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The Silent Era
The Story of the Kelly GangThe Australian film industry got off to a flying start, producing what was probably the world's first full length feature film in 1906. The film was the Tait brothers production The Story of the Kelly Gang, a success in both Australian and British theatres, and it was also the beginning of a genre of bushranger stories. While Australians took to bushranger stories the NSW police department did not and banned their production in 1912. The Kelly story, however, outlasted the ban and has been refilmed a number of times since although only a few minutes of footage from the original film have survived.

See the footage at ScreenSoundScreenSound
ScreenSound Australia, Australia's National Film and Sound Archive, has preserved the remaining footage and have the scene of Ned Kelly's Last Stand and Capture available on their website.

ScreenSound Australia plays a leading role in preserving and collecting Australia’s unique film, television and sound heritage. Their website provides a searchable database of Australian films.

Australian cinema continued to thrive during the silent era thanks largely to the work of the pioneers of Australian movie making such as Ken Hall, Charles Chauvel and Raymond Longford, director of the Australian silent classic The Sentimental Bloke.

In these early years Australian filmmakers were interested in forging and exploring Australian identity and films such as For the Term of His Natural Life were notable for their peculiarly colonial themes of convicts and bushrangers.

In spite of the fact that Australian audiences were interested in seeing their own stories on the screen the industry went into decline in the 1920s. The ever expanding U.S. and British production companies took over the Australian distribution and exhibition chains and Australian features were often excluded from cinemas. The state of the industry was so dire that a Royal Commission was held into the film industry in 1927, but it did little to stop the decline.


The Sound Era
Dad and  Dave Come to TownCinesound was the most active of the Australian film studios in the early sound era producing a number of Australian features including a popular series of films based on Steele Rudd's Dad and Dave characters during the 1930s as well as newsreels and documentary films. It was the latter, Cinesound's documentary Kokoda Front Line, which earned Australia's first Academy award in 1943.

Colour production came to Australia with the 1955 Charles Chauvel film Jedda, still one of the most debated films ever produced in JeddaAustralia. It was a daring film, not only was it the first Australian produced film to be shot in colour but it was also the first to use Aboriginal actors in lead roles and the first to feature at the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Jedda's theme of conflict caused when an Aboriginal girl is separated from her culture is still prescient today and its representation of Aboriginal people is much debated.

An extensive Jedda bibliography is available on the Cinemedia site.

The New Wave
The decline in the film industry became almost terminal in the late fifties and early sixties with the industry coming to a virtual stop. The intervention of the Gorton and Whitlam governments in the early 1970s rescued the industry from its probable oblivion.Judy Davis and Sam Neill in My Brilliant Career
With the establishment of the film funding bodies and the training of film makers through the Australian Film Television and Radio School finally a new generation of Australian film makers were able to bring their visions to the screen.

The 1970s saw a huge renaissance of the Australian film industry. Australia produced nearly 400 films between 1970 and 1985 - more than had been made in the history of the Australian film industry. The 1970s also saw the emergence of the film directing auteurs of Gillian Armstrong, Peter Weir, Phil Noyce and Bruce Beresford and the launch of international careers for many screen actors including Judy Davis, Sam Neill and Mel Gibson.

The concerns of film makers had changed little since the early days of Australian cinema, historical stories set in the outback dominated Australian cinema and films with contemporary settings, such as Beresford's Don's Party, continued the Australian film makers' obsession with exploring Australian identity.

After the New Wave
Shine
The huge 10BA tax concessions during the 1980s led to some dubious film making but the period also saw the consolidation of a more diverse film culture in Australia from the highly successful Mad Max (Road Warrior) and Crocodile Dundee films to the quiet achieving styles of John Duigan and Paul Cox .

In the 1990s another new wave of Australian directors hit the screens producing internationally successful films like the Academy Award winning Shine and 'quirky' features including Muriel's Wedding and Pricilla Queen of the Desert.

Contemporary Australian cinema is more complex and diverse than ever, exploring Australian peoples and cultures from a diverse range of viewpoints in recent films such as Looking for Alibrandi, Two Hands, The Boys, Head On, Praise and Radiance.

Nonetheless the use of Australia as a Hollywood backlot and poor box office results for the 1999 crop of films has seen many predicting the demise of the industry, although others are more upbeat about the future of the industry.

Useful links

What's On

Australian online film magazines

Offline Resources

For aspiring filmmakers

Resources for Film Professionals

Film Funding Bodies

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