of his life planting cocoa, thus laying the foundations 
	for one of the great plantations of that time. 
1671    Blissful Accident 
	A clumsy kitchen-boy drops a bowlful of almonds on the floor. The 
	angry chef tries to box his ears and, in the process, spills a panful of hot, 
	burnt sugar over the almonds. The Duke of Plesslis-Praslin, a marshal 
	who is renowned as a gourmet, is waiting for his dessert. "What now?" 
	thinks his personal chef and, in desperation, serves the marshal with the 
	almonds covered with a coating of cooled sugar. The guest is delighted 
	with the novel dessert and promptly gives his name to the new sweet. 
	Not, however, the full name, but simply "Praslin". Since then this sweet 
	has undergone many changes, including the development of the modern 
	term "praline" from the originzl name. 
1674    Roll Call  
	"At the Coffee Mill and Tobacco Roll" was the name of a famous London 
	coffee-house where, as early as 1674, one could enjoy chocolate in cakes 
	and rolls "in the Spanish style". 
1677    A Royal Decree  
	On the strength of a royal decree dated 1st November 1677, Brazil - later to 
	achieve an important position in the world market - establishes in the 
	State of Par  the first cocoa plantations. 
1697    Premiere in Zurich  
	Heinrich Escher, the mayor of Zurich, visits Brussels where he drinks 
	chocolate and returns to his home town with tidings of the new sweet 
1704    Chocolate Tax 
	Towards the end the 17th century, chocolate makes its appearance in Ger- 
	many. The policy of restricting the importation of foreign produce 
	leads Frederick I of Prussia to impose a tax on chocolate in 1704. Anyone 
	wishing to pay homage to its pleasures has to pay two thalers for a permit. 
1711    Chocolate Migration 
	Emperor Charles VI transfers his court from Madrid to Vienna in 1711. 
	With the court, chocolate moves in by via the blue Danube. 
1720    Chocolateers 
	As early as 1720, the coffee-houses of Florence and Venice are offering 
	chocolate whose reputation reaches far beyond the country's borders. 
	Italian chocolateers, well versed in the art of making chocolate, are, 
	therefore, welcome visitors in France, Germany and Switzerland. 
1747    No Hawkers 
	In the year 1747, Frederick the Great forbids all manner of hawking, 
	especially the hawking of chocolate. 
1755    Last but not Least 
	America, in those days not yet the land of plenty, learns of chocolate 
	relatively late, in fact, not until 1755. 
1780    First Factory 
	About the year 1780, the first machine-made chocolate is produced in 
1792    Two from the Grisons in Berlin 
	The Josty brothers from the Grisons made a major contribution to the repu- 
	tation of Swiss chocolate in Germany. In 1792 they open a confectioner's 
	shop and chocolate factory in Berlin. Eberty, the historian, sings the 
	praises of their products: "Everything which one got at Josty's was 
	excellent, and the chocolate really first rate." 
1797    Cautious Goethe 
	Johann Wolfgang von Goethe does not have much confidence in the 
	Swiss hotel industry. For his tour of Switzerland in 1797 he includes in his 
	luggage chocolate and a chocolate pot. 
1810    Toy of the League       
	Venezuela's leading position in the production of cocoa is established. 
	A survey in the year 1810 shows that this country produces half the 
	world's requirements. One third of the world's entire cocoa production 
	is consumed by the Spaniards. 
1819    Pioneers 
	The first Swiss chocolate factory is set up in a former mill near Vevey. 
	The founder, Fran‡ois-Louis Cailler, had learned the secrets of the choco- 
	late-making trade in Italy. 
1822    Ornamental Plant 
	The Portuguese Jos‚ Ferreira Gomes introduces the cocoa tree as an 
	ornamental plant on the small island of Principe in the Gulf of Guinea 
	off the west coast of Africa. 
1857    The Swiss in Afrika  
	Under the encouragement of the Portuguese Baron of Agua Iz, the culti- 
	vation of cocoa passes from Principe on the neighbouring island of Sao 
	Thome, and from there to the African continent. In Ghana, the members 
	of the Basle Mission promote it successfully. Surprisingly quickly, the 
	many small and medium farmers develop the country into one of the most 
	important producers. 
1875    With Milk 
	After eight years of experiment, the Swiss Daniel Peter puts the first 
	milk chncolate on the market in 1875.
1879    Melting Sweetness 
	Rodolphe Lindt of Berne produces chocolate which melts on the tongue 
	for the first time in the year 1879. 
1900    Changes in Leadership 
	Spain, formerly the classic land of chocolate, falls far behind. Germany 
	takes the lead in consumption per head, followed by the United States, 
	France and Great Britain. In just a decade or two anothet country will 
	be playing first violin in the orchestra of the chocolate nations - Switzer- 
	land. The reputation of Swiss chocolate, bolstered by an unbroken series 
	of medals at international exhibitions, has not only fallen upon the ears 
	of foreigners. It has also conquered Swiss palates. Like bratwurst, rosti 
	and fondue, chocolate has become a national dish. 

Source : Chocologie published by Chocosuisse CH-3000 Bern