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BOX-FOLDER-REPORT: 47-4-1
TITLE:             Poland under Nartial Law:
BY:                Roman Stefanowski
DATE:              1983-7-1
COUNTRY:           Poland
ORIGINAL SUBJECT:  RAD Background Report/Chonology 5

--- Begin ---

RFE-RL

RADIO FREE EUROPE Research

RAD Background Report/
Chronology 5
(Poland)
1 July 1983

POLAND UNDER MARTIAL LAW:
A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
13 DECEMBER 1981 - 30 DECEMBER 1982
Compiled by Roman Stefanowaki

RADIO FREE EUROPE RESEARCH (USPS 343-970) is prepared by the Research and Anulysis Department of Radio Free Europe for the use of RFE/RL
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POLAND UNDER MARTIAL LAW:
A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
13 DECEMBER 1981 - 30 DECEMBER 1982
Compiled by Roman Stefanowski

This is a companion volume to "Poland: A Chronology
of Events July-November 1980," "Poland: A Chronology
of Events November 1980-February 1981," "Poland: A
Chronology of Events February-July 1981," and
"Poland: A Chronology of Events August-December
1981," RAD Background Reports/91, 263, Chron/3, and
Chronology 4 (Poland), Radio Free Europe Research,
31 March and 11 September 1981, 5 March and 16 July
1982, respectively. Martial law documents will
appear in a forthcoming volume.

CONTENTS
	Page
Chronology of Events	
13 December 1981 - 30 December 1982	1
Appendix I	

Major Names that Appear in the Chronology	i
Appendix II	

Strikes in the Martial Law Period	ix
Appendix III	

Demonstrations in the Martial Law Period	xi
Appendix IV	

Some of the More Important Martial Law Institutions	xiii
Appendix V	

Militarized Units of State Administration and the National Economy	xxi

Appendix VI	
Glossary	xxix

[page 1]

1. Martial Law: A Chronology of Events
1981

DECEMBER 13 At 0600 hours General Wojciech Jaruzelski,
Minister of Defense, Prime Minister,
and party first secretary, announces that
the State Council has declared, under
Article 33, Paragraph 2 of the Polish
Constitution, a "state of war" for the whole
country, retroactively binding as of
midnight, December 12. For the duration
of the martial law emergency the country
is to be administered by the Military
Council of National Salvation (MCNS),
headed by Jaruzelski and consisting of
20 other military men. The KCNS suspends
the Labor unions, introduces a curfew,
closes down all communications, bans
domestic and foreign travel, meetings,
strikes, and all independent political
activities, and interns and arrests many
dissidents. Solidarity activists, and
intellectuals, both Solidarity advisers
and others, as well as some of the
discredited former leadership of the party.

The Primate of Poland, Archbishop Jozef
Glemp, warns in a sermon given in Warsaw
against the shedding of blood and appeals
to all, the authorities, workers, and
young people, to show the utmost prudence
in the dangerous situation brought about
by the martial law declaration.

DECEMBER 14 Strikes break out in most of the larger
plants in Lodz, Cracow, Warsaw, Wroclaw,
and in the Gdynia-Gdansk area, as well as
in several of the Silesian coal mines.
ZOMO (Motorized Riot Police) units launch
attacks on the strikers in the Warsaw
Foundry, the Aircraft Construction Plant
in Swidnik, and at the Huta Katowice
Steelworks.

Arrest of Lodz region Solidarity chairman
Andrzej Slowik and of his deputy, Jerzy
Kropiwnicki, charged with distributing
leaflets and "encouraging a substantial
number of people to gather publicly."

Sejm session scheduled to take place on
December 15 and 16 canceled.

[page 2]

DECEMBER 14 Both the United Peasant Party and the
(Cont.) Democratic Party issue statements supporting
the MCNS and call for popular cooperation
with the military authorities.

DECEMBER 15 Elblag, Katowice, Koszalin, and Radom
Voivods replaced by military men because
of "improper performance of their
duties." Many senior industrial managers
are also dismissed for similar reasons:
either for their "inability to adapt to
the requirements of the martial law
emergency" or for attempting "to evade
performing tasks imposed on them by
the emergency decree."

Mayor of Warsaw Jerzy Majewski suspends
the activities of three proregime
religious associations: the Catholic Pax
Association, the Christian Social
Association, and the Polish Catholic
Social Union. The economic operations
of the wealthy Pax are turned over
to specially appointed commissars.

Jaruzelski accepts the resignation of
Minister of Science, Higher Education,
and Technology Jerzy Nawrocki, appointed
in the government reshuffle of 3 July
1981.

The MCNS dissolves the Rectors' Conference
"in order to normalize the situation in
the country and in higher education." Note:
The Rectors' Conference, active before
but officially constituted only on 9
December 1981, had announced that the
recent spate of students' strikes was the
direct result of the intentional delay by
the Ministry of Science, Higher Education,
and Technology in taking proper steps to
abolish the sources of the Radom students'
complaints. It is perhaps because of this
formulation and the conference's explicit
vote of nonconfidence in the minister, as
well as its insistence on playing the role
of a watchdog during the passing of
legislation on higher education, that the MCNS,
in giving reasons for its decision to
dissolve the rectors' conference, accuses it
of "attempting to take over some of the
state's prerogatives."

[page 3]

DECEMBER 15 Despite the authorities' attempts to portray
(Copt.) the situation in Poland as "almost normal,"
the wave of arrests of Solidarity members
accused of organizing or inciting strikes
demonstrates that the workers have not
accepted the consequences of the martial
law decision.

ZOMO units attack the Paris Commune Shipyard
(Gdynia) together with the Lenin Shipyard and
the Repair Yard in Gdansk.

Armed pacification of strikes in Cracow, Wroclaw,
at Ursus in Warsaw, and in Swidnik. ZOMO attacks
striking miners in several Silesian coal mines:
Wieczorek, Lenin, Jastrzebie, and Staszic.

The Wujek miners prepare self-defense measures.

DECEMBER 16 Radio Warsaw announces a list of 57 internees --
Solidarity, former KSS "KOR," and ROPCO activists,
and others -- all accused of being "extreme
radicals," The inclusion in the list of such
names as Seweryn Blumsztajn, Miroslaw Chojecki,
and Wojeiech Karpinski, abroad for some
considerable time prior to the martial law
declaration, indicates that the list was not prepared
spontaneously "in response to the danger of the
imminent putsch to have been mounted by Solidarity"
but was planned well in advance.

Note: Solidarity Press Agency
Bulletin No. 44, 26 September-12 October
1981, had reported that on 30 September
1981 Politburo member Albin Siwak, at a
meeting of branch trade unionists in
Krosno (southern Poland), "informed those
present that a six-man Committee of
National Salvation was [already] set up,
headed by Generals Jaruzelski and
Kiszczak [Czeslaw Kiszcsak, the Minister
of Interior Affairs]. Also already detached
are special units of the military and of
the militia to suppress public resistance.
The part-government leadership must
[however] wait before using these forces
for some two months more, until there is
a slackening off in popular support for
Solidarity. A decision is to be expected
on the revocation of the registration
of the ISTU Solidarity."

[page 4]

DECEMBER 16 The authorities mount an orchestrated campaign
(Cont.) to obtain statements of loyalty and
support from former activists and leaders
of the now suspended Solidarity. These are
intended to discredit the previous
leadership by condemning both their political
ambitions and mercurial inclinations.

It is admitted that seven miners were killed
when qovernment forces charged striking
miners in the Wujek Mine in Katowice. This
news was not reported until the day after the
incident. Radio Warsaw's highly tendentious
report displays greater sympathy for the
injuries of the militiamen than for the
slain miners, described as irresponsible
for trying to go on strike "in the face of
the prohibitions laid down by martial law."

Armed pacification of the Lenin Foundry in
Nowa Huta near Cracow.

The Polish Episcopate issues a strongly worded
statement sharply critical of the authorities.

The statement decries a situation in which
"the entire nation is terrorized by military
force." It expresses clear support for
Solidarity, which "by defending the rights of
the workers is indispensable for returning
balance to public life." The statement calls
for official permission for the "free activity"
of Solidarity's leaders and condemns the fact
that "numerous activists of the labor movement
have been interned. The internments are
widespread," the document goes on, adding
that "they include workers, people of letters
and of science, and students." The statement
also says that "strikes have been proclaimed
in numerous enterprises."

Note: The statement, which was to be read in
all churches on December 20, was withdrawn,
presumably as a result of pressure from the
authorities. The subsequent pastoral letter
from Primate Jozef Glemp, read in churches on
December 20, was much milder in tone and dealt
primarily with the moral aspects of suffering
and the necessity for preserving social peace.

DECEMBER 17 Another wave Of arrests of Solidarity
activists and sympathizers -- Jan Jozef
Lipski among them -- takes place.

[page 5]

DECEMBER 17 In Gdansk, on the 11th anniversary of
(Cont.) the December 1970 events, "in the course
of demonstrations and street skirmishes"
164 militiaman and 160 civilians are said
to have "suffered wounds and injuries."

ZOMO units storm and occupy the Lenin
Shipyard in Gdansk, destroying the conference
room in which the August 1980 agreements were
signed.

Pacification of the Lublin Truck Factory,
the Krasnik Ball-bearing Plant, the Wroclaw
PAFAG, and the Polkowice Mine.

DECEMBER 18 Under the martial law decree of 12 December
1981, giving the city mayors and voivods
special authority to suspend
organizations and associations registered on
their territories (Article 15, Point 1,
Paragraphs 2 and 3), the Mayor of
Cracow suspends the Democratic Youth
Union. Also banned are: The Central
Association of Czechs and Slovaks; the
Society of Friends of the Lublin Catholic
University; the Union of Highlanders of
Nowy Targ; the Belojannis Association of
Greek Political Exiles; the Polish
Journalists Union; the Pax Association;
the Social and Cultural Jewish Society;
the Social and Cultural Ukrainian Society;
the Polish Social Catholic Union; the
Christian-Social Association; the Adam
Mickiewicz Literary Society; the
Association of Free Polish Universities;
the Union of Authors and Composers of Light
Entertainment "SAKR"; the Union of Polish
Graphic Artists; the Union of Polish
Composers; the Union of Polish Writers;
the Polish Historical Society; the Polish
Philosophical Society; the Polish Mathematical
Society; the Polish Society of Political
Science; the Polish Psychological Society;
and the Polish Sociological Society.

The Warski Shipyard is Szczecin is taken over
in an armed invasion from the sea.

Pacification of the Gdansk Port and of the
Gdansk Refinery.

[page 6]

DECEMBER 19 Start of the trial of the organizers of the
Lodz general strike. The army prosecutor
demands a 15-year sentence for Andrzej Slowik
and a 7-year sentence for Jerzy Kropiwnicki.
The trial is adjourned after the defense
questions the legality of martial law.

Strikes continue in Wroclaw, in the Katowice
mines, on the coast, and in Huta Katowice.

Romuald Spasovski, Poland's Ambassador to
Washington, asks for political asylum in
protest against the military regime.

Mieczyslaw Kazimierczuk is appointed acting
head of the Ministry of Science, Higher
Education, and Technology, replacing Jerzy
Nawrocki who resigned on December 15.

DECEMBER 20 The Vatican's envoy for Eastern Europe,
Archbishop Luigi Poggi, arrives in
Warsaw.

Some 1,300 miners are reported to be
holding the Piast coal mine in Tychy near
Katowice. A similar situation exists
in the Ziemowit coal mine nearby.

DECEMBER 21 Striking steelworkers are threatening to
blow up furnaces in the Huta Katowice
steelworks, while the miners in Katowice are
still holding out in dramatic circumstances.

DECEMBER 22 Radio Warsaw says that strikes continue in
the Huta Katowice Foundry and in the
Ziemowit, Piast, and Anna Coal Mines.

DECEMBER 23 The Katowice Steelworks is attacked by armored
trucks and tanks. According to Radio Warsaw
the authorities have arrested "Solidarity
provocateurs who were detaining, by means
of terror, about 2,000 foundry workers,
forcing them to engage in an occupational
strike."

The miners' strike at the Ziemowit Mine is
terminated.

[page 7]

DECEMBER 23 The government has withdrawn from the
(Cent.) Sejm the provisional budget for the first
five months of 1982, maintaining that in
an emergency situation shorter planning
periods are required. It is therefore
intended to present to the Sejm, at a later
date, a new draft of a provisional budget
to cover the first two months of 1982 only.

Bishop Bronislaw Dabrowski, the secretary
of the Polish Episcopate's conference,
returns home after a two-day visit in
Rome (December 21-23).

DECEMBER 24 Miners of the Ziemowit Coal Mine return to
the surface. Some 1,200 miners remain in the
Piast Mine. Bishop Janusz Edmund Zimniak,
assisted by three priests, goes down the
Piast Mine to celebrate Mass and to read the
appeal of Katowice Bishop Herbert Bednorz
calling for an end to the strike.

In an interview with West German television
Jaruzelski's spokesman Wieslaw Gornicki says
that the majority of those arrested since
December 13 will soon be released and that
Western journalists will be able to talk to
them freely and be able to visit the
internment camps.

General Mieczyslaw Moczar, the army veterans'
leader and Chairman of the Supreme Chamber
of Control, and previously the occupant
of senior party offices, blames the present
crisis in Poland on the departure of party
members from observance of moral principles, adding
that some party leaders have overstepped all
permissible limits.

Zdzislaw Rurarz, Poland's Ambassador to
Tokyo, asks for political asylum in the US

President Ronald Reagan suspends credits
and commercial ties with Poland.

In a Christmas Eve address General
Jaruzelski defends the decision to impose
martial law, explaining the necessity for
it by citing the dangers of confrontation
allegedly sought by Solidarity.

[page 8]

DECEMBER 25 Six Polish fishermen fishing near the
coast of Alaska and sixteen merchant fleet
seamen off the coast of Japan have left
their ships, asking for political asylum.

DECEMBER 26 The strike at the Piast Mine continues.

Archbishop Luigi Poggi, Vatican expert
on Eastern Europe, returns to Rome after
a week's visit to Poland (from February 20).

DECEMBER 27 The government announces that meat and
butter rations for January 1982 will be
cut yet again. There are some exceptions:
children up to 18 years of age and manual
workers. Peasants possessing more than
0.5 ha of land have been deprived of meat
and butter rations altogether.

DECEMBER 28 Archbishop Jozef Glemp sends a letter to
General Jaruzelski protesting the recently
instituted practice of requiring state
employees to sign a pledge of loyalty to
the system. That requirement, combined
with a formal renunciation of membership
in Solidarity, had been introduced through
a circular letter issued on December 17 by
General Michal Janiszewski in his capacity
as both head of Jaruzelski's civilian
government office and as a member of the
Military Council of National salvation.
(See documents section below.)

The strike at the Piast Mine is terminated. The
military authorities arrest 12 miners
and strike leaders, despite an earlier
promise of immunity.

The Economic Committee of the Council of
Ministers has examined a draft directive
on the introduction of the "general
obligation to work," to be valid during the
martial law period. The draft proposes
that all men between the ages of 18 and 45
"who are not studying or working, and
particularly those whose sources of
livelihood cannot be documented," should be
obliged to work.

Strike breaks out in the Gdansk Repair
Shipyard in protest against the removal
and smashing of the Jozef Pilsudski name
plates.

[page 9]

DECEMBER 28 Note: To commemorate Polish Independence
(Cont.) Day, November 11, the Gdansk Repair
Shipyard was, at Solidarity's initiative,
renamed on 11 November 1981 The Marshal
Josef Pilsudski Repair Shipyard.

DECEMBER 29 Radio Warsaw reports on the breaking up of
the sit-in strike in Huta Katowice, announcing
that 2,000 people are estimated to have
taken part in its last phase.

A series of party meetings is taking place in
various parts of Poland -- Cracow, Gdansk,
Rzeszow, Skierniewice, and Nowy Sacz -- the
apparent intention being to demonstrate that
party activities have not suffered unduly
because of the emergency and also to attempt
to consolidate party ranks.

DECEMBER 30 Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakotoski
makes a surprise two-day visit to Bonn for
talks with the West German leaders in an
effort to obtain their good will and
economic help.

Andrzej Slowik and Jerzy Kropiwnicki, Lodz
region Solidarity leaders accused of inciting
strikes, are sentenced by a summary court
procedure to four-and-a-half years
imprisonment and deprived of their civil rights for a
further four years.

According to the press spokesman of the
Justice Ministry, 141 cases involving 261
people have so far been sent to civilian
courts for trial under summary procedure.

1982

JANUARY 1 The dollar exchange rate is officially set
at 80 zloty (from the previous rate of c.34
zloty to the dollar).

JANUARY 2 Colonel Zdzislaw Malina, Deputy Chief of
the National Defense Committee's Secretariat,
discloses that 90 senior officials have
already been dismissed from their jobs in
the first week of the state of emergency.

[page 10]

JANUARY 2 State Price Commission Chairman Zdzislaw
(Cent.) Krasinski announces substantial price
increases for coal (up 364%), electricity
(244%), and hot water for heating radiators
{333%). Increased prices for foods, up
between 217% and 438%, are announced for
the beginning of the second quarter of
1982.

JANUARY 4 Telephone connections are reinstated in
10 voivodships (out of a total of 49).
Gdansk, Warsaw, Lodz, Craqow, Szczecin,
and Lublin are among those still cut off.

Poland's official media report a normal
working day as people return to work after
the Christmas holidays. Uncensored reports,
however, say that only half of the work force
has been reinstated at the Lenin Shipyard
in Gdansk as a result of continued purges
of Solidarity supporters for their refusal
to renounce their allegiance to the labor
union.

Independent observers assess Poland's
industrial production at some 50% to 60% of
its full capacity.

JANUARY 5 As part of its "disinformation" campaign,
Radio Warsaw announces that the government
has conferred with activists of all labor
unions, Solidarity included. The talks
apparently dealt "with the necessity to
satisfy workers' social needs during the period
when the activities of the labor unions are
suspended."

The corruption trial of Maciej Szczepanski, the former
head of the state radio and television network, opens
in Warsaw. Accused with him are his close
associates: Eugeniusz Patyk, Piotr Liszyk,
Jerzy Hanbowski, and Jadwiga Talachowa.

The Independent Students' union, officially
remistered on 17 February 1981, is
banned by the acting head of the Ministry
of Science, Higher Education, and Technology.
Under the martial law decree the ISU was
merely suspended. The decision to ban it
altogether is explained by the fact that the
ISU has continued with activities that "were
and still are incompatible with public order."

[page 11]

JANUARY 6 In an Epiphany sermon delivered in Warsaw
Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef
Glemp, appeals for public restraint to
avoid further bloodshed and violence.
Warning against the dangers of direct
confrontation, he also expresses criticism
of and regret over the continuing internment
and arrest of many individuals; Solidarity
members and intellectuals, peasants,
workers, and student leaders. He also
strongly criticizes the practice of the
forced dismissal from work of those who.
refuse to sign loyalty pledges demanded
of them by the military regime and to
renounce formally their Solidarity
membership.

Marek Brunne, Solidarity spokesman appointed in
October 1981, returns from a visit to the US. In
a statement, later corrected but basically
unchanged, he is understood to dissociate
himself "from certain [union] resolutions
that went far beyond the framework of the
union's statutory activities."

Polish media inform listeners of a long-term Soviet
credit to Poland of 2,700 million rubles, to
cover Poland's trade deficit with the Soviet
Union for the past year and to finance
purchases of Soviet goods during the current
year.

JANUARY 7 The first issue (nos. 1-2) of the underground
Tygodnik Wojenny (War Weekly) appears in Warsaw.

General Boguslaw Stschura, First Deputy Minister
of Interior Affairs, presents a report to the
Sejm's Internal Affairs and Justice Commission
on the state of the country's safety and
public order. According to Stachura, 5,906
people have been interned, of whom 839 have
already been released. No figures for those
arrested are given, (Note: The difference
between internment and arrest is that in
the case of the former no charges are
preferred and thus no court proceedings are
necessary.) Stachura puts the total fatal
casualties, from the declaration of martial
law to date, at nine; six miners killed "while
attacking security forces," with the security
forces acting "in defense of their own
threatened lives," and the others having died
later in the hospital.

[page 12]

JANUARY 7 (Cont.)	Stachura says that up to January 5
investigations under summary proceedings had been
started against 1,274 arrested persons.
Charges had actually been preferred against
52 persons: 33 9 in general (civilian)
courts and 190 in military ones. Of these,
170 persons have already been sentenced;
139 in general (civilian) courts and 35 in
military ones. According to Stachura, the
civil disturbances occurring since the martial
law declaration have resulted, apart from the
9 persons killed, directly or indirectly,
in a further 245 persons beaten up or injured,
43 of whom ended up as hospital cases. Among
the "forces of law and order," 222 persons
were wounded, 35 of whom required hospitalization.

JANUARY 8 Representatives of Solidarity, in a
statement circulated through underground channels,
describe the government's claim that it
is engaged in talks with Solidarity union
activists as a fictitious attempt to
extract itself from a self-imposed
deadlock. The statement says that the
government is attempting to confuse the Poles and
that "the union authorities have not
authorized, nor will they allow, any of
their members remaining at liberty to
conduct such talks."

The Katowice Voivodship party paper Trybuna
Robotnicza reports that 43 people were
injured when security forces broke up the
strikes in the Manifest Lipcowy and the
Jastrzebie coal mines in Silesia on
December 14 and 15.

Trybuna Ludu urges a "purification of the
ranks" of the party and, in what appears
to be an acknowledgment of what is happening
within the party, calls for a return to the
"pure ideals" of the early years, at the time
of its foundation.

Andrzej zabinski, first secretary of the
Katowice party organization, a known
Hard-liner, resigns and is replaced by Zbigniew
Messner, a Politburo member and Chairman of
the Katowice People's Council. Another
resignation is that of Tadeusz Fiszbach,
the moderate, first secretary of the
Gdansk Voivodship party organization, who
is replaced by Stanislaw Bejger, head of the
Office for Maritime Economy.

[page 13]

JANUARY 9 Polish media announce that since the time of
the martial law declaration, on December 13,
618 people involved in 394 court cases
have been given summary convictions by
"general courts."

The Wroclaw Solidarity underground bulletin
a Dnia na Dzien (From Day to Day) writes of
the brutal treatment of people found in the
streets after curfew, even those in possession
of valid passes. The paper gives the name of
F. Tyszko, who died as a result of a beating
by ZOMO.

In an article in Trybuna Ludu a "collaborationist"
writer, Kazimierz Kozniewski, launches an attack
on the Polish intelligentsia, accusing it of
having been overcome with "a rage of destruction
and anarchy," and hints at the dissolution of
the Polish Writers' Union, whose members have
so far showed themselves overwhelmingly unwilling
to cooperate with the military regime.

Archbishop Josef Glemp meets with Jaruzelski.
The two men "exchange views on the current
situation and express their intentions in
connection with the normalization of life in
Poland."

JANUARY 10 Floods reported in a 30 km section of the
Vistula River around Flock (central Poland).

Internal telephone communications within
towns are restored, but censorship remains
and "telephone conversations may be
interrupted to prevent the telephone facilities
being used for activities endangering the
security of the state."

New regulations will apply to all Polish
universities and colleges when they reopen
on February 15. Students will no longer
have any say in their running and will face
severe penalties if they continue union
activities or mount protest actions.
Attendance at lectures and classes is to be
obligatory, with punishment, including
expulsion, for unjustified absence.

Jozef Czyrek, Politburo member and Poland's
Minister of Foreign Affairs, arrives in
Moscow for meetings with Soviet leaders.
The timing of the visit and the publicity
accorded it in the bloc media may possibly
indicate both Moscow's and Poland's wish
to give the impression that despite the

[page 14]

JANUARY 10 (Cont.)	martial law emergency Poland is conducting
business as usual, particularly on the eve
of an important NATO meeting that is to deal
with the Polish situation.

The military authorities lift some of the
censorship restrictions imposed by the
emergency on foreign correspondents and
restore telex lines to some of the Western
embassies.

JANUARY 11	Radio Budapest quotes an unnamed Polish
professor of economics as saying that about 400,000
Poles may be unemployed in Poland during the
next few months. Note: It is feared that
even if some of the jobs are sacrificed
because of economic exigencies, many people
will lose their jobs in the mass firings now
taking place in Poland primarily because of
their refusal to swear an oath of allegiance to
the military authorities or to renounce their
Solidarity past.

Some 8,500 people have thus far been evacuated
and 2,500 are still awaiting evacuation from
the flood-striken Plock district in
northwestern Poland.

While the Polish media have intensified their
campaign against any kind of Solidarity
activity, a Warsaw court sets free three Solidarity
members, Karol Szadurski, Leszek Lewandowski,
and Jacek Lipinski. The three were accused
of organizing a strike in protest against
martial law. Setting them free, the judge,
Andrzej Lewandowski, accepts the defense
plea that the protest strikes at the Warsaw
Steel Mill were spontaneous and not
organized by individuals.

Note: The release is not mentioned in the
Polish media, nor is the release on January 7
of four Zeran Auto Plant workers in
Warsaw, accused of organizing strikes, but
later set free by the judge, Lidia
Mazurkiewicz, on exactly the same grounds:
a spontaneous reaction by workers to the
declaration of martial law.

At the joint invitation of Colonel Czeslaw
Mieszczak, the plenipotentiary of the
Committee of National Defense, and Voivod
Stanislaw Luczkiewicz, Franciszek Cardinal
Macharski, the Cracow Metropolitan, visits
Bielsko-Biala in southern Poland. On January 6

[page 15]

JANUARY 11 (Cont.)	Bishop Herbert Bednorz of Katowice, had
also visited Bielsko-Biala in response to
a similar invitation.

The Warsaw city authorities' press spokesman
announces that work-free Saturday regulations
do not apply to militarized economic
enterprises, state administration, and other firms
and institutions that through additional
instructions were deprived of free Saturdays.

Jerzy Urbanski, head of the party's Control
Commission, calls in Trybuna Ludu for a
major purge of the party and the trade unions
to remove what he describes as a danger to
socialism in Poland. He says that the party
should use the current period of martial law
to strengthen itself ideologically and
politically. Note: Urbanski's speech makes
it clear that the party intends to use the
current emergency measures as an opportunity
to reassert its authority, primarily by
destroying all actual and potential
opposition.

Philip Johnston, the executive of the CARE
charity organization, warns that unless steps
are taken on an international level to help
the Poles, Poland's population will face
severe malnutrition.

NATO ministers, meeting at a special
session in Brussels, release a declaration on
the events in Poland and issues related to
them. Their main decision is to withhold
further commercial credits to Poland other
than those that night be required for food.
The ministers agree to suspend negotiations
about the payments due in 1332 on Poland's
official debts, and affirm their willingness
to continue, and to increase, humanitarian
aid to the Polish people for distribution and
monitoring by nongovernmental organizations
"to ensure that it reaches the people for whom
it is intended."

JANUARY 12	In a statement following Jozef Czyrek's
visit to Moscow, issued by the Soviet TASS
press agency, the Soviet Union and Poland
jointly condemn what they describe as gross
interference by the West in Polish affairs.
The two sides "view the action taken lay the
United States as an attempt to hamper
normalization of the situation in Poland and its
emergence from the crisis." Czyrek himself

[page 16]

JANUABY 12 (Cant.)	is quoted as condemning the "campaign of
hostility" launched by some Western countries
following the military clampdown. He says
that the imposition of martial law was
"prompted by the crucial necessity to prevent
bloodshed and civil war, to protect the vital
interests of the Polish nation, and to defend
socialism in Poland in the face of the
counterrevolutionary threat, encouraged and
supported by imperialist circles."

More flooding is reported in various parts
of the country: Konin (central Poland),
Ostroleka (northeast of Warsaw), Chelm (eastern
Poland), Szczecin (western Poland) and
Swinoujscie (the coast).

Deputy Prime Minister Jerzy Ozdowski, the
most senior Catholic in Poland's government,
says at a press conference that the recent
meeting between Glemp and Jaruzelski, on January 9,
is a sign of the gradual normalization of life in the
country and indicates that the possibility
of reducing the number of internees is now
being considered: a move intended to restore
public confidence in the military rulers.
Note: According to Church sources, the
Church-state summit was far from successful and there
are no immediate prospects of resumed
negotiations. A hardening of attitudes is apparent
from the tenor of Glemp's sermon of January
10, in which he criticized the authorities
for their policy of internment and for
creating conflicts of conscience by forcing
employees to choose between their jobs and
Solidarity membership.

In a first meeting with a Polish government
official since the declaration of the state
of martial law, Pope John Paul II meets
privately with Kazimierz Szablewski, Resident
Minister Plenipotentiary in charge of working
relations with the Vatican. According to
Vatican sources, Szablewski delivered
Jaruzelski's reply to the Pope's letter sent
in December through Archbishop Luigi Poggi,
when, as the pope's personal representative,
Poggi visited Warsaw shortly after the
declaration of martial law. Note: While no
details of the exchange of correspondence are
available, the pope's letter is said to have
contained an appeal to the Polish authorities
to abolish martial law and to resume a dialogue
with Solidarity and the Church.

[page 17]

JANUARY 12 (Cont.)	As "a sign of further improvement in the
state of safety and public order." the
curfew hours in the Katowice region have been
eased, from the previous 2200 to 0600 hours
to the present 2300 to 0500 hours. Some
relaxation has already taken place in other parts
of the country.

Speaking in Warsaw at a New Year's reception
for foreign diplomats, the head of the Council
of State, Hanryk Jablonski, criticizes alleged
attempts to interfere in Polish affairs, at
the same time pleading for Western cooperation
and help. He says that the sanctions imposed
will delay the country's recovery and that
these "strike a painful blow at the broadest
masses of Polish society." At the same time
he assures the diplomatic corps that "martial
law in Poland has not changed the country's
foreign policy." Note: At least a dozen
ambassadors, representing NATO countries, japan,
and Australia, boycotted the reception "on the
instructions of our governments" and for
"fairly obvious" reasons.

Official media launch an attack on the
prizewinning Polish film director Andrzej Wajda,
accusing him of advocating extremist tendencies
in Solidarity. Note: Wajda, whose recent film
Han of Iron, a sequel to Man of Marble, won
international acclaim, was closely associated
with the country's renewal processes in public
life but particularly in the world of culture
and the arts.

Trybuna Ludu strongly criticizes private
farmers in an apparent effort to separate
them from the workers and isolate them
from the interned or arrested leaders of
Rural Solidarity.

At a press conference in Paris Ryszard
Wojna, a member of the Sejm, a writer for
Trybuna Ludu. and Deputy Chairman of the
CC's International Affairs Commission set
up at the second plenum on 11 August
1981, gives the number of deaths since the
imposition of martial law as 11; 9 dead
in Silesia, 1 in Gdansk, and 1 dying of heart
failure during a street demonstration in
Wroclaw.

Poland's media report that the country's
economy is suffering because of a shortage
of materials, lack of hard currency for
imported industrial inputs, and the absence
of clear cut instructions and guidance from

[page 18]

JANUARY 12 the military authorities. They also suggest,
(Cont.) if only obliquely, that the still largely
disrupted communications have aggravated
the economy's problems.

The Polish authorities have turned down a
request from West European trade union officials
for permission to send a fact-finding labor
mission to Poland.

JANUARY 13 The Sejm Commissions for Internal Affairs and
for the Administration of Justice and
Legislative Work have discussed and approved
a draft law on the acceptance of special
legislation in the period of martial law.

Warsaw Television announces that as of
January 14 a new government paper,
Rzeczpospolita (The Republic), is to appear.
Its aim is to "repcrt on the work and
activities of the qovernment." Its
editor-in-chief is Jozef Barecki. Note: Barecki was
previously editor-in-chief of the party daily
Trybuna Ludu. He was also Chairman of the Polish
Journalists' Union (1978-1930), for a short time
(exactly a month) head of the Radio and Television
Committee, and then government spokesman.
The idea of such a paper was mooted earlier
in the Sejm by the writer and journalist
Edmund Osmanczyk.

In their first trip outside Warsaw since the
imposition of martial law on December 13,
foreign journalists accredited in Poland have
an opportunity to go to Poznan (western
Poland). After visiting the Cegielski Works
they ask to see Zdzislaw Roswalak, head
of Solidarity's Wielkopolska region.
Rozwalak is brought to their hotel and in
the presence of government officials he
emphatically recants a statement made by
him in December that supported the martial
law decision and measures. He says he
made his declaration under duress, in
ignorance of the real situation in the
country and within Solidarity, and due to
his inexperience in dealing with the methods
of the security service. Note: Rozwalak's
original statement, signed on December 14,
was read on Radio Warsaw on December 16. It
is significant that in mentioning the
correspondents' visit to Poznan Radio Warsaw,
while acknowledging that Rozwalak met with
the foreign correspondents at their express
wish, omitted to mention Rozwalak's recanting
statement.

[page 19]

JANUARY 13 (Cont)	For the first time since the imposition of
martial law the Military Council of Rational
Salvation (MCNS) holds a meeting, chaired by
General Wojciech Jaruzelski, in which
industrial workers said to belong to all three
trade unions: Solidarity, the branch unions,
and the autonomous unions, participate. The
meeting was called "to acquaint workers
with the situation in the country and with
the role of the armed forces under conditions
of martial law."

Agriculture and Food Industry Minister Jerzy
Wojtecki warns that meat supplies may be
some 400,000 tons lower this year than last.
Because of uncertainty about the planned
grain and fodder imports, in the light of
the American restrictions, production of
broiler chickens has been cut by up to
350,000 tons. Note: This explains why it was
thought necessary to reduce the January meat
ration, with no guarantees of meeting
allocation requirements for the rest of the year.

Responding to NATO charges of Soviet
involvement, TASS issues an angry denial that the
Soviet Union played any part in the
imposition of martial law in Poland or put pressure
on the Polish leadership to take the steps
it did. TASS states that "the measures
were decided and carried out by Poland alone."
It also accuses the US and its allies of
trying to dictate to the Poles how to run
their affairs, while continuing to encourage
antisocialist forces in the country.

JANUARY 14 Zdzislaw Sadowski, Chairman of the Main
Statistical Office and Government
Plenipotentiary for Economic Reform, says
that despite the state of emergency
and the "great economic difficulties"
the government is going ahead with the new
economic mechanisms in order to create
stronger incentives for boosting
production and exports. Sadowski admits, however,
that restrictions on hard currency make it
impossible to import industrial inputs,
creating supply shortages. He also blames
Poland's creditors for imposing restrictions
on hard currency borrowing, thereby making
the introduction of the economic reform
all the more difficult.

According to a message from the Bialoleka
Juvenile Prison in northern Warsaw, where
more than 260 detainees are being held,

[page 20]

JANUARY 14 (Cont.)	officials of the Polish security services
have taken over the running of the prison
from the original wardens. The detainees say
new restrictions have been imposed on their
freedom of movement and assembly in the past
two weeks.

Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski,
heading an economic delegation, discusses
economic relations and trade with his Romanian
counterpart in Bucharest. Note: Romania has
supported the introduction of martial law in
Poland but has kept its comments to a minimum,
stressing the need for Poland to solve its
problems without outside interference.

Jerzy Szablik, Deputy Minister of Science,
Higher Education, and Technology, says that the
authorities will not tolerate disturbances
in colleges when they reopen. Briefing
the Sejm Commission on Science and Technological
Progress, Szaklik notes that conditions for
resuming classes will be based on statements
submitted by individual college rectors and
on the decisions of the Voivodship Defense
Committees. Mote: Classes were suspended
upon the declaration of martial law. Several
colleges have already resumed some courses.
The media have announced that all universities
and colleges will resume classes by the middle
of February under tight regulations. Both
faculty and student organizations will continue
to be suspended and all administrative
decisions are to be made by university rectors.

A new government daily, Rzeczpospolita (The
Republic), edited by Jozef Barecki, appears,
its main articles written by Deputy Prime
Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski and Edmund
Osmanczyk, the Sejm deputy who had
suggested the founding of such a paper last
fall in the Sejm.

Speaking at a meeting with party officials
in Rzeszow, southeast Poland, Politburo
member Albin Siwak says that the future
character and the way of work of the
country's trade unions is still an open
matter.

The Reuter correspondent in Warsaw reports
that a number of underground Solidarity
publications are circulating. Bulletins are
appearing despite a martial law ban on
unauthorized publications and severe
restrictions on printing equipment, ink, and
newsprint. In addition to printed bulletins,
others are handwritten.

[page 21]

JANUARY 15	Politburo member and CC Secretary Hieronim
Kubiak, speaking in Lublin to a party aktif
working in education and culture, accuses
the country's intellectuals of "having lost
their political orientation," but allows
that they still have a role to play "in the
process of normalization of our
sociopolitical life."

Some 102 Polish intellectuals, artists, and
scientists protest to the Sejm against the
imposition of martial law and demand its
abolition and the resumption of a dialogue
with the legally elected representatives
of Solidarity and with the Church.

JANUARY 16 The New York Times publishes an interview
with Zbigniew Bujak, until Solidarity's
suspension the head of its Mazowsze
(Warsaw) chapter. Bujak is quoted as
saying that the union is continuing its
activities underground and is prepared to
struggle, through peaceful means, against the
military dictatorship. Bujak says the first
shock of martial law has passed and now
spontaneous opposition is growing. As examples,
he says that there has been passive resistance
against political dismissals in factories,
that intellectuals are turning in their party
cards, and that people are banding together
to refuse to sign loyalty oaths.

Trybuna Ludu warns farmers that the
authorities might have to impose compulsory
deliveries of grain if farmers continue to
withhold deliveries to state procurement
points. The paper says they should make up
their minds quickly whether they intend to make
delivery, since it is in the general interest
that no compulsory deliveries should be
introduced.

PAP announces that representatives of Western
banks met in Vienna on January 13 with two
senior Polish finance officials, Zbigniew
Karcz, the head of the Finance Ministry's
Foreign Department, and Jan Woloszyn, Bank
Handlowy's Deputy President, to discuss
rescheduling Poland's debts. The two
sides were said to have agreed to continue
the talks at a later date.

[page 22]

JANUARY 16 (Cont.)	The Warsaw dally Zypie Warszawy appears for
the first time since its last issue (dated
December 12-13) before the declaration of
martial law. Provincial editions of the
paper, Zycie Radomskie and Zycie Czestochowy,
are also published.

Speaking at the plenary session of the
Zyrardow (near Warsaw) Municipal Party
Committee, Politburo member Albin Siwak
calls for a purge of what he describes as
irresponsible people in the PUWP. A Radio
Warsaw report quotes Siwak as saying there
is room in the party for every honest Pole,
for people of culture and science. "However,"
he added, "the party must be purged of
irresponsible people. But this must not be a
witch hunt. In the near future, the party
must work out a program for the entire
community that will be based on the pure sources
of Marxism and Leninism.

JANUARY 17 The Polish Airline LOT resumes flights.

Radio Warsaw resumes the transmission of
Sunday Mass, which was suspended with the
proclamation of the state of emergency.
The Mass is transmitted by Poland's second
radio program, which also resumed today
following its suspension in December.

The new Polish Ambassador in London,
Stefan Staniszewski, says Lech Walesa is to
be released from detention soon and that
he has been told that martial law will end
shortly. Note: The statement conflicts with
the position taken by the government
spokesman, Jerzy Urban, who said in an interview
with Zycie Warszawy on January 16 that
martial law would have to last as long as
what he described as "the fatal factors
that necessitated its proclamation" have
not disappeared.

PAP quotes Tadeusz Nowicki, a member of the
central Party Control Commission, as saying
that nearly 1,100 people have been expelled
from the Polish party during this first 3
weeks of martial law, and a further 1,300
have been crossed off the party
membership list. Nowicki says that the
authorities, in association with the Control
Commission, have also recalled 272 people
from their posts, handed out other
penalties to 289 people, and warned 360 more.

[page 23]

JANUARY 18 Wieslaw Gornicki, the spokesman for the
Military Council of National Salvation,
denies that a decision has been made on the
release of Lech Walesa. Note: His
statement comes after the Polish Ambassador's
in London claim yesterday about Walesa's
impending release. Western reports quote
Gornicki as saying he was authorized to
deny the ambassador's remarks.

In an interview with Zycie Warszawy,
Deputy Speaker of the Sejm Piotr Stefanski
says the right conditions must be
established prior to the resumption of trade
union activities. Referring to the draft
bill on trade unions, Stefanski says that
work in the Sejm on the bill had been going
on since last May and the bill had been
discussed fully with all the interested
parties. However, he added, a general
debate on the trade union bill should be
opened the moment conditions are suitable
for the resumption of trade union activity.

Radio Warsaw's International Service reports
that the Minister in Charge of Union Affairs,
Stanislaw Ciosek, addressing workers in Lodz,
said he has had several talks with Walesa
on what he calls matters of a general nature.
The minister also said he had numerous meetings
with people he claims are Solidarity leaders
on the future of unions in Poland and with
representatives of other unions.

Deputy Prime Minister Jerzy Ozdowski, in an
interview with Radio Warsaw, says he sees Poland's
planned price reform as a redistribution of
national income in which the poorest sectors
of society must be protected. He says the
problem of prices is linked with the economic
reform which the government has begun to
introduce this month.

The armed forces newspaper Zolnierz Wolnosci
calls for continuing the purge of the country's
communist party and a return to unity based
firmly on Marxist-Leninist principles. The
article, coming after Nowicki's
statement yesterday about losses in party
membership, says that many people have left the party;
some have failed to withstand the pressure of the
crisis and others have been dismissed. "We should
create conditions for the further dismissal of
those who, by their conformist attitudes and their

[page 24]

JANUARY 18 (Cont.)	fear to defend the party openly, in work
Establish-merits, institutions, social and political
organizations, have proved that they are not mature enough
to deserve the name of Communist," the paper says.

Mieczyslaw Rakowski is quoted as claiming that
what he describes as chaos will return to Poland
within a month if martial law is lifted. He told
the West German magazine Stern: "If we really
want reform and the economic stabilization that
would make these reforms possible, then we cannot
lift these measures taken with a heavy heart and
create a situation in which all the chaos
returns within a month at the latest." Rakowski
added: "Unfortunately, that forces us to take
repressive measures against those people who
would only endanger a continuing renewal."
Rakowski repeated official claims that army rule
is a lesser evil to prevent the danger of civil
war and of Poland's becoming "a bloody stain on
the map of Europe."

He also claimed the Soviet Union had never objected
to Polish government plans for worker
codetermination in industry, pluralism, the extension of civil
rights, and relations with the Catholic Church,
Rakowski also renewed appeals to the West not to
make the Polish situation worse with economic
sanctions. He claimed "If America stops supplying
us with maize, that means seven kilograms less meat
per year for every Pole. That would create new
tensions which only delay the process of reform."
Rakowski also said: "Some Western politicians
think they can compel us to a dialogue with people
who, we know, only seek the destruction of our
system and the removal of Poland from the Warsaw
Pact. We will not let ourselves be forced into
that."

The government daily Rzeczpospolita reports that
negotiations to renew Poland's membership in the
International Monetary Fund will resume in March.
Note: The new round of talks, broken off upon the
declaration of martial law, is to be preceded by
re-entry negotiations with the World Bank.

Radio Warsaw reports a meeting today of the
Church-State Commission. The commission pressed
for political solutions to reach lasting national
accord and said that cooperation between the state
and the Church was a real factor in helping to
hasten the lifting of martial law. The radio says
that in this context the meeting discussed the
activity of the trade unions and other social and

[page 25]

JANUARY 18 (Cont.)	youth organizations as well as university and
college work. The commission is quoted as saying that in the difficult situation in the country, economic
aid is necessary, whereas economic sanctions
seriously impede the overcoming of the crisis and
block the return to the implementation of the
process of renewal. The representatives of the
Church expressed concern about retaliatory actions
against citizens, which violate human dignity. The
state representatives replied that such actions were
not the intention of the authorities.

The authorities announced the relaxation of some
martial law restrictions on people's movements as of
January 23. In view of the alleged improvement in
public safety and order and increasing labor
efficiency, the Minister of Internal Affaire has
abolished special permits for travel between the
Katowice, Bielsko-Biala, and Nowy Sacz Voivodships,
and between the Cracow and Nowy Sacz Voivodships.
Throughout the country, Poles traveling outside
their place of residence will no longer have to
report to the police within 12 hours of arrival; and people
traveling to sanatoriums or holiday centers will no
longer need permits for such journeys.

JANUARY 19	Radio Warsaw announces that "energetic"
preparations are being made to open a new training school
for firemen to be called the Main Firemen's School.
Note: On December 2 police troops stormed the
Firefighter Officers' Academy in Warsaw, formally
closed on 30 November 1981, where nearly 300 cadets
had been staging a sit-in strike. Soon after, the
authorities disbanded the academy.

In an interview with Zolnierz Wolnosci General
Antoni Jasinski, Deputy Chief of the Polish General
Staff, says that the Ministry of Defense has arranged
"particular priority" for soldiers who choose
civilian universities "when they qualify for university
studies." The general is also quoted as saying the
Ministry of Defense is seeking information on "each
soldier who is on extended military duty" so as to
offer "far-reaching help in shaping his life when
he leaves the army."

JANUARY 20	The Warsaw Voivodship Court sentences four
Solidarity members accused of organizing a strike
at Ursus Mechanical Plant (tractor works) in Warsaw:
Jerzy Kaniewski to three and a half years;
Arkadiusz Czerwinski and Witold Kaszuba to three
years each; and Reivedykt Filoda to a two-year
suspended sentence.

[page 26]

JANUARY 20 Note: The trial started on January 5.
(Cent.) Originally there were five accused, but the
proceedings against Jan Josef Lipski, the
author and literary critic, were suspended
because of Lipski's serious heart ailment.

The government daily Rzeczpospolita says some 1,092
government officials were replaced and 35 of 49
provincial governors were ousted during 16 months
of labor unrest in 1980-1981. The paper also says
some officials retired, while at least eight of
the governors were ousted due to "pressure" from
the community. It says 5 of the governors lost
their posts because of incompetence, and that of
164 deputy governors 72 lost their jobs during the
period.

Speaking to party and "union activists" In Opole,
southwest Poland, Politburo member Albin Siwak
says that the issue of "reactivating" Solidarity
is an open matter and everything depends on the
current behavior of Solidarity leaders and the
union's "new program." Siwak says guarantees must
be given that Solidarity will never again be turned
into a political party. He also says the
imposition of martial law was necessary but that in the
long term the country's normalization must be
linked with the party and the restoration of its
leading role in the nation.

The Soviet party daily Pravda suggests that the
military crackdown in Poland prevented the crisis from
turning into a wider conflict and thus endangering
peace in Europe. An article written by two senior
commentators, Valentin Falin and Vital Kobysh,
argues that the imposition of martial law was
"indispensable not only to Poland but to European
peace as well," adding that "those who are now
criticizing the Polish leadership, especially those
in Western Europe, had better take a sober and
responsible look at the situation and realize that
a threat to the whole of the continent has been
averted."

JANUARY 21	In an article published in the United Peasant Party
daily Dziennik Ludowy, a Sejm deputy, Professor
Adam Lopatka, maintains that martial law has not
restricted the work of the Sejm, the State Council,
or the government. Lopatka claims that there have
been no changes in the constitutional tasks of the
Sejm, and that it continues to be the country's
only legislative body, in full control of domestic
and foreign policy.
[page 27]

JANUARY 21	In a pastoral latter scheduled to be read in all of
the country's Catholic churches the Polish episcopate
says that martial law could provoke protest,
rebellion, and even civil war. The bishops call for
a resumption of social and political talks between
the authorities and society, "The dialogue may be
difficult but it is not impossible. Everyone expects
this dialogue. We as bishops appeal for it. We
must eliminate this wave of growing hatred, vengeance,
and revenge. These activities infringe upon human
dignity, curb civil rights, and thus inhibit national
accord."

More than 150 Solidarity activists have been
imprisoned for organizing strikes or other protests since
martial law was proclaimed. Justice Ministry
figures for the December 13 to January 15 period
show that of the 142 people sentenced in that period,
73 got less than 3 years in prison, 39 got 3 years
exactly, and 30 more than 3 years. At least nine
people have been jailed since January 15.

Radio Warsaw reports that the Radom School of
Engineering has opened today for the first time
in nearly three months. Note: Strikers closed
the school in October and it remained closed under
martial law. The October dispute broke out over
the re-election of the college's rector, Michal
Hebda. It later turned into a national protest
against the government's slow implementation of
higher education legislation and involved 70 of the
country's 91 colleges.

All diocesan bishops and the primate issue a
pastoral letter in which they call for freedom
for all citizens and the entire nation. Stressing
that "peace is inseparably linked with freedom,"
the bishops warn that "every man and every nation
must experience the curbing of freedom as painful
and unjust; the curbing of man's freedom leads
to protests, rebellion, and even war." They go
on to state that "we call on all those on whom
it depends to respect freedom, especially the
freedom of conscience and conviction so dearly
loved by our nation."

Note: The pastoral letter was read in all Polish
churches on January 24.

A delegation of the International Red Cross visits
the Goldap internment camp (northeast Poland) where
the authorities are holding 242 women in detention.

[page 28]

JANUARY 22	Router reports the circulation of an open letter,
apparently dated January 13, by Stefan Bratkowski,
chairman of the suspended Polish Journalists'
Union, condemning martial law and calling for a
political truce to put the country back on the road
to reform. The letter warns the country's military
rulers that they have no popular support and scorns
their argument that Solidarity was leading the
country to civil war. Bratkowski writes that the
military has declared war on the Polish people to
protect a ruling class that represents scarcely 1%
of the total population.

PAP, quoting a press spokesman for the Ministry of
Internal Affairs, reports that every day "several
hundred" people are fined or sentenced to prison
terms for violating current curfew regulations.

Poland's military government formally warns Western
nations against any attempt to discuss Polish
internal affairs at the Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe resuming in Madrid next month.
The warning comes in a note to the 34 other states
that signed the Final Act of the 1975 Helsinki CSCE
meeting. Warsaw strongly opposes "the announced
intentions of certain Western governments to raise
the subject of Poland's internal situation at the
Madrid conference scheduled to resume on February 9."
It says "the discussion of Polish problems would
constitute an instance of interference in internal
Polish affairs contrary to the Final Act...
would delay the drafting of the final communiqué,
and would threaten the results of the Madrid
meeting."

JANUARY 23	An International Red Cross delegation visits the
Bialoleka internment camp, where 245 men, mainly
Solidarity and KOR leaders, are being held.

PAP reports the dismissal of Gdansk Voivod Jerzy
Kolodziejski, a prominent figure in the August
1980 negotiations. Note: Tadeusz Fiezbach, the
Gdansk Voivodship First Party Secretary, who also
played a positive role in the developments on the
coast up to the declaration of martial law, was
replaced on January 8.

After a specially convened meeting of the Catholic
proregime Pax organization, authorized by the
Mayor of Warsaw in view of Pax's official
suspension, a statement is issued containing a critical
assessment of the organization's policies and

[page 29]

JANUARY 23 (Cont.)	activities in the period prior to December 13. The
statement cites examples of such activities and
erroneous concepts: the undermining of the
constitutional system of People's Poland and the
leading role of the party, and the promotion of
the ideas of Pax Chairman Ryszard Reiff on the
creation of a so-called "grand coalition" of party,
Church, and Solidarity. In a change of leadership.
Reiff is replaced by Zenon Kommender, the incumbent
Minister of Domestic Trade and Services.

Addressing a plenary session of the Katowice
Voivodship party committee, Zbigniew Messner,
Politburo member and newly appointed Voivodship
Party First Secretary, blames the leaders and
organizers of the strike in the Wujek Mine in
Tychy near Katowice for the death of the seven
miners killed when government forces charged striking
miners on December 16. According to Messner, "young
and inexperienced people were drawn by deceit into
a conflict in which they were not defending either
their own interests or their own work." Note:
Messner replaced Andrzej Zabinski on January 8.

Interviewed on Radio Warsaw, Deputy Prime Minister
Mieczyslaw Rakowski says there are continuing
contacts between the authorities and individual
Solidarity activists, intimating that these include
Lech Walesa, Though in principle in favor of more
than one union, he concedes that no clear answer
can yet be given on the future of the country's
trade unions. He stresses, however, that no union
will be allowed to assume the role of a political
organization.

An agreement has been signed between the Polish
Ecumenical Council and the State Committee for
Radio and Television on religious broadcasts on
Radio Warsaw of the different denominations within
the council. Note: The council is a small group
representing eight non-Roman Catholic denominations
in Poland.

JANUARY 24	The Council of State withdraws special compulsory
military service regulations introduced under
martial law and restores previous conscription
rules. The decision is apparently linked to what
the council says is the "progressive stabilization
of the country's sociopolitical life."
Conscription in 1962 will be conducted by the provincial
governors assisted by the heads of the provincial
military staffs and heads of village communities
through draft commissions that are to decide whether

[page 30]

JANUARY 24 (Cont.)	the conscripts are sole breadwinners, A resolution
adopted by the State Council provides for exemption
from active military service of men responsible
for "direct care of a family member or for running
a farm."

Politburo member Albin Siwak claims many Solidarity
unionists say there should be only one trade union
organization in Poland instead of the three that
existed after August 1980. PAP says Siwak told
party activists in the industrial town of Nowy
Dwor that "even many Solidarity members have said
that there should be only one trade union, and they
are right... The ill fortune of the Poles, and
especially the working class, was the fact that
We allowed a split into autonomous trade unions,
branch trade unions, and Solidarity." He says the
question of trade unions is still open.

JANUARY 25	The Sejm meets for a two-day session, the first
since the martial law declaration, convened
primarily to invest the ruling military authorities
with a semblance of legality by ratifying the
emergency decrees announced by the State Council
as well as to attend to the unfinished business of
approving, in a drastically amended form, the
Teachers' Charter.

The Sejm duly expresses formal support for General
Jaruzelski and approval of his policies, present
and future, with only six, and possibly seven,
members abstaining: Karol Malcuzynski (nonparty)
and Janusz Zablocki and his group, the Polish Social
Catholic Union. Romuald Bukowski, a nonparty
deputy from Gdynia, registers the only vote against
the motion.

The Sejm also approves two ministerial changes:
Jerzy Korzonek becomes the head of the Maritime
Economy Office, succeeding Stanislaw Bejger who
was released in connection with his appointment as
First Secretary of the Gdansk PUWP Voivodship
Committee after the recent ouster of the popular
reformist Tadeusz Fiszbach. Benon Miskiewicz takes
over as the hew Minister of Science, Higher
Education, and Technology, replacing Jerzy Nawrocki who
resigned on December 15 for reasons that are still
unclear.

Reuter reports, quoting management sources, that
Poland's Baltic shipyards could come to a
standstill within several months because of a lack of
imported raw materials. The main problem is a
shortage of special steel, which has already slowed

[page 31]

JANUARY 25 (Cont.)	down production in both the Gdansk and
Gdynia shipyards. The Lenin yard is using
reserves, and there is no prospect of replenishing
stocks because they would have to be imported and
there is no cash available.

Highway checkpoints have been set up at strategic
places throughout Poland, according to reports by
travelers. They say that the checkpoints are
similar to the barriers installed on exit roads from
Warsaw in recent days. Drivers are routinely
flagged down at the points and have their documents
checked and their cars searched. Note: People
traveling outside their provinces require special
permission and the checks thus ensure that the
regulation is not infringed.

Polish intellectuals have made a concerted appeal
to end martial law. A petition to the Sejm, signed
by 130 academics and intellectuals, urges the
authorities to halt "confrontation with their own
nation." The petition speaks of an attempt to
enslave Polish society, and protests against "brutal
strike-breaking by the army and police, against
shootings and beatings, against the internment of
thousands...."

JANUARY 26	Lech Walesa receives written internment warrant:
"Decyzja No. 182 o internowaniu," backdated
to 12 December 1981.

Polish Politburo member and CC Secretary Stefan
Olszowski discusses the role of the party under
martial law at two separate party meetings in the
Wloclawek region in central Poland. According to
Radio Warsaw, at one meeting Olszowski stressed
that the party's current task was to make life in
Poland better, calmer, and safer. At the other
meeting, Olszowski said that anyone who intended
to engage in activity against the socialist state
could not expect understanding or leniency.
According to Radio Budapest, Olszowski said the communist
party would remain an essential factor in the social
and political life of Poland in the future, and
nobody could take over its leading role. Olszowski
said that a primary task of the party would be to
struggl for social justice and to develop an adequate
relationship between the country's leading bodies
and the public. Those who wanted to work for the
sake of the country could reckon with the party's
understanding and support.

The International Red Cross announces that its
representatives have visited nearly 500 detainees
in Poland and received permission to see all Poles
held in detention under martial law. The
Geneva-based International Committee of the Red Cross first

[page 32]

JANUARY 26 asked to visit internees last December 21, eight days
(Cont.) after martial law was declared in Poland. The ICRC
says its delegation in Warsaw was informed last
Thursday that its request had been granted. "Two
ICRC delegates together with the support of
representatives of the Polish Red Cross undertook: a first
visit to Goldap, some 200 km from Warsaw, on 22 January
1982 where they saw 242 internees...."

JANUARY 27	The Polish authorities announce new directives
covering price regulations and remuneration. They
foreshadow rises in the prices of a range of consumer
goods and compensation for these rises as of 1
February 1982; new levels of family allowances to
be implemented in the next few days; the immediate
extension of rationing for a number of consumer goods;
as well as new restrictions on the freedom of
industrial enterprises to set their own prices for
the goods they produce. On the average, food prices
will rise by 171%. As far as individual commodities
are concerned, sugar will rise by 338%, butter by
253%, ham by 205%, and beef by 233%, while coal will
rise by 263%, and electricity by 100%. Together
with these price rises, the authorities have also
announced a series of payments to consumers in
partial compensation for the price rises. The
compensation scheme will be divided into two categories:
a. Compensation for price rises for rationed food:
miners working underground will receive an additional
1,400 zloty per month; workers receiving special
meat rations will receive an additional 900 zloty
per month; and other workers will receive 750 zloty
per month; b. Compensation for price rises for fuel
and energy, as well as for price rises for
nonrationed food; workers earning up to 4,500 zloty
per month will receive an additional 700 zloty;
those earning between 4,501 zloty and 6,000 zloty
per month, an additional 600 zlaty; those earning
between 6,000 zloty and 9,000 zloty, an additional
500 zloty; and those earning between 9,000 zloty
and 13,000 zloty, an additional 300 zloty.
Those earning more than 13,000 zloty per month
will receive no compensation whatsoever (i.e.,
under either category). The government
announcement on the compensation scheme says that it will
also cover nonworking wives of workers as well as
pensioners, although no details are provided as to
the payments these groups can expect. Family
allowances will also be increased for families
earning less than 3,500 zloty, with payments
ranging (according to income level) from 2,800 zloty
per month to l,400 zloty per month.

Radio Warsaw reports that the construction of a
subway in Warsaw will start next year. The first
stage, a stretch of 23 km joining 2 Warsaw
districts, will be finished in 1984 and will cost
7,500 million zloty. Substantial help will be
given by the Soviet Union, which will provide
equipment and train construction teams.

[page 33]

JANUARY 27 (Cont.)	It is announced that the leader of the Christian
Democratic Party's deputies in the lower house of
Italy's parliament has asked that Lech Walesa be
proposed as a candidate for the 1982 Nobel Peace
Prize. The official, Gerardo Bianco, wrote a
letter to the leaders of the other groups
represented in parliament asking them to lend their
support to his initiative. Bianco said he was
proposing the union chief for the prize "in consideration
of the high moral and political figure of Lech Walesa
which emerges clearer and larger following the
events of the year just ended."

Politburo members Stefan Olszowski and Albin Siwak
have both said that the party is becoming more
active. Olszowski, speaking at a conference on
party ideology and propaganda in Warsaw, stresses
the need for an analysis of the damage caused by
what he calls the destructive activity of extreme
forces in Solidarity and for a sharp ideological
struggle against anticommunism and various forms
of nationalism. He also points out the need for more
successful action against the anti-Polish propaganda
campaign.

Siwak, addressing a party meeting in Koszalin, says
that party activity is increasing, and, along with
it, he asserts, coal and industrial production. He
says the party must be consistently cleaned up from
top to bottom of all hostile influences, of spongers
and undedicated people. But, he says, the party must
offer help to those of its members who need
guidance and it must remind society that it is there to
serve it, since only in this way can it regain
confidence. Siwak says the issue of the trade
union movement remains open, but that the trade
unions must come from the grassroots. Speaking
about economic sanctions, Siwak says the Polish
nation will feel the pinch of the economic
restrictions but that it is switching over to closer
cooperation with the socialist countries which
permits optimism. Siwak also claims that the
situation in Poland, although hard, is improving,
and the public is becoming more and more dedicated
to the cause of stabilization.

JANUARY 28	At a press conference the military prosecutor and
the counterespionage service made charges of spying
against several Americans, including people said
to be US Embassy personnel. The evidence consists
of films showing the activities of Leslie Sternberg.
a former third secretary in the consular section
of the US Embassy in Warsaw, accused of having links
with the Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN).

[page 34]

JANUARY 28 (Cont.)	The martial law authorities say they also have
evidence that another American diplomat, identified
as Peter Burke, was a spy for the CIA, Several
other Americans whose affiliation is not given are
also accused of being CIA agents.

According to figures issued by the Main Statistical
Office (GUS), Poland's Domestic Net Material Product (ENMP)
for 1981 dropped by 13% from the previous
year. All key sectors of the economy, except
agriculture, reported a drop in production and
performance. Note: This is the third year running that the
HNMP has dropped. In 1979 the drop was 2% from the
year before, land in 1980, 4% below that for 1979.

The government's Social-Political Committee asks
the military council to ease tourist restrictions
and allow organized and individual tourist trips to
Poland, The committee, headed by Deputy Prime
Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski, says that foreign
tourists continue to show "great interest" in
Poland, despite the state of emergency, and
applications for organized tourist groups from communist
countries and many West European states are being
sent to the Polish authorities. The Military
Council of National Salvation will be asked to
accept organized tourist groups beginning in April,
and individual tourists in May. According to the
committee, great interest is being shown by American
Poles in participating in the 600th jubilee
celebrations in August of the Black Madonna of Jasna Gora
in Czestochowa, marking the foundation of the
monastery there.

The committee also reports that in the first three
quarters of last year about 870,000 Poles left the
country, of whom, according to estimates, more than
100,000 had not returned home.

CC Secretary and Politburo member Kazimierz
Barcikowski says that no economic reform plan
can work without public support. Speaking at a
Szczecin Voivodship party meeting he says any
reform ideas only create what he calls the
framework for the people, and that people must fill this
framework with "good work."

The Szczecin Voivodship party committee First Secretary
Stanislaw Miskiewicz says that an overwhelming
majority of the local population welcomed the
introduction of martial law, and that people had
accepted the decision with relief, understanding,
and a sense of seriousness. Miskiewicz also speaks of
ridding the party of people whose views are not compatible with
party ideology.

[page 35]

JANUARY 28 (Cont.)	At a meeting of the Central Party Control Commission
it is disclosed that between October 1960 and 31
December 1981 the commission investigated over
14,200 party members, most of them in leading
positions in the state, the party, or the administrative
apparats. As a result of these investigations
894 party members were expelled and 1,813 were
subjected to "other party disciplinary measures."

JANUARY 30	Sandor Gaspar, the Hungarian trade union leader who
also heads the communist-dominated World Federation
of Trade Unions (WFTU), meets in Warsaw with Polish
Politburo member Kazimierz Barcikowski and the
minister responsible for trade union affairs,
Stanislaw Ciosek. They discuss the present state
of the trade union movement in Poland and the
participation of Polish trade unionists in the
WFTU's 10th Congress to be held in February in Cuba.
Note: The Hungarian trade unions were the only
ones to respond, with a letter from Gaspar, to
Solidarity's invitation to all Eastern bloc unions
to attend the second stage of its congress in
Gdansk. Gaspar's letter was read to the delegates
on 4 October 1981. Though not taken as a sign of
unconditional support, the letter was interpreted
as showing willingness on the part of the Hungarians
to take up contacts with Solidarity in recognition
of the fact that it had the support of over 9,000,000
people.

Death of Zdzislaw Grudzien, one of the most
influential members of the PUWP leadership before
August 1980. Ousted from his post of First
Secretary of the Katowice party organization
(on 19 September 1980) he soon after "resigned"
his Politburo seat (at the sixth CC plenum on
6 October 1980). Thereafter, he was gradually stripped
of all titles and functions and summoned before
the special commission, under the chairmanship
of Tadeusz Grabski, whose job it was to speed
up investigations into the responsibility of the party's
former leadership for the political and economic crisis
that resulted from its decade in power.

ZOMO and the militia in Gdansk have dispersed a
a crowd gathered in a peaceful demonstration to
lay flowers at the memorial to fallen shipyard
workers of December 1970. The resultant
disturbances lasted several hours. About 200
mainly young people are said to have been arrested.
A curfew has been imposed between 2000 and 0500
hours. Private telephones have been cut off,
and the use of private cars forbidden. On the
city walls the slogan: Zima wasza - wiosna nasza
(the winter is yours -- the summer will be ours)
is seen more often.

[page 36]

JANUARY 31	In an interview with Der Spiegel, Wieslaw Gornicki,
a spokesman for the MCNS, says Poland faces the
"greatest economic reorganization in the postwar
history of a socialist state," and that the coming
year will be the worst ever economically for the
country. He adds that the government has "no
final concept" of the role of Solidarity In the
reforms.

In a first official report this year of street
disturbances, PAP reports, with a 24-hour delay, that
demonstrating youths "inspired by American
government propaganda" clashed last night in Gdansk with
security forces: 6 civilians and 8 policemen were
injured and 205 people arrested. Martial law
restrictions have been tightened in the city, telephone
services were cut off, the use of private cars banned,
and the curfew extended by 3 hours, from 2000
hours to 0500 hours.

Arriving in France to attend the 24th Congress of
the French Communist Party, Foreign Affairs Minister,
Politburo member, and CC Secretary Jozef Czyrek tells
reporters that the Polish government is continuing
talks with detained Solidarity leader Lech Walesa,
but does not indicate when Walesa might be released.

On the eve of the draconian price increases for
food, electricity, coal, and heating the Polish
National Bank announces a one-time revalorization
of personal savings deposits "with the aim of
softening the effects of the drop in real value
of money as a result of the retail price reform."
The revalorization is voluntary and will take the
form of a three-year bond which, upon maturity,
will increase each savings account by 20%. The
interest will be forfeited if the account is closed
or the bond cashed in before the maturity date.

FEBRUARY 1	A message published in Le Monde, allegedly from
Lech Walesa, accuses the Polish authorities of
"perfidy" in interning him and urges Poles not to take
"one single step back" in their resistance to the
regime. The message charges that the authorities
have been misleading the public all the time and are
a partner that can never be trusted. The message
says Walesa had been handed an internment order
only on January 26, but dated December 12. Note:
The text of the internment order (No. 182), smuggled
out to friends, specifies that because Lech Walesa,
an electromechanic at the Lenin Naval Shipyards,
"is threatening the security of the state and public
order because of activities spreading anarchy in
the Gdansk Voividship, it has been decided; 1. to
intern Citizen Walesa and place him in a center of
isolation at.... 2. the orders will be carried out
by the investigation group of the Gdansk central
militia post."

[page 37]

FEBRUARY 1 CC Secretary Marian Orzechowski alleges that what
(Cont.) he describes as counterrevolution was planned in
Poland for last December 15. He claims that the
imposition of martial law prevented a civil war and
and what he calls "incalculable consequences" for
European peace.

Ryszard Wojna, a Sejm member and a well-known
journalist says at a press conference at the Polish
Embassy in Paris that Lech Walesa will play "an
important role" in Poland's future, adding, however,
that Solidarity will have to change. He believes
that the regional form of union organization, in
contrast to the industrial one, constitutes
competition with the state administration. Wojna also
says that a trend toward national dialogue and
understanding is already apparent in the country.

FEBRUARY 2	Deputy Minister of Finance Antoni Karas says that
the withholding by Western governments of new
credits for Poland constitutes "a unilateral
suspension" of last year's agreement on delaying
repayment of Warsaw's debts due in 1981. Karas says
Poland wants to solve the credit problems through
negotiations: "if other solutions are forced on us,
we will not be responsible for that." Karas also
says that economic restrictions imposed by Western
governments are aggravating Poland's current
difficulties and bearing adversely on its balance of
payments. Note: Under an agreement concluded last
April, Warsaw's 15 main Western creditor
governments agreed to defer for 8 years repayment of
2,600 million dollars due in 1981.

Minister of Justice Sylwester Zawadzki acknowledges
in an interview in Rzeczpospolita that there have
been complaints of overcrowding, lack of heating,
and some "sporadic" cases of "improper" attitudes
by prison guards in prisons and camps where people
are being interned under martial law regulations.
"Shortcomings as regards the frequency of religious
services and the level of medical care have also
been found," Zawadzki says, but goes on to say that
the internees are being treated in a "humanitarian
way" and that they will be released as soon as
possible, Zawadzki says 1,300 of those interned
have been released, while 129 people are still in
detention. Note: according to unofficial Solidarity
sources, about 50 internment camps have been set up
around the country. Conditions reportedly vary
widely. Internees are said to have been shuffled
among the camps in an apparent effort to bring some
order to a system that looked erratic at the start.

[page 38]

FEBRUARY 2 (Cont.)	Men are now being held separately from women;
intellectuals who served as advisers to Solidarity are
said to be grouped separately from workers; a dozen
or so of Solidarity's top leaders are known to have
been moved to a converted prison near Warsaw.

FEBRUARY 3	A document describing itself as an appeal to
students of the world and circulated clandestinely
in Warsaw states that the democratization of
institutes of higher education in Poland has not
lasted long. It says that most activists of the
independent students' union, banned after the
declaration of martial law, are interned and that
it is extremely difficult for those members still
free to undertake any activity.

General Mieczyslaw Cygan is appointed Voivod of
Gdansk, replacing Professor Jerzy Kolodziejski,
who resigned last month.

The Minister of Internal Affairs orders the return to
the authorities of all passports issued before the
proclamation of martial law. The ministry states
that such passports are no longer valid for travel
abroad and should not be used by citizens in
dealing with various Polish authorities.

French External Relations Minister Claude Cheysson
tells Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Czyrek that
France wants to see martial law lifted in Poland,
detainees released, and trade union freedoms restored.
Czyrek is in Paris to attend the French communist
party congress.

A director of the Polish National Airline, LOT,
who was at the center of a dispute over workers'
self-management that sparked a four-hour strike
last July, has lost his post. An official of the
airline says Bronislaw Klimaszewski is no longer
a director and implies that he was dismissed "not long
ago," but refuses to give further details. Other
sources claim that Klimaszewski was removed over
three weeks ago from his post as a director and
demoted to a minor position, which he is expected
to lose shortly.

PAP reports that 760 people have lost their poets
since martial law began last December, including 6
voivods, 14 deputy voivods, and 160 mayors or commune
heads. The officials ware "recalled" from their
posts as a result of what is called "verification."
Such reviews have been conducted throughout Poland
since December 13. PAP also says that a new
employment scheme for central state administrative staff,

[page 39]

FEBRUARY 3 modeled on an employment scheme used in the army,
(Cont.) was reviewed "at a debate" in Warsaw yesterday, and
that an annual review in all ministries and central
offices will begin this month. The news agency says
that the debate "indicates" the need for a
"significant broadening" of competition for various
management posts. At the instigation of Jaruzelski,
authorities plan to determine the exact number of full-time
employees in a given institution to prevent excessive
administrative growth.

FEBRUARY 4 Courts in Gdansk sentence 101 youths to
terms ranging from 1 to 3 months for alleged
participation in clashes with security services
the previous Saturday (January 30).

In the rest of the country, the courts continued
to examine cases and pass sentences on officials
and members of the suspended Solidarity, mainly for
strike organizing, with the severest sentences,
up to seven years, being passed against striking
miners from the Ziemowit Mine and workers in the
Katowice Steel Mill.

Radio Warsaw announced that holiday trips by Poles
to other socialist countries this year will be
allowed only for groups and not for individual
tourists. In this connection, the radio mentions
tourist agreements with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
and Hungary.

The government daily, Rzeczpospolita, says that a
deepening crisis of confidence in the party resulted
in the loss of 500,000 members between July 1980
and September 1981. Communist sources in Warsaw
have said that with the introduction of martial law
up to one-third of the party's original 3,000,000
members were believed to have left its ranks.
Rzeczpospolita, in the first part of a documentary
series explaining the reasons for martial law, says
that in the autumn of 1960, when Solidarity was
formed following nationwide strikes, Poland
experienced a crisis "that had no precedent in the
postwar history of the country." Note: some analysts
in Poland have predicted that the party will have
to be rebuilt virtually from scratch. Apart from
the defections, its ranks are also being depleted
by purges.

The military authorities bar a Roman Catholic priest
from visiting Lech Walesa to tell him that
his wife gave birth to a daughter on January 27,
Church sources say. Henryk Jankowski, a long-time
friend and adviser of Walesa, came to Warsaw from
Gdansk to tell Walesa of the birth of his seventh
child and to ask him what name he wanted the baby

[page 40]

FEBRUARY 4 (Cont.)	to be given. Jankowski says he had permission to
visit Walesa, but at the last moment this was
withdrawn for no stated reason. Walesa last saw his
wife, Danuta, about three weeks ago.

Polish Primate Josef Glemp, accompanied by Cardinal
Franciszek Macharski, the Cracow Metropolitan, and
Archbishop Henryk Gulbinowicz of Wroclaw, arrives
in Rome to brief Pope John Paul II on the situation
in Poland and the course of the negotiations between
the Church and the state authorities.

FEBRUARY 5	The army newspaper Zolnierz Wolnosci publishes the
results of an opinion poll taken in Warsaw by
Radio and Television's Public Opinion Research
Center. The poll was carried out on January 16
and 17 among "a representative group of citizens,"
They are not identified further and it is not said
how many people took part. Some 51% of those
questioned accepted martial law as necessary, 29% firmly
supported it, and 19% thought martial law was
completely unjustified.

Restrictions that those questioned found most
irritating were a ban on travel within the country and
abroad, the various restrictions on use of telephones, and
curfew hours. Some 11% of those polled are said to have
replied that Poland had benefited from an end to strikes.

Leaders of the independent students union, once the
only one of its kind in the Soviet bloc, are
planning to appeal the martial law decision to dissolve
the group, an association spokesman announces.
Lawyers for the 80,000-member student group,
registered legally by the authorities during a 29-day
student strike in Lodz 1 year ago, are to submit
formal appeal documents to a court today.

Trybuna Ludu accuses the French government of
deliberate hypocrisy in its stance on martial law
in Poland, In a dispatch from Parts the paper
says the French attitude toward Poland is marked by
media gossip, misinformation spread by the suspended
Solidarity free trade union, and growing
anticommunism. "The truth about Poland has ceased to
count.... There is plenty of deliberate
hypocrisy in the present stand of Paris on the Polish
issue." Note: The paper hints that the sudden
change in French attitude, initially said to be
noncommittal but sympathetic to the Polish plight,
and "the attack on Poland and on Polish Communists"
should be seen as a proxy attack on the French Communist

[page 41]

FEBRUARY 5 Party in order to produce a split between it and
(Cont.) the French Socialists. The accusation of hypocrisy
is also often intended to suggest the inconsistency
of the Western countries when they maintain that
the sanctions imposed on Poland are meant to hurt
the authorities alone, when in fact they are affecting
the whole nation.

Britain announces new economic and other sanctions
against the Soviet Union and Poland as a reprisal
for continued martial law and internment of trade
unionists in Poland. They include more restrictions
on movements by soviet and Polish diplomats in
Britain, suspension of talks on the rescheduling
of Poland's foreign debts, and the refusal of new
credits to Poland "for the present." Note: Sanctions
were agreed on at a NATO council meeting in Brussels
two days ago, but their specific nature was left up
to each NATO member to decide. British officials
say other West European countries are expected to
announce similar measures soon.

FEBRUARY 6	PAP criticizes the imposition of British sanctions
and describes them as "another attempt at brutal
interference in the internal affairs of Poland,"
and "a concession to Washington's demands."

Reporting on the fourth plenum of the National Committee of
the Communist Union of Polish Youth (CUPY), Radio
Warsaw announces that the orthodox and conformist
youth splinter group will hold its national congress
on March 17. The aim of the CUPY is to help the
party "regain its leading role" and the organization
is decisively against "further concessions to class
enemies." The CUPY rejects "the unfounded
accusations" that it wants to split the Socialist Union
of Polish Youth; it wants only to contribute to
the process "of stabilization and normalization."
COPY members are active in the so-called citizens'
patrols "guaranteeing peace and public order."
Note: The CUPY officially registered in Lodz on
10 June 1981, brought together various local youth
groups inspired by Marxist ideology, which apparently
sprang up spontaneously in the period after only
1980 in major centers throughout Poland. On 3 July
1981 the CUPY joined with the Union of Communist
Youth, forming the National Committee composed of
51 members.

[page 42]

FEBRUARY 6 (Cont.)	Deputy Foreign Minister Jozef Wiejacz seriously warns
that Poland will withdraw from the CSCE review
conference due to start in Madrid on February 9
if any attempt is made to discuss the imposition
of martial law in Poland. Wiejacz
says his government "cannot approve the further use of Polish
problems to poison the international atmosphere."

Wlodzimierz Mokrzyszczak, a deputy member of the
Politburo and a CC Secretary, in an interview with
PAP says that ever more Communists are stressing
the need for action to counter "moods of passivity."
He says "the party's situation" continues to
differ depending on voivodships, work enterprises,
and social circles. The party's situation "is more
difficult" in enterprises where strikes took place
before the imposition of martial law, and "it is also
difficult in intellectual, creative, and college
circles," Mokrzyszczak says.

The number of Communists turning in the party
membership cards has been "similar" in the past few
weeks to the rate in the period before martial law.
Although the number of party members since last July has
decreased almost 500,000, the party has over
2,600,000 members and candidates, and a "planned
process of purification of party ranks" is currently
taking place. "Changes are being made among persons
holding elective office, and a broad exchange
of party cadres is taking place."

The government is considering allowing foreign
investment in Polish industry. Foreign Trade
Minister Tadeusz Nestorowicz says the government
is preparing a decree on foreign capital
participation in Polish industrial enterprises which will
be submitted to the Sejm for approval as soon as
possible.

It is also announced that the chairman of the West
German Krupp steel and engineering concern visited
Warsaw yesterday for talks with senior officials on
cooperation. Berthold Beits went to Warsaw at the
invitation of Janusz Burakiewicz, Chairman of the
Polish Chamber of Foreign Trade, and had talks
with CC Secretary Stefan Olszowski and Deputy Prime
Minister Janusz Obodowskion the technical and financial
aspects of cooperation.

The Main Office of Censorship of the Ministry of
Internal Affairs warns against labels with a
political content on packages from the West. "It
has been noticed during censorship operations that
packages mailed from capitalist countries to Poland
bear drawings or small pasted-on labels with a
provocative political content." Such parcels, it
is reported, will be confiscated.

[page 43]

FEBRUARY 7	Military commissars attached to local
administrations in towns and parishes meet in Warsaw under
the presidency of the head of the Office of the
Council of Ministers, General Michal Janiszewski,
to discuss the implementation of the tasks outlined
by Jaruzelski in his speech to the Sejm last month.

The meeting criticizes local authorities and
administrations for inconsistent and sluggish
implementation of tasks they had been assigned by
the army units that were deployed in towns and
the countryside last fall. The conference formulates
proposals designed to eliminate corruption and
assesses the functioning of local economy
administrative bodies and the results of "the necessary
review of cadres" currently underway in the
country.

Minister for Economic Reform Wladyslav Baka says in
a interview with AP that "it is unimaginable that
the strike ban will be lifted this year or the
next."

In a sermon to 400 Poles resident in Rome,
Archbishop Jozef Glemp says "The Poles are capable
of agreement. A place will be found for Solidarity
as there in a place for the Church, because Poland
is the homeland of all Poles. . . ." This is
Glemp's first public comment on the situation in
Poland since his arrival in Rome three days ago.

Those leaders of the Independent Students' Union
who are still free appeal through the lawyer
Stanislaw Szczuka to the Polish Supreme Court
against the dissolution of their union.

FEBRUARY 8 Radio Warsaw reports that the Council of Ministers
has assigned social, political, and economic tasks
to various ministries and bodies. The Social and
Economic Committee, headed by Deputy Prime Minister
Mieczyslaw Rakowski, will this month submit a package
of proposals for the re-emergence of the trade
union movement.

Some of the other tasks in the social and political
sphere are: preparing plans for strengthening the
rule of law in the functioning of state bodies;
preparing draft legislation on preventing and
combating demoralization and criminality among
minors, and draft legislation on What the radio
calls a parasitic way of life. Deputy Prime
Ministers Jerzy Ozdowski and Rakowski will
coordinate the work on the two drafts. This month a
system of public consultations will be worked out
ensuring wide participation of workers and farmers.

[page 44]

FEBRUARY 8 (Cont.)	The government press spokesman and the head of the
Radio and Television Committee will present
proposals in March to improve the information system.

Rzeczpospolita says it is necessary to obtain the
support of the working class in order to bring about
national agreement. In an article entitled "Socialism
and National Unity," Jerzy Wiatr writes that the
majority of the working class, embittered by the
negative aspects of the 1970s, tried to find in the
ranks of Solidarity new ways of defending its
interests. There emerged the workers' movement
within Solidarity, therefore, devoted to the cause
of socialist renewal, but often misguided and
manipulated by anticommunist politicians in the harsh
political struggle. In this situation, Wiatr
Writes, it was absolutely essential if the leading
role of the working class was to be implemented
to win over the workers' movement within Solidarity
for the cause of national agreement and political
realism It is impossible to realize the leading
role of the working class without the support of
the millions in Solidarity, he writes, but also
impossible to achieve an agreement of socialist
forces without a struggle with the enemies of such
an agreement.

Western correspondents accredited in Warsaw report
that the Polish authorities have indicated privately
that they are ready to begin serious talks soon
with representatives of Solidarity about the basic
principles for future Polish unions.

According to the correspondents, a nonofficial
source familiar with the informal contacts that
have taken place in recent days between Poland's
martial law authorities and representatives of the
Church and of Solidarity on a new plan for Poland's
future said more organized talks could begin
within 10 days, following the return from Rome of
Poland's Primate.

Radio Warsaw reports the reopening of some
universities. Courses started at the Adam Mickiewicz
University in Poznan, western Poland, Warsaw
University, and at a branch of Warsaw University
in Bialyst in eastern Poland.

Radio Warsaw carries a brief interview with the
new head of Poznan University, Professor Zbigniew
Radwanski, who replaced Professor Jerzy Jurkowski
after his recall. Radwanski says that, in taking
over the post, he is relying on the help of deans
elected last year, who after much hesitation,
decided to stay on to persuade the students to
accept the rigors of the "state of war."

[page 45]

FEBRUARY 8 (Cont.)	The authorities are calling up thousands of
unemployed men aged between 18 and 45 for compulsory
work. In Katowice Voivodship about 5,000 have been
told to report to the employment office. In January
some 3,600 men were directed to work mainly in
municipal economic enterprises doing loading and
ancillary tasks. In Lodz Voivodship about 11,000
men are estimated as being affected by the
government decree, according to Radio Warsaw. All have
been given municipal or factory jobs. Wherever
possible officials are taking into consideration the
men's qualifications and wishes, family and personal
circumstances, and place of residence.

FEBRUARY 8 (Cont.)	In an interview in Paris, given to the Italian
leftwing daily Paese Sera, Vadim Zagladin. First Deputy
Head of the International Department of the CPSU
CC, says that the Soviet Union will never send troops
into Poland or into any other country again. "I am
sure that in the future there will never be military
intervention from the outside," Zagladin says. He
also maintains that "there has been no external
intervention in Poland" and added that the decision to
impose martial law in the country was made by the
Central Committee of the Polish party alone.

FEBRUARY 9 Radio Warsaw reports that the intercity telephone
service in Poland will be restored at midnight
tonight, with the exception of Gdansk, where
communications were cut following street disturbances
there last month. But the radio says telephone calls
can only be made through the operator and priority
will be given to socialized economic institutions
and enterprises, and to emergency calls.

Also, as of tomorrow, people will be able to send
telegrams to other towns in Poland, but only in
person at the post office. The senders will have
to present their identity papers. Note: Telephone
communications were cut off when martial law was
imposed. A month ago telephone services within all
towns were restored with a warning that calls would
be monitored and those running counter to state
security would be interrupted.

The French section of Polish Solidarity publishes
the names of 200 people the Polish authorities are
still trying to find.

The names were first carried by the clandestine
Mazowsze Information Bulletin (No. 20, dated January
29), published by Solidarity in the Warsaw area.

According to an earlier Mazowsze Bulletin, also
reprinted in Paris, Polish judges who refused to
participate in trials against Solidarity members

[page 46]

FEBRUARY 9 (Cont.)	were fired. Some of them were reportedly highly
placed and close to retirement. According to the
Warsaw text, certain civilian judges had been
drafted and given uniforms to enable them to take
part in court martial procedures. Several of them
were said to have refused.

Minister of Justice Sylwester Zawadzki says the
country needs legal guarantees against the abuse
of the right to strike. Zawadzki says the
government is working on a program to shape the legal
foundations of "socialist renewal," and that the
new draft trade union bill requires more
readjustments to cover such questions as preventing unions from
becoming political parties and union activity among
civil servants. "The issue of strikes also requires
some rethinking," Zawadzki says. "The point is to
create legal guarantees against the possibility of
abusing this right, against transforming it into an
instrument of strike terrorism."

Contrary to previous assurances of various
spokesmen for the authorities that talks were being held
with some union activists, including Solidarity representatives,
Zawadzki notes that there is currently no
consultation with the unions, because their activities have
been suspended. "We thus witness the phenomenon
of limiting the scope of consultation, which in my
opinion earlier very often exceeded the necessary scope
and hampered the effectiveness of legislative work."

Captain Wieslaw Gornicki, an adviser to Jaruzelski,
is quoted in an interview with the Italian newspaper
La Stampa as saying he believes a plan to allow
trade unions to function in Poland will soon be made
public.

Gornicki does not say when the document will be
presented, but he says it will include some
conditions and proposals for the revival of the trade
unions. These conditions are that the unions
respect the legal order, the constitution, the leading
role of the party, and Poland's international
alliances. In addition, he says, the unions'
statutes must guarantee that they will not turn
into opposition parties. The third condition is
that the unions be independent of the state
administration and state employers.

Gornicki says the document will also contain two
proposals on the future role of the trade unions.
The first is that the unions be created from the
base, from the factories and not from above. The
second proposal is that the unions cannot receive
financial aid from trade unions that -- in his
words -- actively support NATO and sanctions against
Poland, Gornicki says the government does not want

[page 47]

FEBRUARY 9 to fix the number of unions; this should be left
(Cont.) to the workers, but he believes there will be three,
including Solidarity.

Speaking in Rome to trade union members from Europe,
Asia, Africa, and Latin America, Pope John Paul II
warns that without the rehabilitation of Solidarity
the Polish crisis cannot be solved at all: "The
restitution of an effective and complete respect
for the rights of working men, and especially
their right to a union which has already been
formed and legalized, is the only way out of this
difficult situation."

Deputy Prime Minister Jerzy Ozdowski, the only practicing
Roman Catholic in a senior government position,
says that he hopes Lech Walesa will soon be freed.
Ha says he is "convinced" that Walesa bore no
responsibility for what he describes as the
uncontrolled activities of the union in the weeks
leading up to December 13. Ozdowski indicates that there
is thus no reason for the authorities to hold
Walesa much longer. Quoting "reliable Catholic
sources," Ozdowski says Walesa had held talks with
Roman Catholic Church leaders and with representatives
of the martial law authorities during his house
arrest.

Testifying to continued workers' resistance to the
imposition of martial law, PAP reports that in the
past week alone 57 persona were sentenced for
alleged martial law violations. The most severe
sentences were handed down by the Navy Court in
Gdynia, with Ewa Kubasiewicz receiving a 10-year
prison term and Jerzy Kowalczyk 9 years for
organizing and leading a strike at Gdynia's
Maritime Academy. They were also charged with having
distributed pamphlets with what was described as
false information "likely to incite public unrest
or disturbances." Other arrests took place in
Silesia, Warsaw, and Cracow.

Bronislaw Madejski, the Gdansk Prosecutor General,
tells foreign journalists that Miroslaw Krupinski,
Deputy Chief of the suspended Solidarity Union, is
being held at the disposal of the military authorities.
Note: Krupinski was arrested following the
crushing of the strike at the Lenin Shipyard on
December 14. He has been in a Gdansk hospital,
with a heart condition, since then.

Foreign journalists in Gdansk on a Foreign
Ministry-sponsored trip, the first since the introduction
of martial law, report that the workers questioned
at random "displayed a spirit unbroken by military
rule and a mood of angry, suppressed defiance in
this birthplace of Solidarity."

[page 48]

FEBRUARY 10	Warsaw police prevent scores of Poles from
entering the US Embassy for a special showing
of the American government film Let Poland Be
Poland.

Zbigniew Karcz, Director of the Finance Ministry's
Foreign Department, says Poland's foreign debt has
risen to 25,000 million dollars. He warns the
West against adopting tactics that would force
Poland to declare itself in default. Such a
step, according to Karcz, would not only have
"a severe economic effect on all parties concerned
but would also have an impact on East-West
relations as a whole, something that has already
happened to some extent."

In the trial arising from the strike in the Wujek
Mine, started in protest against the declaration
of martial law, the Katowice Military Court passes
the following sentences: Stanislaw Patek, four
years in prison with three years loss of all
civil rights; Jerzy Wartak, three and a half years
in prison and three years loss of civil rights; and
Adam Skwira and Marian Gluch, each a three-year
prison term with two years loss of civil rights.
Miners Jan Hasnik and Edzislaw Kubat are found
innocent and released, and the charges against
Jan Wielgus are dismissed. An eighth defendant,
Alina Mucha, is also found innocent. Note: As a
result of the storming of the Wujek Mine on
December 16 by security forces, a total of 12
people are said to have died, though only the names
of the 7 killed in the actual clash are known.

Deputy Zygmunt Surowiec, head of the Sejm
Commission on Justice, announces that the law
on the draft bill to set up a State Tribunal,
a special body to investigate the activities of
former leading state officials, is in the final
state of preparation.

FEBRUARY 11 The first appearance of Tygodnik Mazowsze
[The Mazowsze Weekly], voice of the underground
Mazowsze Regional Executive Committee of Solidarity.
It contains interviews with Zbigniew Bujak and
Viktor Kulerski on the strategy to be adopted
(see forthcoming documents section). Note: Although
this is the first issue, the weekly is presented
as no. 2. This is a symbolic gesture to
commemorate its first editor-in-chief, Jerzy
Zielenski, the paper's organizer, who prepared the
first issue of the paper, which never appeared
because of the declaration of martial law.
Zielenski, coauthor of several DiP (Experience
and the Future) reports, committed suicide on
13 December 1981 by jumping out of the window
of the hospital room where he was under observation.

[page 49]

FEBRUARY 11 Polish Catholic Church leaders return home after
(Cont.) a week's visit (beginning on February 4) in Rome
to confer with Pope John Paul II about the
situation in Poland. The delegation was led
by the Primate Archbishop Jozef Glemp and
included Franciszek Cardinal Macharski of Cracow
and Archbishop Henryk Gulbinowicz of Wroclaw.

FEBRUARY 12	According to the PAP agency martial law has been
tightened in the southern Polish town of Swidnik
because of an infringement of martial law regulations
there. The new regulations extend the curfew;
suspend all telephone and telex communications,
both within the town and to other parts of Poland;
and ban all private road traffic.

Two members of the Austrian Parliament from the
ruling Socialist Party, Herman Schnell and
Fritz Hochmeir, say on their return from a
three-day fact-finding tour of Poland that the leaders
of the suspended Solidarity Union still have the
support of the workers.

Dziennik Baitycki [The Baltic Daily] publishes
an article by Stanislaw Danielewicz on the pop
music scene in Poland. The first letters of
each paragraph in the article spell out the
recently coined phrase: WRONA SKONA ("The crow
will conk out," CROW being the acronym for
the military junta).

FEBRUARY 13	In response to underground Solidarity's call to
mark the first two months of martial law, a
demonstration takes place in Pozna's Mickiewicz
Square. "In view of the tension" the military
authorities clamp further restrictions on the
town. All private cars are banned; and gasoline
stations, movie theaters, legitimate theaters, and other
places of entertainment are closed down. Some 194
people, including students and youth, are arrested,
to be dealt with by local magistrates.

In Warsaw heavy military and police patrols cruise
the capital, stopping cars and checking drivers'
documents in an attempt to prevent any open
protest by the Solidarity underground to mark
the two months of martial law.

Clandestine notices from the banned independent
labor union call for symbolic protests, such as
turning out house lights between 2100 and 2115
hours and strewing copies of newspapers in the
gutters.

A military court in Warsaw sentences Boydan
Walewski, a former employee of the polish Foreign
Ministry, to 25 years in prison on charges of
spying for the US Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), according to the state news agency, PAP.

[page 50]

FEBRUARY 13 In summing up, the prosecutor, Colonel Jerzy
(Cont.) Szpilski, had called for the death sentence.
PAP said the court, presided over by Colonel Henryk
Kwasny, also meted out additional punishment in
the form of a 10-year loss of the defendant's
civil rights and confiscation of his property,

FEBRUARY 14	Despite the official suspension of all trade
unions a group of Polish trade union
representatives loyal to the Warsaw military authorities
is attending a congress of the communist-led World
Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) in Havana,
the official news agency, PAP, reports.
In a dispatch from Havana, the agency quotes
excerpts from a speech by Eugeniusz Mielnicki,
chairman of a rump organization of former official
unions which lost most of their members to the
independent Solidarity trade union after it
emerged in 1980. In the speech, Mielnicki attacked
Solidarity, saying it had evolved into a political
organization, and extremists in its leadership
had incited anarchy and disruption, posing a
direct threat to the Polish state.

Mielnicki said his group was at the congress to
present a true picture of the situation in Poland
and to counteract the lies and false information
spread by Western imperialist centers.

Jan Kulaj, leader of the now suspended Rural
Solidarity Trade Union, has had his first private
meeting with a Roman Catholic Church representative
since he was detained after the imposition of
martial law more than two months ago, Church
sources said today.

A priest from a Warsaw seminary celebrated Mass
for Mr. Kulaj, 24, in his room at a mansion near
the capital, the source said. Kulaj was said to
be in good health, his conditions of detention were
good, and he had been well treated.

Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai A. Tikhonov asserts
that the imposition of martial law has worked in
Poland and that the country has been "saved" from
"anarchy, disintegration, and civil war."
Mr. Tikhonov's remarks, made in an interview with
the Japanese newspaper Asahi, were the first
unambiguous statements by a top member of the
Soviet leadership endorsing the Polish military
crackdown.

Radio Warsaw reports the reappearance of the
party's monthly Nowe Drogi and the Pax daily
Slowo Powszechne. Also reappearing are the
Gazeta Wspolczesna (Bialystok, eastern Poland),
Wieczor Wroclawia, Gazeta Olsztynska, Dziennik
Lodzki, and Glos Robotniczy (also Lodz).

[page 51]

FEBRUARY 14 (Cont.)	Announced to appear are also several monthlies
And weeklies such as Stolica, Panorama, Film,
Walka Mlodych, Swiat Mlodych, Literatura, Sport,
Jazz, Poezja, and some others. Regional
television centers in Katowice and Szczecin as
well as the regional radio centers in Katowice,
Lublin, and Olsztyn also resume broadcasting
their own programs (instead of relaying programs
from the head office in Warsaw).

FEBRUARY 15	Authorities accuse martial law opponents of
planning conspiracy, terror, and revenge and
announce that almost 1,000 dissidents now face
summary trials for offenses against the state.

The Prosecutor-General's Office in Warsaw says
that summary investigations against 964 people
accused of martial law offenses since the
imposition of military rule two months ago are
under way.

It says the offenses include continuing activities
of suspended organizations, organizing strikes
and related propaganda campaigns, and undermining
Poland's defense potential and its alliances.

A regional leader of Solidarity in Bielsko-Biala
(southern Poland), Patrycjusz Kosmowski, is
charged with forming a conspiratorial group of
the union to carry out protest actions against
martial law, according to the official news agency, PAP.
The indictment alleges that a decision to form
the underground group was taken four days before
the imposition of martial law.

FEBRUARY 16 Some of the reinforced martial law restrictions
in the Baltic coast city of Gdansk are being
eased because of a "normalization" of the situation.
The extra restrictions were imposed after last
month's street disturbances in Gdansk.

The Gdansk municipal telephone service starts
operations again, and there will be relaxed
curfew hours from 2200 hours to 0500 hours. The
ban on the use of private cars is also lifted,
as well as the ban on cultural and sports events.

Mieczyslaw Gil, Chairman of the Solidarity
Commission at the Lenin steelworks in Nowa Huta
near Cracow, and Edward Nowa, a member of the
commission, are facing summary trials. The
indictment, prepared by the Cracow Military
Prosecutor, charges Gil and Nowak with organizing,
after the imposition of martial law on December 13,
[page 52]

FEBRUARY 16 (Cont.)	together with others, a regional strike committee
to direct a strike at the Lenin steelworks and
other places of work.

According to official reports, Poland's military
authorities arrested 117 civilians last week and
sentenced 40 persons to prison for violating
martial law. The harshest sentence was handed
down by a military court of the Polish Navy to
workers at a repair shipyard in Gdansk for
"organization of a strike after the introduction of martial law."
Wojciech Sychowski was sentenced to seven years
in prison and four others to four or five years,
the paper said. All defendants were members of
the local Solidarity chapter.

FEBRUARY 17	According to Radio Warsaw, Polish security forces
have arrested and detained 3,500 people in the past
4B hours in a nationwide tightening up of the
martial law regulations. Voluntary Reserve Police
Units (ORMO) have conducted a security check of
more than 50,000 shops and factories and 30,000
cars in the past 2 days.
About 99,000 people had their identity cards checked
and a further 29,000 were "reminded of their duties."

FEBRUARY 18	The weekly Polityka reappears after a two-month
break in publication.

Militia sergeant Zdzislaw Karos is shot by two
youths in a Warsaw streetcar. Note: Karos died
from his wounds on February 23.

Radio Warsaw says that over 760 people have been
dismissed from "leading positions" in local
administrations throughout Poland since martial
law was imposed on December 13, The Radio says that
the officials were released from their posts
as a result of what it called "summary verifications."
Among the dismissed were 6 provincial governors,
17 deputy-governors, and 160 mayors of cities and
heads of parishes. Note: In the period from August
1980 to 13 January 1982 "almost" 1,100 changes were
made in leading positions in the local administrations.

PAP reports that General Mieczyslaw Debicki had
been appointed Mayor of Warsaw, His predecessor,
Janusz Majewski, was recalled from the post in
connection with his appointment as the country's
Deputy Minister of Construction and Building
Materials. Note: Debicki, who is 56 years old,
joined the army in 1944, He served in the Border
Guards, In 1971 he became head of the National

[page 53]

FEBRUARY 18 Defense Committee's Secretariat. Debicki is
(Cont.) a graduate of the General Staff Academy and the
Higher School of Social Sciences at the Party
Central Committee.

The Government Press Bureau announces that the
Committee for Trade Unions attached to the
Council of Ministers is resuming work. A Radio
Warsaw report says the committee will produce
a report on the future of Poland's trade union
movement. It says the report will be publicly
discussed.

FEBRUARY 19	Herbert Wehner, the leader of the West German
Social Democrats in the Bundestag, arrives in
Warsaw, on a three-day visit for meetings with
various high-ranking Polish state and party
officials. Note: Wehner was invited to Poland
by former Polish Prime Minister Jozef Cyrankiewicz,
when the latter was in Bonn with the nongovernmental
International Disarmament Commission, led by former
Swedish Premier Olof Palme.

FEBRUARY 21	The government publishes a draft on the future of
the trade union movement, appealing to workers to
resist a return to what it calls "the political
extremism of the 16-month Solidarity period."
The document, called proposals for discussion and
released by the official news agency, PAP, does not
say what will be done with Solidarity, whose
leaders were imprisoned and interned after the
December 1981 military takeover. No reference is
made to any direct dialogue with the elected
leaders of Solidarity.

The document praises the revamped procommunist
branch unions, which received official support
as a rival to Solidarity after that independent
union was formed in the summer of 1980.

FEBRUARY 23	The trial of the KPN leaders (Leszek Moczulski,
Romuald Szeremietiew, Tadeusz Stanski, and Tadeusz
Jandziszak) resumes in the Warsaw Regional Ministry
Court. Note: The case against the accused, first
started on 15 June 1981, was transferred to the
Military Court when, on the basis of the martial
Taw decree, the charges against the KPN leadership
were "upgraded" to include the forming of an
illegal organization financed by foreign centers
hostile to Poland and attempts to overthrow by
force the country's political system and to weaken
the nation's defenses.

Direct telegraphic links between the Reuter office
in Warsaw and its London headquarters resume after
an interruption of more than two months following
the imposition of martial law on December 13.

[page 54]

FEBRUARY 23	Note: The communications were cut at the Polish
end of the direct line between the two offices
on December 14.

One of Poland's best-known actors, Gustaw Holoubek,
who is also a member of parliament, has resigned
from his seat in protest against martial law.
In a letter he wrote to the speaker of the Sejm,
he says he had been elected to defend the interests
of intellectuals and people in the cultural world
but could no longer do so effectively as many of
them are interned or arrested.

FEBRUARY 24	In a communiqué published in the Pax daily Slowo
Powszechne the leadership of the proregime
Catholic organization announces a six month
suspension of membership rights for twenty-one people
including Pax's former Chairman Ryszard Reiff and
members of the Main Board and of the Auditing
Commission.

FEBRUARY 25	The Seventh PUWP CC plenum, and the first since the
imposition of martial law, ends its two-day
session in Warsaw, The plenum opened with a
programmatic address by general Wojciech Jaruzelski,
the party's first secretary as well as the Prime
Minister and commander of Poland's armed forces.
The speech emphasized three major themes: a
justification of the measures taken as a result of
the imposition of the state of emergency; party
policy toward the populace; and the party's
internal ideological and organizational problems.
With regard to the first issue, Jaruzelski stuck to
his standard thesis that the measure had become
necessary in a situation in which the country had
been exposed both to external (mainly American)
political machinations and to domestic antisocialist
attacks by the Solidarity "extremists." Turning to
the relations between the party and the population
at large, Jaruzelski claimed a willingness for
eventual accommodation, but only on the party's
own terms. While declaring that the party would
do its best to win over the insecure, "vacillating,
disillusioned" elements in society by persuasion,
he warned that "determined enemies of socialism,"
still engaging in "destructive activities," will
continue to be fought. In order to consolidate its
position in society, the party should provide the
foundations for greater involvement by the populace
in public life. Jaruzelski envisaged the future
establishment of a "strong, self-governing, and
Independent labor movement" and called upon
young people and intellectuals to become more
involved in the "construction of socialism."

[page 55]

FEBRUARY 25 (Cont.)	He made it understood, however, that any form of
activity or organization by those groups would
have to be related to the work of the party and
its activists in their communities and remain
in keeping with the "interests of the state."
These interests should also determine the nature
of relations with the Catholic Church, with which
a dialogue should be continued. The best way for
nonparty citizens to engage in social activity
and "jointly govern the country," however, was
through the Committees of National Salvation,
currently mushrooming throughout the country and
uniting people from various walks of life in
their effort to support the regime's actions.

Jaruzelski's remarks about the long-planned economic
reforms seemed equally inconclusive; he stated
merely that the leadership was determined to
pursue the program of economic changes approved
by the ninth congress, adding that the reforms could
be successfully implemented by the "socialist state,
inspired by the party."

West German Social Democratic parliamentary leader
Herbert Wehner dissociates himself from some of
the views contained in a Polish communiqué about
his recent visit to Poland, saying that the Polish
side had put its own views on paper. Asked if he
had discussed detainees in Poland, Wehner said it
would not have been the first time in his life
that he had acted on behalf of people in need.
He added it could be assumed he had, in Warsaw
as well as Bonn, supported the Bundestag resolution
appealing to the Polish military government to
release those detained, restore the freedoms
achieved during the course of reform, and resume
the dialogue with reform-seeking and patriotic
forces.

The Army daily Zolnierz Wolnosci reports that Polish
military prosecutors have challenged 118 prison
sentences passed under martial law on the grounds
that they were too lenient, and in 20 cases the
terms have been increased. Quoting the Judge
Advocate General's office, the newspaper says that
more than 30 civilians have been convicted by
Army courts since martial law was imposed on
December 13. The Judge Advocate General's office
says it has begun a further 61 investigations
against 106 people during the past week, of which
41 have resulted in indictments before army courts.
Note: Under the martial law regulations, offenders
can" be tried either by courts-martial or civil
courts.

[page 56]

FEBRUARY 25 (Cont.)	A report by the official news agency, PAP,
says 300 people have been tried and convicted
in civil courts for political offenses under
martial law decrees, such as organizing strikes,
protests, and outlawed trade union activity.

FEBRUARY 26	In a communiqué released after a two-day
conference Poland's bishops issue what is
undeniably the most forceful and least
ambiguous appeal for the creation of a
"social accord" in a spirit of Christian charity,
which requires reconciliation and forgiveness.
In the bishops' opinion, the current situation
in Poland "bears the signs of a real moral,
social, and economic disaster." Stating
that both the authorities and the people had
certain responsibilities whose fulfillment
was mutually dependent, the bishops disclaim
any political role for themselves, stating that
they remain content to "indicate the directions
along which solutions should be sought."

Radio Budapest gives reasons for the expulsions
of Marian Arendt and Jan Malanowski from the
Polish Party's Central Committee. It says
Arendt, First Secretary of the Merinotext
Factory Party Committee in Torun, north, central
Poland, was expelled because of factionalism
and for his attitude against the introduction
of martial law; and Malinowski, a professor at
Warsaw University, has questioned the party's
leading role and had disregarded a call to
quit the Solidarity trade union. Note: Radio
Warsaw also reports the expulsions today, but
does not say why the two were expelled. Another
grassroots party activist from a large industrial
center, Zygmunt Bobrowski, is said to have
resigned from the CC, thus anticipating being
purged.

FEBRUARY 27	The Sejm ends a two-day session. In addition to
a package of legislation concerned with economic
reform, it passed a special resolution "reconfirming
the need to implement the idea of a national
agreement." According to the Sejm resolution, now
that there is "no more anarchy," efforts are
required "to create and strengthen a broad
platform of cooperation of all national forces
and people of good will," regardless of their
convictions ox organizational affiliation, "to
restore social confidence and the proper
understanding of the fundamental interests of the Polish
state and national existence."

[page 57]

FEBRUARY 27 (Cont.)	In a political discussion program over Moscow
TV, Leonid Zamyatin, a senior Soviet official
and the head of the party Central Committee's
International Information Department, says that
"martial law in Poland has only checked the
"counterrevolution, not rooted it out," with
the leaders of Solidarity who escaped arrest for
hatching antistate plots underground.

Sejm Speaker Stanislaw Gucwa announces that
beginning with the next session all speeches
made in the Sejm will be published in full,
in a special supplement of the government
daily Rzeczpospolita. Note: The day before
Sejm deputy Edmund Osmanczyk proposed a motion
stipulating that all Sejm deputies have the
right to have their views, as presented in
speeches before the Sejm, printed in full in the
press.

FEBRUARY 28	Minister of Internal Affairs General Czeslaw
Kiszczak, appointed an alternate Politburo Member
at the seventh PUWP CC plenum held two days ago,
says in an interview with PAP that in the period
from 13 December 1981 to 26 February 1982 a total
of 6,647 persons were interned. Within that period
2,552 persons were released.

MARCH 2	The USSR and Poland issue a joint communiqué
following a two-day visit to Moscow, on March 1
and 2, of PUWP First Secretary and Polish Premier
Wojciech Jaruzelski. The communiqué is issued only
a few hours after the Polish delegation has been
given a lavish farewell in which thousands of
flag-waving Soviet citizens take part, presumably in an
orchestrated effort to demonstrate public approval
of the results of the visit. The communiqué
itself offers little insight into the future
envisaged for Poland by the Soviet and Polish
leaders, gives hardly any information at all about
the substance of their talks, and provides only the
slightest idea of what concrete steps may be taken
in seeking to overcome Poland's present economic
and political crisis.

Polish educational authorities announce a new political
indoctrination program for students, to make
communist teaching more effective. The changes are
made public as the communist youth daily Sztandar
Mlodych warns that young people are disillusioned
by the economic and political crisis. The paper
says that it will be hard to woo them back to
communism and adds: "We are facing the danger of
irreversible frustration and the collapse of a
generation."

[page 58]

MARCH 2 (Cont.)	Both the ministry and the newspaper criticize
political teaching before the 1980 labor revolt
as superficial, Sztandar Mlodych says that
during the Solidarity union challenge to communist
rule, which led to martial law, "many dogmas and
authorities collapsed." As a result, "the vision
of future prosperity faded away and as support for
socialism was based on it, many questions arose
about this ideology. Young people are now so
disappointed they do not want to get involved in
anything."

Polish violinist Wanda Wilkomirska -- the divorced
wife of Deputy Premier Mieczyslaw Rakowski --
announces she will not return to Poland after
her current concert tour in the West. Wilkomirska
reported the decision in a statement issued today
through her agent in West Germany. The move comes
after a son, Athur, from her marriage to Rakowski
also defected to West Germany.

MARCH 3 The International Labor Organization issues a
report in which it rejects Poland's explanations
for suppressing the Solidarity free trade union
and calls on Warsaw to restore the movement as
quickly as possible. The report says that thousands
of trade union officials and members are being held
without reason and should be released. Warsaw
should also promptly provide information on the
detainees1 health, place of detention, and the
grounds for their internment. The report of the ILO
Freedom of Association Committee also demands an
independent inquiry into clashes at the Wujek
Mine in Silesia, where at least seven workers
resisting martial law were killed when riot police
stormed their mine.

Polish authorities announce that all persons
interned when martial law was declared in December
may apply, as of March 16, for permission to leave
the country. A statement from the Ministry of
Internal Affairs says the applications for passports
from internees and their families will be handled
in accordance with current passport regulations.
The statement says the passports will be for exit
only.

MARCH 4	According to Radio Warsaw the new Social Commissions
are now active in nearly all of Poland's work places.
Note: The Factory Social Commissions (Zakladowe
Komisje Socjalne) were created shortly after martial
law was declared to fill the vacuum resulting from
the suspension of the labor unions. Their main
task is to help management look after the
social interests of the workers. Though they appear
to be totally dominated by the local party
organizations, they may be used as a cornerstone for future
unions.

[page 59]

MARCH 4 (Cont.)	Responding to complaints against the Polish
government for breaches of the International
Labor Organization's Conventions on Trade Union
Rights, lodged by the International Confederation
of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the World
Confederation of Labor (WCL), the ILO's 56-member
Governing Body adopts a report calling on Poland's
martial law authorities to release all detained
union people, to guarantee them the right to strike,
and to restore all other trade union rights.

MARCH 5	A military court sentences a Roman Catholic priest
to three and a half years in prison for allegedly
slandering Polish leaders in a sermon delivered.
shortly after martial law was declared, This is the
first reported instance of legal action against a
Roman Catholic priest by the martial law authorities.
The youth newspaper Sztandar Mlodych says the court
meted out the sentence to Father Boleslaw Jewulski
of Polczyn-Zdroj, following a trial in Koszalin.
The paper says that the prosecutor asked for six
years imprisonment.

In Grodzisk Mazowiecki the authorities arrest a
priest, Sylwester Zych, in connection with the
shooting on February 18 of a Warsaw militiaman.
The day before, two local youths were also arrested
following an intensive manhunt for the murderer of
the militiaman, Zdzislaw Karos.

MARCH 6	Radio Warsaw announces that balloons with leaflets
sent the day before from the Danish island of
Bornholm have reached the Polish coast. Note:
Some 10,000 such balloons with leaflets prepared
by the Paris-based Solidarity Coordinating
Committee (Komitet Koordynacyjny Solidarnosci we
Francji) were launched. The project itself, called
"Free Balloons for Poland," was started by a group
of 20 French scholars and scientists.

MARCH 7	According to Dr. Julian Auleytner of the Labor and
Social Affairs Institute, between 9,000,000 and
10,000,000 people, at least a quarter of the
population of Poland and possibly even more, live below
the established poverty level. This represents an
increase of some 50% or more over the figure given
just 18 months ago by a government adviser, Professor
Antoni Rajkiewicz, then director of Warsaw
University's Social Policies Institute, who became
Minister of Labor, Wages, and Social Affairs in
July 1981.

A delegation of American congressmen winds up a
visit to Poland and leaves from Cracow airport
for Vienna. The delegation, which arrived in Poland
on March 4, is headed by Congressman David Obey
(D., Wisc.). Summing up the visit, a member of the
delegation, Arlen Erdahl (R., Minn.), says:

[page 60]

MARCH 7 (Cont.)	"We have got an idea of how many factors influence
the difficult and complex situation in Poland.
We hope that the normalization of this situation
will also produce improvement in the historically
good relations between our countries. We want
to convey precisely this to our colleagues in
Congress." Note: On March 6 American sources
revealed that unknown persons had broken into the
special US Air Force jet carrying the
eight-member congressional delegation while the jet was
parked at Warsaw's Okecie Airport. The break-in
was discovered Saturday morning when the jet's
commander made a preflight check prior to the
delegation's departure for Cracow.

MARCH 8 Radio Warsaw reports that the trial of Patrycjusz
Kosmowski, a regional Solidarity leader, has
resumed at the Bielsko-Biala provincial court,
after the Supreme Court in Warsaw turned down a
request for a change in venue. Note: Kosmowski
was put on summary trial on February 19 on charges
of engaging in Solidarity activities despite the
union's having been suspended under martial law.
He was also charged with having organized what was
called "a conspiratorial structure of the union"
whose purpose it was to stage a protest against
martial law.

Warsaw students, in groups of twos and threes, lay
flowers at a memorial plaque to commemorate the
student riots of March 1968. Note: The plaque was
unveiled exactly a year earlier by Solidarity's
Warsaw and Regional Chief Zbigniew Bujak,
one of the first underground Solidarity leaders.
Senior Polish officials say legal proceedings may
be started against some of the nearly 4,000 interned
Solidarity activists and dissidents for offenses such
as trying to start an illegal political party. They
say that about 100 people interned after the
December 13 military crackdown had their legal
status changed to "arrested" and are now liable
to trial, when it was found they had committed
political offences between that date and their
internment.

Justice Minister Sylwester Zawadzki, speaking at a
news conference for foreign correspondents, says
3,953 people are being held at 25 martial law
detention centers. Since the Ministry of Internal
Affairs said at the end of February that 4,095
people were interned, this would mean that 142
persons were released from detention centers in the
first week of March.

[page 61]

MARCH 8 (Cont.)	Jan Woloszyn, First Deputy Chairman of the Bank
Handlowy, which is handling the repayment
negotiations with Western bankers, says technical
difficulties prevented making interest payments
by the deadline last month, February 15. Woloszyn
says Poland could pay the balance of outstanding
interest on its 1981 foreign debt to private banks,
estimated at 30,000,000 dollars, by the new
deadline of March 26. Note: The interest due
should have been paid by the end of December 1981.

At a press conference in Warsaw formal assurances
are given by the Justice Minister Sylwester Zawadzki
that while the government will allow internees to
apply to leave the country, it is not planning to
force them into exile. Note: The statement, delivered
at a news conference, is an attempt to stop Western
criticism that Poland is about to start a policy
of banishment. At the same press conference,
spokesman Jerzy Urban discloses that a handful of
those now held in the internment camps have been
temporarily arrested and might be brought to trial
on charges that they tried to form political parties.

MARCH 9	Radio Warsaw reports that 110 people were released
from an internment center in Poland today. Most of
those released were workers in mines and other
enterprises in Silesia.

Polish TV announces it is doing away with one of
the country's most visible reminders of martial
law: the military uniforms worn by its newscasters.

MARCH 11	Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Stanislaw
Zaczkowski, speaking at a session of the Sejm
Commission for Internal Affairs and the
Administration of Justice, says that as of March 10, 3,601
persons were still interned and 3,204 have so far
been released.

The UN Commission on Human Rights, after long and
bitter debate lasting into the small hours, passes
a resolution condemning human rights violations in
Poland, calling on the UN Secretary-General to
investigate the Polish situation. Note: Poland
immediately denounces the vote as "unacceptable
interference" in its domestic affairs and says
it will refuse to cooperate in any UN investigation,
because "the resolution is null and void."

MARCH 12 Three months after the proclamation of martial
law, the official Socialist Union of Polish Students
(SUPS) is finally allowed to resume its activities
by a decision of Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski

[page 62]

MARCH 12 (Cont.)	and on the recommendation of the government's
Social and Political Committee, headed by Deputy
Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski. Note:
The SUPS was suspended on December 13, and the
student community continued to be penalized for
its commitment to reform until the authorities
became convinced that it was sufficiently cowed.
The military authorities were evidently afraid
that renewed unrest might flare up despite the
pacification of Poland's 90 universities and schools
of higher education, the restriction of academic
freedom, and the banning on January 5 of the
Independent Students' Union (ISU), which was accused
by the media of having attempted to carry out "an
ideological commando raid" at the American
administration's instructions.

MARCH 13	Units of the Soviet Army, the National People's
Army of the GDR, and the Polish Armed Forces are
taking part from March 13 to 20 in preplanned
allied tactical-operational military exercises
code-named "Friendship 82." The nature and the essence
of the exercises, according to PAP commentator Witold
Smolarek, are clearly manifest in the motto under
which they are being conducted: "United in
comradeship in arms, strong in unity, in defense of peace
and socialism."

The Warsaw leader of Solidarity, Zbigniew Bujak,
who has been in hiding since martial law was imposed
last December, calls for a mass campaign of support
for the union through petitions and letters to the
government. He also urges people once again to show
their support by not buying newspapers on Wednesdays
and switching out the lights in their homes between
2100 hours and 2130 hours on the 13th day of every month.
On that day people should also stop work for 15
minutes at midday. Note: His appeal follows the
publication by the Government Committee on Trade
Unions last month of proposals on the way Poland's
unions should be organized in the future. The
proposals implicitly reject Solidarity's political
role, its traditional structure, and most of its
leadership, now interned.

MARCH 14	Poland's Catholic Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp,
publicly calls for Lech Walesa's release from
detention. Glemp's request was included in a
sermon delivered to a large audience at a religious
service in Ursus, a suburb of Warsaw and the site of
a tractor plant that has long been a stronghold of
Solidarity. The call was in the form of a prayer
that Lech Walesa "leave the place of his detention
and stand [among us], because we trust that his
presence does not threaten anybody but [on the
contrary] would serve as a contribution [toward the
achievement] of reconciliation and agreement, and
would ease entry onto the path toward the goal we

[page 63]

MARCH 14 (Cont.)	are praying for." The archbishop's sermon also
included pleas for the speedy release of detainees
in general. "In recent days many (detainees) have
left their places of internment," he said, adding
that "we hope that, others will follow them,
that those places of isolation will be deserted,
that the people from them will join our community
to pray together, to work together, and be reborn."

MARCH 15 The first and constituent congress of the Communist
Union of Polish Youth (CUPY), which was due to
begin today, is called off abruptly and without
proper explanation. At the same time the entire
leadership resigns for unknown reasons. The decision
to cancel the congress was evidently imposed from
above, having been made not by the National Committee
Secretariat but by the congress commission, "for
reasons beyond its control." The terse communiqué
broadcast by national radio hookup simply mentions
that one of these reasons is the forthcoming Polish
United Workers' Party CC plenum, which is supposed
to deal with questions concerning youth, and that
the congress should be held by May 22 at the latest.

MARCH 16	To demonstrate the continuity of party traditions,
party, government, and army chief General Wojciech
Jaruzelski visits Wladyslaw Gomulka in the hospital,
conveying to him the Politburo's wishes for a quick
recovery.

Radio Warsaw reports that the Polish trade union
delegation to the current Soviet Trade Union Congress
in Moscow is led by Eugeniusz Mielnicki, the head ,
of Poland's suspended branch trade unions.

MARCH 18 The Supreme Court rules in favor of the prosecutor's
demand and increases the prison sentences two
Solidarity leaders received earlier for strike
activities. The Union officials are Solidarity's
Lodz Chapter Chairman Andrzej Slowik and his
deputy Jerzy Kropiwnicki. The Supreme Court rules
that the four-and-a-half-year term that each got
from a lower court last December is too lenient and
raised it in both cases to six years apiece. The
prosecution had asked for eight years. Note:
Slowik and Kropiwnicki were convicted of organizing
protests in Loda -- Poland's second largest city --
just after martial law was declared.

A Polish-Soviet protocol on the building of the
Warsaw subway system is signed in Warsaw. Radio
Warsaw reports that the signing followed a
discussion with Soviet experts. It says the
initiative to help Poland in the construction came from
the Soviet Union.

[page 64]

MARCH 18 (Cont.)	The protocol sets down the extent of Soviet
help in planning, in supplying technical equipment,
and in the construction as well as in the training
of specialists in building and operating the
subway system.

Mieczyslaw Moczar, Chairman of the Main Council
Presidium of the ZBoWiD war veterans organization,
calls on the organization's members to support
efforts of the Polish leadership to stabilize
Poland's situation. Moczar, who also is Chairman
Of Poland's Supreme Chamber of Control, tells the
session that members of the ZBoWiD organization
are not indifferent to the problems facing the
country today. He charges that hostile propaganda
centers in the West are still active and says that
the war veterans should remind youth that
impulsiveness and lack of common sense could lead the country
to ruin.

Zbigniew Bujak, head of Solidarity's Mazowsze
Region, issues an appeal from the underground for
action to save the country's youth. (See forthcoming
documents section.)

MARCH 19	The Warsaw Voivodship Court again postpones the
trial of Jan Jozef Lipski on medical grounds.
Note: Lipski is charged with organizing and
directing a strike in the Ursus Tractor Factory
in Warsaw after the proclamation of martial law,
which made strikes illegal.

A meeting of the PUWP basic organization at the
Warsaw branch of the Polish Writers' Union decides
to withdraw the organization's resolution of
27 November 1981 which requested the Central Party
Control Commission to reconsider its decision
expelling Stefan Bratkowski from the party's ranks.

MARCH 20	The Polish Journalists' Association (PJA) is formally
dissolved by a decision of the authorities. On the
same day, a new body, the Journalists' Association
of the Polish People's Republic (JAPPR), is founded
by a group of journalists who support the policies
of the current leadership. The group immediately
applies for official recognition of its organization.
Note: The decision to dissolve the PJA was made
public through a brief announcement by the Mayor
of Warsaw, General Mieczyslaw Debicki. It said that
"the PJA, following its extraordinary congress of
1980, failed to fulfill its statutory obligations

[page 65]

MARCH 20 (Cont.)	or to reflect the prescribed scope and methods of
activity," Furthermore, the announcement charged
that the association had acted "against state and
social institutions of public information [in a
way that] disrupted the journalistic community
and caused difficulties in the fulfillment of
tasks by journalists in a socialist state." The
chairmanship of the new organization is given to
Klemens Krzyzagorski, a little known editor of
several provincial papers who recently occupied
the post of Editor-in-Chief of Prasa Polska, a
monthly periodical dealing with the professional
problems of journalists.

MARCH 21	The two-month-old daughter of Lech Walesa, Maria
wiktoria, is christened in Gdansk by Bishop Lech
Kaczmarek in the presence of some 30,000 friends
and supporters. Walesa himself is not given leave
to attend the christening.

Western reports from Warsaw say Stefan Bratkowski,
Chairman of Poland's disbanded Journalists'
Association, and 21 colleagues have issued a
statement protesting the dissolution of their
organization. The statement says the decision to
ban the association is the final step in what it
calls "a series of baseless and lawless reprisals"
and the charges against the association, which was
accused of antistate activity, are groundless.

Preaching to a congregation in Torun (northern
Poland), Poland's Primate Archbishop Jozef Glemp
hints for the first time that the Pope's visit to
Poland, planned for August 1982, may have to be
postponed.

MARCH 23	The International Press Institute says that over
100 Polish journalists have been interned in Poland
since the proclamation of martial law and that
many more have been deprived of their livelihood.
Peter Galliner, director of the London-based
institute, says in a message to General Mieczyslaw
Debicki, the martial-law Mayor of Warsaw: "It cannot
possibly be in the interest of your country, its
image abroad, and the understanding you need from
the free world that you persecute those
responsible-minded Polish journalists who have in the past
courageously stood up in the defense of your
country's freedom. The newly founded Journalists'
Association which you announce can only be described
as a farce and will meet with approval only from
those who believe in the subjugation of the media
and who are opposed to a free flow of information."

MARCH 24	The Journalists1 Association of the Polish People's
Republic (JAPPR) is granted legal recognition.

[page 66]

MARCH 25	Speaking at the opening of a two-day session of
the Sejm, Foreign Minister Jozef Czyrek criticizes
the United States for the economic sanctions it
has declared against Poland. Czyrek says the
application of economic sanctions and attempts
to isolate Poland in the international arena stem
from American policy, which he charges is aimed
at changing the balance of power in Europe and in
the world." He repeats a statement made by Polish
leader Wojciech Jaruzelski at last month's Sejm
session that Poland will not bow to a "foreign
ultimatum" and claims that Poland has become the
target of an unprecedented campaign of propaganda
and political aggressiveness, as well as economic
restrictions. He says the Western countries have
made the lifting of the restrictions dependent on
the fulfillment of "certain political conditions."
This, according to him, is "inadmissible" both from
the point of view of international law and the
Helsinki Final Act.

MARCH 26	According to Justice Minister Sylwester Zawadzki
interviewed in Trybuna Ludu, out of 1,200 cases tried
summarily between 12 December 1981 and 19 March 1982,
194 cases involving 396 persons dealt with charges
of continuing with trade union activities. Thus far,
275 persons have been convicted, 30 persons declared
innocent, and 8 cases dismissed.

At the end of its third session since the declaration
of martial law, the Sejm passes a constitutional
amendment which opens the way for the establishment,
first of a State Tribunal and later of a Constitutional Tribunal.
m a further action, the Sejm approves, with two votes
against and nine abstentions, the establishment of
the Social and Economic Council, a body comprising
representatives of factories, agricultural bodies,
and various social organizations which will be
attached to the Sejm and will facilitate consultation
between the authorities and the public on legislative
matters. Although the manner of electing these
"representatives" remains unclear, the Sejm elects
the well-known sociologist and supporter of the
current political establishment Jan Szczepanski as
the council's chairman. Szczepanski accepts the
post and immediately resigns his seat in the Council
of State, a body acting as the collective head of
state Finally, the Sejm approves a measure containing
the most immediate political implications: the
postponement of elections to local people's councils
for a period of two years. The elections to the
councils were scheduled to take place in March 1982.
This, however, proved impossible owing to the
imposition of the "state of emergency."

[page 67]

MARCH 26 (Cont.)	Note: General Jaruzelski hinted at the need to
set up special courts in his December 13 speech
when he announced the imposition of martial law.
At that time he said that those responsible for
bringing the country to the brink of collapse would
be brought to account- Two weeks later, on December 30,
the Military Council of Rational Salvation (WRON)
declared that "in order to establish the
responsibility of those guilty of [causing] the severe
crisis of the 1970s" it would ask the Sejm to
establish a State Tribunal that would handle their
cases. On January 24 the chairmen of the three
parliamentary parties (PUWP, the United Peasants
Party, and the Democratic Party) asked a group of
legal experts entrusted with the project for their
opinion on various earlier and related proposals.
It was also suggested that the relevant chapter of
the Polish Constitution (IV) henceforth be entitled
"Supreme Chamber of Control; Tribunal of State" and
that the following sub-item be added to Article 36:

The State Tribunal is convened to judge cases
involving the constitutional responsibility of
those holding key state positions. The State
Tribunal is established by the Sejm. The nature
and the composition of the State Tribunal as well
as the methods of its operation, are defined in a
separate law.

The next day the Sejm adopted a resolution calling
for the establishment of "institutional guarantees
for protecting the nation against distortions in
the functioning of the state." The draft bill
worked out in common by the experts and the
parliamentary groups was forwarded to the Sejm's
speaker on February 12. The first reading took
place during the February 27 plenary session, after
which the paper was transferred to the Legislative
Commission for finishing touches before being placed
before the Sejm.

MARCH 29	A high-level Polish delegation arrives in East
Berlin on an official "friendship visit," the
first to the GDR since martial law was declared.
The visit is remarkable for the warm welcome
extended to the Polish delegation. The head of the
delegation, Chairman of the Military council of
National Salvation (MCNS), First Secretary of the
PUWF CC, Prime Minister, and Minister of Defense
Wojciech Jaruzelski, who had on several recent
occasions been slighted in the East German media,
is this time given full honors. The official
party daily, Neues Deutschland, devotes a full
page spread to the visit, citing the general's
full titles, giving a biography that emphasizes his
part in the liberation of Berlin from the Nazis,
and featuring a photograph that shows him to

[page 68]

MARCH 29 (Cont.)	advantage. On arrival, the Polish delegation is
greeted with a 21-gun salute. The population has
been encouraged to line the route of Jaruzelski's
motorcade. The route is decked out with flags,
banners, and portraits; and schoolchildren and
factory workers are given time off to attend.
East German television, which transmits the
motorcade live for 90 minutes, estimates the
turnout at 100,000.

MARCH 31	Preaching at St. Barbara's Church in Warsaw
Poland's Primate Archbishop Jozef Glemp calls
for a return to the spirit of August 1980 as
an essential factor in restoring the feeling of
unity that existed at the time of the signing
of the Gdansk Agreement.

APRIL 1	The Council of Ministers formally votes to forward
for debate in the Sejm a legislative package on
"social disease" consisting of three bills
concerning juvenile delinquency, alcoholism, and
evasion of work. Note: Each of these three bills
involves touchy issues, but the last of the three
is likely to arouse the most emotion. The draft
entitled "Procedure with Regard to People Evading
Employment" is the fourth attempt in fourteen years
to regulate the problem of so-called "social
parasites" -- albeit this draft is careful to avoid
using that term -- or people who allegedly scandalize
the public by refusing to undertake regular
employment, although they are fully fit and able to do so
As was the case with the previous versions, the
current one had met with widespread criticism in
legal, medical, educational, and academic circles
because it is legally unfounded, socially harmful,
economically unsound, and creates more problems
than it can possibly hope to solve.

APRIL 3	A two-day national ideological conference of the
PUWP, the first in the party's history, ends in
Warsaw. Publicized as part of the new offensive
launched at the February CC plenum to reactivate
the ideological front, the conference discussed a
draft declaration entitled "What We Are Fighting
for and Where We Are Going." Several hundred
attend the conference, including the party's
chiefs and propaganda secretaries, members of the
CC committees, as well as representatives of the
country's major industrial enterprises and of the
academic world. In summing up, Stefan Olszowski, the main
organizer, says that this national conference has
defined the current and long-range ideological
tasks facing the party and that it is only the
first of many such events. In a special interview

[page 69]

APRIL 3 (Cont.)	 given to PAP during a break in the conference
proceedings, Olszowski had already repeated
the main theses of the conference more succinctly;
while conceding that negative attitudes to the
party and its ideology still exist among the
people, he said that economic improvement, the
key to all Poland's problems, would lead to the
gradual stabilization of emotions. He saw two
principal tasks confronting the party: an internal
one, the need to consolidate the party itself, and
an external one, the necessity of exerting its
influence on the people.

The government sets up a consultative council to
advise on the country's economy. The council will
consist of 30 people and be headed by Professor
Czeslaw Bobrowski. Half the council members will
be economists; and the rest will be lawyers,
sociologists, business managers, and an agricultural
technician.

APRIL 4	Radio Warsaw announces the lifting of the curfew
for the duration of Easter. Note: A national
curfew between 2200 and 0600 hours was one of the
original December 13 martial law regulations. It
has since been modified in some parts of Poland.

APRIL 5	Polish leader Wojciech Jaruzelski and Czechoslovak
President and party head Gustav Husak open official
negotiations on bilateral and international issues
in Prague. Husak expresses the support of
Czechoslovak Communists and all Czechoslovak people for
what Radio Prague calls "The difficult struggle"
of the Polish Communist Party and "all patriotic
forces in Poland" to strengthen the people's
power and overcome the consequences of the country's
"deep social and economic crisis," adding that the
martial law proclamation has "thwarted the plans
of counterrevolutionary forces to liquidate the
socialist system."

The Primate's Social Council (Prymasowska Rada
Spoleczna) issues an 11-page memorandum entitled
"Theses in the Matter of Social Reconciliation"
defining the Church's view on the methods to
overcome mutual distrust and the "ever deepening rift"
between the nation and its military rulers. The
10-point draft program proposed by the Polish
Church for nationwide discussion appears to
present a persuasive case and a reasoned basis
for a renewal of the "dialogue" so abruptly broken
off on December 13. It clearly defines the Church's
(often misinterpreted) stance on martial law and
details concrete proposals to end the current
impasse.

[page 70]

APRIL 5 (Cont.)	The council's "theses" condemn the imposition of
martial law as an act that dashed hopes for a
genuine reform, a reform that could have been
implemented within the framework of the existing
political system and postwar international alliances.
It offers tentative ways to end the state of
emergency through a common search for mutual
understanding between the rulers and the ruled and
a renewed dialogue. The heart of the problem is
the idea of an open, serious dialogue between the
government and broadly based representatives of
society, whose purpose would be to achieve social
agreement. All authentic social forces should be
represented in these negotiations, such as the
Catholic Church, free labor unions (Solidarity in
particular), along with the private farmers' and
craftsmen's organizations, as well as the worlds
of youth, the creative arts, the academic community,
and culture. The proposed discussions would center
on how martial law could be lifted, civil rights
restored, and the suspended unions and associations
reactivated. The negotiating group would also study
suggestions for the necessary social and economic
reforms. The authors of the "theses" stress that
the prerequisite for any agreement negotiated
should be the full observance of the social agreements
concluded in 1980 with striking workers in Gdansk,
Szczecin, and Jastrzebie and they recall that both
Jaruzelski in his December 13 speech and the Sejm
in its January 25 resolution pledged to respect
those agreements. Another issue singled out for
special attention is the question of young people.
In the author's view, the overwhelming majority of
the younger generation feels deceived and embittered
and has adopted what he refers to as "oppositional
attitudes." These dangerous tensions cannot be
defused by repression; the reverse is true -- it
is obviously the lack of free, autonomous
organizations of their own that makes young people so restless
and causes the current "ferment." The establishment
or readmission of youth organizations especially
among university students, is therefore regarded as
an urgent task. Note: The Primate's Social Council
was set up on 12 December 1981. It consists of 28
lay Catholic activists representing various
professions and coming from different parts of the country.
It is an advisory body to the primate, under the
presidency of Professor Stanislaw Stomma, a noted
Cracow scholar and a committed Catholic politician
(he headed the independent Catholic ZNAK group in
the Sejm until late 1975, when he lost his seat as
a result of his lone opposition to the proposed
changes in the constitution). Prominent members
of the council include Dr. Romuald Kukolowicz, who
acted as a liaison man between the Church hierarchy
and the free labor unions on various occasions over
the past year; the Catholic writer Andrzej Micewski,

[page 71]

APRIL 5 (Cont.)	editor-in-chief of Rural Solidarity's weekly
Solidarnosc Rolnikow; Jerzy Turowicz, the long
time editor-in-chief of the independent Catholic
weekly Tygodnik Powszechny; Stefan Wilkanowicz,
the editor-in-chief of the monthly Znak; the
leading Solidarity expert and Director of its
Social Research Institute, Andrzej Wiclowieyski;
and others. Similar advisory bodies also operate
at the diocesan level.

APRIL 6 Polish and Western banking officials meet in
Frankfurt to sign an agreement to reschedule part of
Poland's 1981 debts, totaling $24,000 million.
The agreement, giving Poland four years of grace,
opens the way for further negotiation and the
rescheduling of Poland's payments.

APRIL 7	Minister of Science, Higher Education, and Technology
Benon Miskiewicz accepts the resignation of
Professor Henryk Eamsonowicz from the post of
Rector of the University of Warsaw. The resignation
was apparently first submitted in January, in protest
against martial law restrictions on university
autonomy, but was not initially accepted. Samsonowicz's
three deputies, Wladyslaw Fiszdon, Henryk Kupiszewski,
and Janusz Zakrzewski, who were also democratically
elected, resigned with him, Note: Samsonowicz was
appointed Rector of Warsaw University in October 1980,
replacing the unpopular Zygmunt Rybicki, who
implemented the restrictive policies enforced on
universities in the aftermath of the March 1968 student
riots and who was moved to a government post.
Samsonowicz made no secret of his disapproval of
the methods of his predecessor. He took a personal
interest in the rehabilitation of academic staff
members unjustly dismissed in the anti-Semitic purge
following the 1968 riots, and he was the main speaker
at a commemorative rally held on the 13th anniversary
of those events. His appointment was hailed at the
time as a milestone on the road to academic
liberalization, since it was the first to be made under
new regulations provisionally introduced until the
enactment of legislation to reform higher education.

Experience and the Future (Doswiadczenie i Przyszlosc),
an independent group of Polish intellectuals,
economists, sociologists, and journalists, publishes
a 67-page report warning the authorities that their
present policies have little chance of success.
The report analyzes the options open to the authorities,
warns against a policy of confrontation, and urges
changes in the political system that could lead
to cooperation between the rulers and the ruled,
with more rights for the people and the trade unions.

[page 72]

APRIL 10	The Zagreb fortnightly Start publishes an
interview with Wieslaw Gornicki, now a major
and a spokesman for Wojciech Jaruzelski. Asked
what he thinks of the Grunwald Partriotic Union,
Gornicki says:

This organization was created by people who
are mentally unbalanced, which is the
mildest expression one can use to describe
them. These [Grunwald] people advocate the
ideas of the 1890s. However, they must not
be underestimated. Still, the very fact
that Grunwald exists is degrading to us.

Note: The idea of the Grunwald Patriotic Union,
apparently born at the funeral of General Zygmunt
Berling on 15 July 1980, has drawn public attention
mainly on account of its secretiveness and anti-Semitism.
which met with almost universal repugnance. Its
continued existence throughout 1981 and even after the
proclamation of martial law on 13 December 1981
suggests that it has enjoyed protection at the
highest level and was being used for political
purposes by undisclosed forces. Later, however,
Grunwald became plagued with infighting, provocation,
and petty harassment, all of which points to the
conclusion that it has now served its purpose and
is in the process of being scuttled.

APRIL	12 At 0900 hours on Easter Monday, 12 April 1982, the
official monopoly over the Polish media is broken
for 8.5 minutes when Radio Solidarity transmits
over the air at 70 MHz on the FM band in the Warsaw
area. The broadcast is preceded by a characteristic
call signal, the first eight bars of a popular
wartime underground song. A commentary is then read
out alternately by a man and a woman. They first
apologize that not everyone can receive the
broadcast and warn against the possibility of the
authorities attempting to fake a Radio Solidarity
transmission later, in order to discredit them.
They therefore tell listeners to remember their
voices as the only guarantee they are really listening to
Radio Solidarity. The bulk of the broadcast is devoted to
a commentary on martial law. The listeners are reminded that
four months have passed since martial law was
declared and are urged to demonstrate their solidarity
against it by switching lights off at 2100 hours for
a quarter of an hour the following evening. They
also announce that they will broadcast again on
April 30 at the same time and on the same frequency
and will then give details of further broadcasts.

[page 73]

APRIL 12 (Cont.)	In order to give themselves and the authorities an
idea of the effectiveness of the transmission, the
listeners are asked to flick their lights on and off
three times for good reception, twice for fair, and
one for bad reception. According to various reports,
tens of thousands of Varsovians responded, though
some living on the outskirts reported the signal
to be very weak. Also, because this first broadcast
caught the government unaware, it had no opportunity
to j am it.

APRIL 14	A national conference, attended by representatives
of some 30 scientific centers engaged in the study
of social and trade union problems and activists
of the various unions and youth organizations, is
held at the Central Committee's Higher School of
Social Sciences (HSSS) to discuss the future of
labor unions in Poland. The conference is opened
by Norbert Michta, Rector of the HSSS. One of the
main speakers is Wladyslaw Ratynski, himself also
of the HSSS and articulate in the past on the
subject of unions. There are also three speakers
associated with the branch (industrial), autonomous,
and the so-called "independent" unions: Roman Gorski,
Deputy Chairman of the National Coordinating Committee
of the Branch Trade Unions; Bogdan Fiutowski, the
coordinator of the Confederation of Autonomous Unions;
and Adam Wojtaszewski, Secretary of the Main Council
of the Independent Construction Workers' Trade Union.
The conference suggests several scenarios for revamping
the organization of labor unions. Some of these
would not be compatible with the condition laid
down by the authorities that the labor unions of
the future, whatever form they assume, must be
ideologically and politically totally subservient
to the party. A total of six alternatives are
proposed. The first envisages a united labor union
movement, composed of all three labor union centers --
branch, autonomous, and "the nonpolitical workers'
core" of Solidarity -- to be based "mainly" on
the program and structure of the branch unions,
with the exclusion of Solidarity, which would be
disbanded (delegalized). Turning the above around,
a further proposal would involve restructuring a
united labor union front exclusively on the basis
of a "restructured" Solidarity. The other proposals
involve the formation of either a front composed
of new unions to replace the suspended ones or one
union to include all. Presented as the most
unrealistic suggestion is the possibility of
leaving things as they were prior to 13 December 1981.
Note: The HSSS conference was convened to sum up
the response to proposals on the future character
of the labor union movement agreed upon by the
Council of Ministers' Committee for Labor Union
Affairs on February 20. The publication of the
"theses" launched a party-sponsored, nationwide

[page 74]

APRIL 14 (Cont.)	"debate" and was at the same time accompanied by
a media campaign to demonstrate that Solidarity
as a whole was maneuvered by a reactionary minority
"to assume hostile positions toward the socialist
state."

APRIL 15	Warsaw University students and teachers express
partial solidarity with a call for a 15-minute
boycott of classes in protest against the dismissal
of the university's Rector, Professor Henryk
Samsonowicz. The boycott call, issued by the
majority of faculty councils, is most successful
in the History Department, where the majority
of the 20 or so teachers interrupt classes and
march out into the corridors, followed by their
students. In the Philology Department, nearly
60 first-year students join in the strike with
the permission of their teacher, who, however, does
not himself join in the protest movement. But in
the Department of Law no one appears to have gone
on strike. The extent of the boycott is difficult
for outsiders to gauge, as according to unofficial
sources, it is a "staggered strike" spread over a
week. Similar demonstrations, they say, may be
expected in the next few days. Note: Professor
Samsonowicz, former dean of the History Department,
was one of the first university rectors to be
elected in the period when institutions of higher
education enjoyed autonomy before the "state of war"
was declared last December. In January he was
expelled from the Communist Party and on April 7
he was forced to resign by the Ministry of Education.

APRIL 16	Some 500 people stage a silent demonstration in
Warsaw's Central Square Friday to mark the deaths
of 12 martial law victims. The demonstrators light
12 candles on the flower cross in Victory Square
laid out by Warsaw residents to mark the 1979 visit
of Pope John Paul II to Poland and the site of the
funeral of Primate Stefan Wyszynski who died in 1981.
Police cordon off the square and, after some 20
minutes, the crowd is told to disperse. The
demonstrators leave in silence.

Speaking at the Czechoslovak National Trade Union
Congress in Prague, the leader of the Polish branch
unions, Eugeniusz Mielnicki, says the future labor
unions in Poland will be tied to the communist party
and will rest on the "foundations of socialism."
Mielnicki says discussions are still in progress to
determine the shape of future unions in Poland.
However, "we can say toddy... that it will be a
class trade union movement resting on the foundations
of socialism, ideologically bound with the party,
and firmly connected with the working class."

[page 75]

APRIL 17	The Consultative Economic Council, a new economic
body set up earlier this month, holds its inaugural
session. The council's head, Professor Czeslaw
Bobrowski, presides over the session. No details are
given. According to Bobrowski, interviewed in the
government daily Rzeczpospolita, the council will
review the whole economic policy of the recent
past, as well as current economic problems. It is
the council's duty to find out and tell the truth,
assess past mistakes, and achieve a market balance.
Various economic decisions have been made too
hurriedly, Bobrowski says, and the operational
program must be reviewed soon. General Wojciech
Jaruzelski also addresses the meeting and says
that "we are now in a very difficult socioeconomic
situation; but we have reached one goal, often not
fully appreciated, but a very crucial one: the
galloping process of ruining the economy has been
arrested."

APRIL 19	A Warsaw newspaper publishes a letter from a
former Solidarity internee charging the Polish
government with slandering the suspended free trade
union. The letter, signed by Wojciech Gilewski and
published in Zycie Warszawy, is the most outspoken
defense of the Solidarity in the government-controlled
press since last December's military takeover. It
is one of a continuing series in the newspaper on
the future of the Polish union movement. Gilewski,
who describes himself as a Solidarity activist at
Warsaw's Ursus Tractor Factory, a cofounder of
Solidarity Mazowsze Region, and a former internee,
takes exception to government guidelines published
in February for a national debate on restoring Poland's
trade unions. He particularly objects to the praise
lavished on the old branch unions while condemning
Solidarity. This, according to Gilewski, shows
the authorities' lack of objectivity, since: "I know
from experience that the branch unions were in
the habit of torpedoing all Solidarity initiatives
for the sole reason that they themselves were not
in a position to push them through." "Besmirching
Solidarity activities in their entirety constitutes
an injustice toward the Solidarity membership as a
whole," concludes Gilewski.

Seven high school students are put on probation by a
court in Bytom (southwest Poland) for belonging
to a union called the Movement of Independent Youth.
The court also makes the parents of three other
young people responsible for their behavior and
makes all parents responsible for the cost of
the proceedings. Reporting the case, Radio Warsaw
says the existence and goals of the Movement of
Independent Youth were supposed to have been a
secret from the authorities. The broadcast says
[page 76]

APRIL 19 (Cont.)	the youths were also charged with distributing
leaflets in February. The teenagers placed these
leaflets in public places, which, the court said,
disturbed the peace.

APRIL 20 A Polish-born Swiss architect, Zdzislaw Pregowski,
says the government in Warsaw has canceled a
project he has been organizing to allow hundreds
of Polish children to spend a holiday in Switzerland.
Pregowski, who has been livng in Switzerland since
the end of World War II, tells reporters he was
informed by the Polish Ministry of Education that
the program was called off because the children
could not have properly kept up with their
classmates in school after their return home. Under
the auspices of Pregowski's organization, Poland
in Need, about 1,450 Polish children have spent
five-week vacations in Switzerland since last August.
Pregowski says it was planned to have about 2,600
children from Poland come this year. He criticizes
the decision of the Warsaw authorities as "horrible,
heartless, and brutal." He says the program was
not arranged as a series of study trips but for
what he calls "a vitamin holiday." He says he
protested the ban in messages to Polish martial law
leader Wojciech Jaruzelski, Pope John Paul II, and
the Polish Embassy in Bern.

The trial of Ryszard Dziopak, former Sejm deputy
and director of an automobile factory, opens in
Bielsko-Biala, (southern Poland). Radio Warsaw
says Dziopak is being tried on five charges, most
of which are connected with abuse of his position.
One of the charges concerns the renting of a villa
for Haciej Szczepanski, formerly head of the
State Radio and Television Committee, who is
currently on trial before a Warsaw court. Dziopak
is said to have rented the villa for the use of the
committee, but it was mostly used by Szczepanski
and Dziopak. Note: Last year, Solidarity demanded
that Dziopak be removed from his seat in parliament
since he had lost the respect of society. His
resignation was accepted by the Sejm last July.

APRIL 21	At the joint Invitation of the Hungarian Socialist
Workers1 party (HSWP) Central Committee and the
Hungarian government, a Polish party and government
delegation, led by General Wojciech Jaruzelski,
pays a 12-hour, official friendly visit to Budapest.
General Jaruzelski and his delegation are received
by their Hungarian hosts with particular attention
and cordiality. The two parties hold a plenary
session starting in the Hungarian parliament building
in which they review their bilateral relations with
special emphasis on further development and discuss
the international situation. After lunch, Janos Kadar and

[page 77]

APRIL 21 (Cont.)	Jaruzelski exchange toasts. The Hungarian leader
calls the visit by the polish party and state
delegation an "event of tremendous importance,"
praises the "great political courage and
responsibility" of Jaruzelski and his team, and stresses
that the "fraternal Polish party will have to
restore in practice its unity and leading role
and gain back the trust of the working masses."
In turn, Jaruzelski emphasizes that Poland has
barred the way to counter-revolution "by itself"
and "by its own sovereign decision." Note: This
was Jaruzelski's fourth trip to an allied European
socialist country since the declaration of martial
law. He was in Moscow on March 2, in East Berlin
on March 29, and in Prague on April 5.

The first group of Roman Catholic pilgrims allowed
to leave Poland since the imposition of martial
law last December attend Pope John Paul II's weekly
general audience, according to Church officials.
A Polish priest at the Vatican confirms that the
group is the first to be granted permission to come
to Rome since the martial law crackdown
but says that he doesn't know whether this means
the Polish government has planned a general easing
of restrictions, A member of the group tells
reporters that 50 pilgrims were originally to visit
Rome but that authorities withheld travel permits
from 10 of them, who are not identified. Note:
Before martial law, scores of Polish pilgrims came
to Rome for papal audiences; and the Vatican last
year erected a hostel for them outside Rome, the
House of Pope John Paul II, from contributions
gathered by the worldwide Polish Diaspora.

A Polish provincial court today postpones for the
second time the trial of prominent Solidarity
leader Jan Rulewski on a charge of having killed
a pedestrian in a motor accident a year ago.
Rulewskl, who was leader of the Bydgoszcz chapter
of the trade union movement and who has been one
of the government's principal targets as a dangerous
union radical, had his case postponed last month
on a legal technicality. The judge at the Nowy
Dwor court, 30 kilometers north of Warsaw, today
orders a further postponement until May 9 because
Rulewski, who is interned at Warsaw's Bialoleka
Prison, has not received a formal summons. About
50 people, who packed the small courtroom, burst
into laughter at the decision.

APRIL 22	Interviewed while on a trip to Japan, Deputy
Premier Mieczyslaw Rakowski says that former
leaders of the Solidarity trade union deserve
punishment for causing unrest in Poland and rules
out the possibility of Solidarity being restored.
He is quoted as saying of the Solidarity leaders:

[page 78]

APRIL 22 (Cont.)	"They caused a weakening of the state through
anarchy and chaos. For this alone they must be
punished." Rakowski declines to say whether
former Solidarity leader Lech Walesa, interned
since the imposition of martial law, will be
allowed to return to his home or to resume a
union role. "It is difficult to forecast. I'd
rather not say, because anything I say about him
can cause a major reaction," Rakowski is quoted
as saying. He defends the imposition of martial
law last December saying it was a necessary step
to pull Poland out of its economic crisis.

Representatives of Solidarity's regional
organizations in Gdansk, Wroclaw, Cracow, and Warsaw set
up an Interim Coordinating Commission (TKK -
Tymczasowa Komisja Koordynacyjna) whose main goal
is to coordinate activities aimed at the rescinding
of martial law; the release of those interned,
arrested, and sentenced; the restoration of human
and civil rights, and the struggle for Solidarity's
right to act. Note: The commission is composed
of 4 of the 200 or so Solidarity leaders who managed
to avoid internment on December 13 and who have
remained underground. They are all being sought
by the police. They represent the four regions where
the Solidarity underground is the strongest and the
best organized: Warsaw (Zbigniew Bujak), Wroclaw
(Wladyslaw Frasyniuk), Gdansk (Bogdan Lis), and
Cracow (Wladyslaw Hardek). (Missing from the new
body is a representative of Katowice, the center
of the coal mining area. As Western press reports
suggest, tight police surveillance might have
disrupted contacts with that area.) The four leaders
issue a series of documents, each dated 22 April
1982 (see forthcoming documents section). Note:
The formation of the ICC is first reported by
Western correspondents in Warsaw on April 29.

APRIL 23	Winding up a two-day PUWP CC plenum (the eighth
since the July 1961 congress) called to discuss
the state of the country's economy, party and
government leader wojciech Jaruzelski says it will take
several years to achieve a tangible improvement in the people's
living standards.

The Politburo report read (??t) at the plenum says
Poland is suffering from "a total collapse of the
economy." It says recent setbacks could prevent
any recovery for a further two years.

APRIL 25	Poland's Catholic Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp,
and the head of the country's political and
military establishment. General Wojciech Jaruzelski,
meet in Warsaw to discuss the "current situation
in the country." According to a brief communiqué

[page 79]

APRIL 25 issued after the meeting, the two men "agreed that
(Cont.) the situation remains very complicated." They
are also said to have shared the view that while
"the country is facing multitudinous difficulties,
a unified effort by both the authorities and
society is required to overcome those difficulties."
In this context the communiqué says that the concepts
of "national accord and a social compact were
discussed," adding that both men "found agreement
in stating that their implementation should be
achieved through a dialogue, in which relations
between the state and the Church play a significant
role." Finally, the communiqué notes that both
sides expressed "the will to develop those relations
further in a constructive manner." Note: This was
their second meeting since the declaration of
martial law. The first meeting took place on
January 9.

APRIL 26	Polish Politburo member and Central Committee
Secretary Stefan Olszowski charges that imperialist
and reactionary forces are striving for confrontation
with socialism. He is addressing a meeting
of PUWP CC lecturers in Warsaw, devoted to a
discussion of current and future tasks of the
party's ideological front. Olszowski speaks of
the incessant attempts by imperialist and reactionary
forces to undermine the socialist system. He says,
too, that these forces are today striving toward
a virtually open confrontation dictated by the
desire to gain hegemony in the world.

APRIL 21 The Presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences
today discusses the nation's health problems.
The discussion is based on research covering the
years 1973 to 1978. The findings are far from
optimistic. What is alarming is that the health
of Poles has worsened, mainly because of
environmental pollution. In addition, excessive drinking and
smoking have contributed significantly to an
increase in a number of illnesses among the
population. The experts point out the poor conditions
that affect people's health, and they stress the
disturbing effect of the social conditions in
which many children are being brought up.

APRIL 28	The Solidarity underground calls on Poles to
boycott official May Day celebrations and instead of
celebrate the International Workers' Day by
flocking to churches to pray for "freedom, peace,
bread," and workers' rights.

A clandestine appeal signed simply "Solidarnosc"
lists four Warsaw churches which will schedule
special masses coinciding with an official May
Day parade through the city streets. "We shall pray

[page 80]

APRIL 28 (Cont.)	for freedom, peace, bread, and the well-deserved
rights of all working people on the occasion of
St. Joseph the Worker Day," the appeal says.
Another appeal, signed by underground Warsaw
Solidarity official Zbigniew Janas, says "we shall
demand freedom, since over 4,000 people are in
prisons because they fought for that freedom.
We shall demand equality as once again the working
class has been deprived of it in favor of party
apparatchiks, the secret police, the militia,
and the array. We demand work, since thousands of
people are jobless, mainly for political reasons.
We shall demand bread, because many of us are not
able to feed our families today." "The authorities
have announced an organized parade," Janas says;
"our obligation, the obligation of all those
who know what the real situation in Poland is, is
to make evident our refusal.... Our holiday will
take place in churches -- the one place where we
feel like human beings and where we can get reliable
suggestions on how to live with dignity in these
undignified times." Note: Although the underground
has not called for illegal street demonstrations
or a rival parade, police and security forces in
the city were noticeably beefed up early in the
week, in apparent anticipation of possible trouble.
The underground appeal said the second broadcast
of the clandestine Radio Solidarity would be aired
Friday night, on the eve of May Day. There were
rumors that the authorities would try to jam the
frequency on which it will be broadcast. Note:
Last year pressure from Solidarity forced the
authorities to abandon the traditional
communist-type May Day parade. Instead, state and party
leaders walked along the parade route in an
informal fashion, along with ordinary citizens,
and there were no long set speeches.

Polish authorities announce a series of measures
lifting some of the restrictions related to the
state of emergency. These include the termination
of the overnight curfew throughout the country,
acknowledgement of the right of certain public
organizations to hold meetings, and an expansion
of travel possibilities. In addition, the
authorities decide to free 800 Internees, as well
as provisionally to release 200 others from various
detention camps.

Poland's Catholic Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp,
on a visit in Rome, informally hints that the
long-planned visit of Pope John Paul II to Poland,
which was to take place in August, would probably
have to be "put off for a while." Glemp's remark

[page 81]

APRIL 28 (Cont.)	comes during a conversation with newsmen and,
while formulated in terms of the archbishop's
personal opinion, appears to rule out any real
possibility of the Pope's attending the celebration
of the 600th anniversary of the installation of the
Black Madonna's shrine in Czestochowa's Jasna Gora
Monastery. Questioned by the newsmen about the
reasons for that opinion, Glemp seems reticent
to answer and merely remarks that the decision on
the matter "does not depend simply on us [the
Church] but also on the government and the situation."
When pressed further to amplify on these remarks
particularly with respect to his reading of the
governments attitude, Glemp is reported to have
responded rather enigmatically that "there are
objective conditions for the government [to favor
postponement]; it is not all that easy." Note:
This was Glemp's second visit to the Vatican since
the declaration of martial law.

The official media carry an interview with Jan
Kulaj, recently freed Chairman of the Independent
and Self-Governing Trade Union of Individual Farmers
(Rural Solidarity), which has been formally suspended
since the imposition of the state of emergency.
Kulaj pledges his support and cooperation to the
United Peasant Party, a political organization that
has always been allied with the Communists. Although
rather vague in describing how this cooperation
would be in practice, Kulaj repeatedly assures his
interviewer of "the need for constructive work"
among the peasants, so "no one would lack food,
and work would become more efficient." Note:
It is interesting that the interview did not reveal
Kulaj's views about the future of his union nor
his opinions about the prospects of revitalizing
all other organizations that have been suspended
by the authorities. According to Polish Television,
Kulaj was freed at the request of Peasant Party
Chief and Deputy Premier Roman Malinowski.

Party daily Trybuna Ludu says May Day celebrations
this year in Poland will be a demonstration of
Poland's "unshakable union with socialism." The
paper says "we have succeeded at the proper time
and by our own resources to halt the attack of
the counterrevolutionaries and to save the country.
and our nation from catastrophe," and throughout
"this historical period of trial we have preserved
intact our resolve to reach a patriotic national
accord."

APRIL 30 As promised, the second broadcast of Radio Solidarity
takes place, on the same frequency and at precisely
the same time. This time, however, the broadcast
lasts only four minutes. It begins with the same
jingle and the same announcers1 voices come over

[page 82]

APRIL 30 (Cont.)	the airwaves. They announce their intention to
broadcast henceforth every Sunday at the same time
and frequency, plus an extra one on May 3, the
anniversary of the liberal constitution promulgated
in 1791. Then a new voice, identified as Zbigniew
Romaszewski, a veteran Solidarity and KOR activist,
comes on the air. He introduces the listeners to
Zbigniew Bujak, Chairman of the Mazowsze branch of
Solidarity and a successful evader of the martial
law authorities. His voice is not heard, however,
for at that moment the transmission stops. It is
unclear whether the transmitter developed technical
difficulties, whether the authorities managed to
jam the broadcast, or whether the broadcasters
themselves had to break off for fear of being detected.
Note: Later it became apparent that at least some
broadcasts were prerecorded and operated through
remote-control facilities.

Shipyard workers in Gdansk stage a 15-minute
protest strike. The token strike at the Lenin
Shipyard comes shortly before the government
announces it is releasing up to 1,000 of the
3,000 people interned and is lifting the nationwide
night curfew. The workers say they are demanding
the release of all those interned and have gone on
strike "to prove that we are still alive."

Eight Poles hijack an airliner to flee Poland
"because of martial law and bad economic conditions."
The hijackers overpower six air marshals on a LOT
domestic flight and force the plane to fly
to the US Tempelhof Air Ease in West Berlin about
80 km from the East German-Polish border. The eight
hijackers, craftsmen aged twenty to thirty-one, bring
along on the plane four wives, a fiancee, and their eleven
children; twelve regular passengers on the AN-24 aircraft,
who originally had planned to fly from Wroclaw to
Warsaw, make the most of the chance given them by
the highjacking and decide to stay in the West.
The crew of five, the six security men, and ten
other passengers return to Poland.

MAY 1	This year's May Day is being promoted by the
military regime as "a march of hope," with the
authorities hoping that people will "vote with
their feet" in favor of Jaruzelski's concept of
national agreement by attendance at the official
parade. In his opening address Jaruzelski says
that there is room in the government's parade for
all Polish patriots and people of good will and
appeals for a united effort to rebuild a solid state.
In fact, however, admission to the official parade
is by invitation only. The column is flanked on
both sides by a guard composed of party workers and
secret police. In addition, soldiers are spaced
at 15 meter intervals along the route and positioned
on rooftops. In contrast, the "alternative" unofficial

[page 83]

MAY 1 (Cont.)	May Day parade appears to be a far more spontaneous
affair. This parade begins an hour after special
Masses have been celebrated in four Warsaw churches,
including St. John's Cathedral on Castle Square.
Estimates of the size of the crowd range from
10,000 to 50,000. As the column moves down from
the cathedral toward the residence of the primate
of Poland, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, Solidarity
banners are unfurled and placards produced.
Forbidden Solidarity badges are visible everywhere.
The white and red national flags festooning the
street are plucked out of their holders and carried
along. Onlookers applaud, join in chanting the
most popular slogans -- "Long live the Primate,"
"Down with the Junta," "We want Lech, not Wojciech,"
"Solidarnosc, Solidarnosc," -- and merge with the
crowd. When the crowd comes upon a police
roadblock, it turns peacefully down another street.
When the bulk of the procession reaches the banks
of the Vistula River an impromptu rally is held;
there are demands for the release of those still
detained, and people are encouraged to attend
another march on May 3.

MAY 2 The Ministry of Internal Affairs issues a communiqué
lifting the curfew and restoring, as of May 10,
automatic telephone dialing nationwide. Also, as
of today, permission is no longer needed to hold
meetings organized by citizens' Committees of
National Salvation; gatherings organized by
residents' committees; or courses, conferences,
and training groups organized by social and
cooperative organizations. It is also now again permitted
to take part in group excursions organized by
factories and other organizations. Restrictions are
also to be lifted today at some border crossings
which have been closed until now.

MAY 3	The riot police return to action in force in
Warsaw. After a hiatus of some four months, the
city is reported to be filled with tear gas, its
streets full of blue-clad, steel-helmeted, and
shield-carrying troops. Hundreds of riot
police firing tear gas cannisters and water cannon
and swinging batons battle thousands of union
protesters and youths screaming, "Solidarity,
Solidarity" in the worst clashes since the early
days of martial law. Fighting rages for six
hours in various parts of the city. In the
principal confrontation in and around the Old Town crowds
chanting "Gestapo, Gestapo" respond to the police
onslaughts by hurling rocks and tear gas cannisters
back at them. Barricades are built during a
two-hour battle for control of the Old Town Square,
which ends only when heavy reinforcements of
police are brought in. Note: The widespread violence

[page 84]

MAY 3 (Cont.)	 started when police moved in to disperse a rally
organized by activists of the suspended Solidarity
labor organization and other groups to commemorate
the 191st anniversary of the first Polish
Constitution. The anniversary has long been regarded by
the population as a major national commemoration.
Having been officially disregarded by the communist
authorities for several decades and considered by
them merely as a reminder of Poland's bourgeois
past, it regained its patriotic significance
and official recognition during the process of
national revival in 1981. This year the formal,
government-sponsored commemoration was limited,
however, to the ceremonial raising of a flag at
the restored Royal Castle, an event attended by
representatives of the authorities, including General
Wojciech Jaruzelski and other senior party and
government officials. Solidarity's plans to stage
a commemorative public rally, announced in numerous
unofficial leaflets, encountered determined
opposition from the government. On the eve of the
planned event, the Ministry of Internal Affairs
issued a communiqué warning that no "marches, rallies,
or demonstrations" would be allowed without
specific permission. This permission would only
be given to organizations whose activity had been
accepted as legal and whose status had been approved
by the authorities. Solidarity, formally suspended
ever since the imposition of the "state of emergency,"
does not possess such rights.

Speaking in the Sejm on the government's official
cultural policy. Deputy Premier Mieczyslaw
Rakowski appeals to intellectuals, scholars, and
scientists to become directly involved in the task
of rebuilding the country's educational institutions
and of furthering its cultural potential. Both the
definition of these tasks and the preparation of
the guidance of cultural policies will be the
responsibility of the authorities, Rakowski's
main theme is to assure the Sejm, and indirectly
the entire intellectual community, of the authorities'
determination to continue with the program of
"national accord" leading to a thorough "renewal"
of public life. Yet, although he merely mentions
some of the most urgent problems facing the country,
such as the official attitude toward social
autonomy, Rakowski flatly rules out any "return
of Solidarity to the Polish scene in its
pre-December [1981] form as an oppositional political
force." Instead, he says "we [the authorities]
will support the rebuilding of a self-governed,
union movement that will have a free hand to carry
out its functions of representing workers and
protecting their social interests." Even so,
Rakowski observes that this "rebuilding" will
probably take a long time.

[page 85]

MAY 3 (Cont.)	Radio Solidarity goes on the air for the third
time. It can only be heard clearly in some areas
of Warsaw and for only 45 seconds, before it becomes
jammed by loud pop music.

MAY 4	Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig expresses
concern about Solidarity leader Lech Walesa,
Interned since Poland came under martial law on
December 13. Haig tells a Senate Subcommittee
that Walesa "is alive, active, and remains vigorous
in the convictions that he has so characteristically
demonstrated," but he nevertheless expresses
concern that what he calls compression in a
repressive environment will change Walesa's "free
spirit."

Authorities enforce a telephone blackout in Warsaw
and Gdansk following the violent antigovernment
demonstrations. Reports from travelers coming
from Gdansk, Solidarity's birthplace, indicate that
demonstrations there were apparently far more
violent than the street clashes in Warsaw.
Demonstrators siphoned gasoline from cars parked in the old
town and made Molotov cocktails. "Many windows
were smashed, mostly by police tear gas rockets
shot at demonstrators," a witness says. "Many
people were injured, including policemen, but
the exact number is not known." Demonstrators
ripped up paving stones and used park benches to
construct barricades. Sheltering behind them they
hurled rocks at riot police, who all the while were
firing flares and tear gas grenades.

Demonstrations have also taken place in Elblag,
Mielec, Swidnik, Rzeszow, and Lodz -- all industrial
centers -- with the worst violence in the port of
Szczecin, where 19 policemen were reportedly injured.
At the close of a two-day session, the Sejm passes
a package of bills concerning cultural and educational
affairs. The legislation on cultural matters
involves three acts: one setting up the National
Council of Culture (NCC); one establishing the Fund
for the Development of Culture (FDC); and the third
dealing with the duties of the Minister of Culture
and the Arts. The initial draft of the bill on
higher education marks a considerable step toward
the liberalization of conditions that existed in
academic life up to 1980 and sanctions some of the
freedom won during the post-August 1980 "thaw,"
including the relative autonomy of academic
institutions and more freedom in teaching and
research. The final version of the bill, however,

[page 86]

MAY 4 (Cont.)	differs substantially from that proposed a year
ago which was the joint effort of representatives
of academic institutions, student organizations,
and government officials. The final version subjects
the operation of universities to strict control by
central administrative agencies.

Speaking in the Sejm about the riots that took place
the previous day, Interior Minister General Czeslaw
Kiszczak says police detained 1,372 people during
Monday's rioting, which hit at least 13 cities, and
at least 72 police officers were injured in the street
battles between Solidarity union supporters and the
police. The number of civilians injured in the rioting
is "still unknown," the general says during the
second day of the Sejm session. "The most serious
incidents took place in Warsaw, where police decided
to disperse aggressive groups," Kiszczak says. "The
incidents lasted until late in the night, and similar
excesses were repeated today in Szczecin."

In the wake of the May 3. demonstrations, the
government announces the imposition of a nighttime
curfew in several regions affected by popular
unrest; telephone connections are cut for several
hours in many localities; and many student's clubs
and youth centers are closed. In addition, several
hundred people arrested during the May 3
demonstrations are sentenced by misdemeanor courts, while many
other cases are to be dealt with in general courts.

In Warsaw Mayor General Mieczyslaw Debicki reimposes the nighttime
curfew lifted just three days before. The curfew
will run from 2400 hours to 0500 hours for adults
and from 2100 hours to 0500 hours for those under
18 years of age.

MAY 5	In a communiqué issued after a meeting of the Church'
episcopate, the Council of Bishops, held at
Czestochowa's Jasna Gora Monastery on May 3 and 4,
the Church again formally appeals to the authorities
to open up a "dialogue with society and social groups"
in order to resolve the existing conflicts through
a general "social agreement." In addition, having
noted that such a dialogue requires "an atmosphere
of peace in the country," the Church expresses its
growing concern over "the new unrest, which is
affecting the country and delaying social agreement
by slowing down steps toward normalization, and which
is disorienting young people."

The voivodship defense committee decides to
reintroduce the curfew in the tricity area of Gdansk,
Gdynia, and Sopot from 2300 until 0500 hours as well
as to forbid the sale of alcohol in catering
establishments. Moreover, "certain people and institutions"
are to be denied the use of telephones and automotive
vehicles if there are violations of martial law
regulations, and "certain" entertainment and cultural

[page 87]

MAY 5 (Cont.)	events will also be "restricted," PAP says. The
restrictions imposed are the result of the disturbances
in the district that occurred the previous Monday,
May 3.

The news agency, the Maritime Press Service, says
that a number of people were hurt during incidents in Gdansk
and Gdynia. It says six civilians and eight
militia officials are in the hospital. PAP says that
402 people were detained, most of them between the
ages of 17 and 25. Only six of them are people over
forty-five years of age.

Polish Television reports that misdemeanor courts in
Warsaw and several other localities have so far tried
nearly 600 people detained for what it calls "hooligan
excesses" during the disturbances. The program
says 115 defendants received prison sentences, 356
were fined, and 26 were acquitted. It says a number
of other cases have been referred to the courts
but gave no further details. The Interior Ministry
says about 1,370 demonstrators have been detained
nationwide.

The joint commission of representatives of the
government and the episcopate expresses concern
about social peace in Poland. Radio Warsaw says
the commission continues to discuss problems examined
at previous meetings and is taking into account the
country's current situation. The broadcast says
the commission will meet again at the beginning of
next month.

MAY 6	The martial law authorities deny Danuta Walesa
permission to visit her husband. It is believed
to be the first time the authorities have denied
a request by Mrs. Walesa to visit her husband since
he was interned at the start of martial law last
December 13. Note: Government press spokesman
Jerzy Urban tells the Associated Press the
government does not feel this is an appropriate time for
such a visit in light of the "disturbances" that
swept Warsaw and at least 12 other Polish cities
Monday and Tuesday, May 3 and 4.

Radio Szczecin reports that "after two days of
rioting, calm has returned" to the coastal city
of Szczecin. The broadcast reports that tear gas
was used to disperse demonstrators who attempted
to attack a party building. A curfew has been
imposed, from 2300 to 0500 hours for adults, and
2100 to 0500 hours for those under the age of 18.
The courts in the city hear more that 100 cases
and the sentences are "harsher," since they concern
people detained on the second day of the disturbances.

[page 88]

MAY 6 Foreign Minister and Politburo member Jozef Czyrek
(Cont.) criticizes the imposition of Western economic
sanctions against Poland following the introduction
of martial law in the country last December.
Speaking in Sierads (central Poland) he says Poles
are now living through the most difficult period
their country has experienced since the end of World
War II- He charges that what he calls "militaristic
NATO circles" are steering a "course of confrontation" and
that economic relations have become "one of the
instruments of external political pressure more
clearly than ever before." He says the Western
economic sanctions imposed on Poland "reveal this
in a drastic way. They violate the existing customs
and the binding principles of international law."

MAY 8	The Solidarity Mazowsze Regional Executive Committee
(Komitet Wykonawczy NSZZ "Solidarnosc" Region
Mazowszel, headed by Zbigniew Bujak, Zbigniew Janas,
Wiktor Kulerski, and Zbigniew Romaszewski, is
founded.

A former Polish diplomat at the United Nations,
Waldemar Erazm Mazurkiewicz, is sentenced to death
in absentia by the Warsaw Military Regional Court.
Announcing the sentence in the evening, Radio Warsaw
says that Mazurkiewicz betrayed the fatherland while
working in New York. The broadcast gives no other
details about the alleged crime, nor does it say
where Mazurkiewicz is now.

Jan Pietrzak, the man who wrote "Let Poland Be Poland,"
returns to Poland after spending five months in the
West following the imposition of martial law. Western
news agencies say Pietrzak told reporters at Warsaw's
Gkecie Airport, after a flight from Canada,
that he was returning with "a slight palpitation
in my heart and a slight trembling of my knees";
but he is quoted as saying "I could not stay away
any longer when such things are happening here."
Note: Pietrzak, a well-known cabaret artist and
satirist, was in the United States on a tour when
martial law was declared last December. His song
"Let Poland Be Poland" has been used as a theme song
by the Solidarity Independent Trade Union. It was
also used in the United States as the theme song
of a special television program protesting the
imposition of martial law. Asked about his plans,
Pietrzak said, "I believe, under the present
circumstances, I will have to suspend my stage performances."

MAY 9 Radio Solidarity broadcasts for 33 seconds during
which the Executive Committee of the Warsaw region
of Solidarity appeals to the inhabitants of Warsaw
to participate in a 15-minute protest strike on
May 13, calling on motorists to honk their horns
for 1 minute at noon to mark the 5th month of
martial law.

[page 89]

MAY 9 (Cont.)	Hundreds of riot police backed by water cannon
stage a massive show of force after about 1,000
people gather in central Warsaw following quiet,
official "Victory Day" celebrartions. Police
carrying batons and firearms disperse the crowd
without incident but form a cordon around Victory
Square, where Polish Army, Wavy, and Air Force units
marched to mark the end of World War II.

MAY 10	A two-man fact-finding ILO mission arrives in Warsaw
to review trade union rights in Poland. The mission,
headed by Nicolas Valticos, meets interned leaders
of the Independent Trade Union Solidarity, as well
as representatives of the state-run branch unions
and the autonomous local unions. It also confers with
Polish government authorities and the Roman Catholic
episcopate.

Two US diplomats are ordered expelled from Poland for
allegedly receiving sensitive documents harmful
to Polish state interests. The two are Daniel Howard,
the cultural affairs officer, and John Zerolis, the
science officer. Note: Ambassador Francis Meehan
had gone to the Foreign Ministry to deliver a protest
yesterday when he was informed of the expulsion orders.

The government spokesman announces that, as a result
of the street disturbances at the beginning of the
month, a total of 2,269 persons were detained,
1,339 of whom were charged in the misdemeanor courts;
24 persons have already been sentenced to prison terms
and 211 persons have been interned.

MAY 11	Polish authorities warn of the expanded efforts of
the US intelligence services in Poland and charge that
many visiting Americans engage in activities tantamount
to spying. In an interview with the official news
agency PAP, Interior Ministry spokesman Colonel
Zbigniew Wislocki says many visiting Americans use
research and academic contacts as a pretext for a
type of espionage that appears legal on the surface.
At the same time the official media lash out at the
Western press, accusing Western correspondents in
Warsaw of a coordinated political campaign to incite
unrest, to foster open conflict, and to destabilize
Poland. Note: at least four Western correspondents
have been summoned to the Foreign Ministry this week.

MAY 12 Several thousand Polish farmers attend a Mass at
Warsaw's St. John's Cathedral to mark the first
anniversary of the registration of the Rural Solidarity
Union. The Mass ends without incident but takes
place with hundreds of riot police watching and
checking documents. Two hours later thousands again
pack St. John's Cathedral to commemorate the 47th
anniversary of the death of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
After the service the crowd is told by police to disperse
and goes away peacefully, many walking past

[page 90]

MAY 12 (Cont.)	the lines of security force vehicles parked in
tight rows in the central city squares.
Radio Warsaw starts airing tapped telephone
conversations between US diplomats monitoring the "Victory
Day" events in Warsaw. The calls were made from
public telephones and were subject to monitoring
"in keeping with martial law regulations." Note:
The tapes played were intended to indicate the
diplomats' disappointment that "once again [Western]
hopes that disturbances would occur failed to come
true."

The Katowice Voivodship Court pronounces the seven
miners accused of leading the December strike
in the Piast Coal Mine innocent. The prosecutor had
demanded a 15-year sentence. Note: Upon their
release all the miners axe interned on the very same
day.

Sixteen senior Solidarity leaders and activists
interned in Bialoleka outside Warsaw announce they
will begin a hunger strike as of the next day "in
protest against martial law and as a demonstration
for a social accord on the basis worked out by the
"theses" of the Polish Episcopate [published on
April 51." The duration of the hunger strike is
unspecified, with "each of us continuing according
to his capabilities." The 16 signers are:
Lech Dymarski, Andrzej Gwiazda, Seweryn Jaworski,
Czeslaw Kijanka, Witold Krol, Jacek Kuron, Karol
Modzelewski, Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Grzegorz Palka,
Antoni Pietkiewicz, Jan Rulewski, Antoni Tokarczuk,
Henryk Wujec, Jan Krzysztof Kelus, Anatol Lawina, and
Wlodzimierz Zarnecki.

The International Labor Organization (ILO)
criticizes Poland for suspending all trade unions
and calls on Warsaw to reinstate the right of
workers to choose their own organizations and
leaders. The report, by the ILO committee of
experts on the application of conventions, also asks
the Polish authorities to justify a government decree
last December that all unemployed men between the
ages of 18 and 45 register for compulsory work.
It also asks for permission to send an ILO
Fact-finding mission to Poland and demands an independent
inquiry into clashes in December of last year
at the Wujek Mine in Silesia, where at least seven
workers resisting martial law were killed when
riot police stormed the mine. Note: Last February,
the ILO rejected Poland's explanation of its reasons
for supressing Solidarity and called on Warsaw to
restore the movement as quickly as possible.

[page 91]

MAY 13	Police carrying batons and riot shields disperse
more than 2,000 Poles demonstrating in Warsaw
against martial law, imposed exactly 5 months
ago. The police move in to clear people packing
the pavements around the Rondo, a major central
intersection, as they watch drivers respond to an
appeal by underground Solidarity leaders to disrupt
traffic and blow car horns for one minute at midday.
Some workers in scattered factories down tools
briefly. Students at Warsaw and Lodz Universities
and the Mining Academy in Cracow gather at noon in
front of their colleges.

In Cracow the demonstrations take a violent turn
when ZOMO attacks a large crowd after an
evening mass with tear gas, water cannon, and
concussion grenades to disperse about 10,000 people
who gathered in the old city center to march behind
a Solidarity banner.

MAY 14	Radio Budapest says a nighttime curfew has been
reimposed in Myslowice in the Voivodship of
Katowice following what the broadcast calls an
unsuccessful attempt to damage the local Soviet
Heroes Memorial there.

Radio Warsaw reports that a group of 14 Solidarity
members have been put under temporary arrest in
Piotrkow Trybunalski, central Poland, for running
illegal printing offices. The broadcast says the
group was conducting illegal union activity. It
printed and distributed about 2,000 publications
critical of the work of the state and the political
authorities and of the decisions of the Military
Council. Note: Earlier, on May 14, it was reported
that a number of printing offices which had illegally
printed "antistate leaflets and bulletins" had been
uncovered and closed down in Piotrkow Trybunalski.

According to Polish Television, police detained
637 people during the street violence of May 13,
including 569 for disturbing the peace and 67 for
organizing protest actions. It says 44 persons
were interned. The broadcast also says 176 drivers
were sent to misdemeanor courts for sounding their
horns or flashing lights during a traffic protest.

MAY 15	Lech Walesa is moved from his internment in Otwock
outside Warsaw to the Arlamow government hunting
lodge in Bieszczady (southeast Poland). Note:
This was not confirmed until May 27, at a press
conference for foreign journalists.

Jadwiga Puzynina, Dean of the Polish Literature
and Language Department of Warsaw University,
and several other professors are interned after the
15-minute strike at noon on May 13 called by the
Solidarity underground.

[page 92]

MAY 16	Boleslaw Nencki, responsible for the foreign
journalists accredited in Poland, accuses them
of tendentious and false reporting, particularly
singling out Barnard Margueritte of Le Figaro.
Nencki says foreign correspondents in Poland have
long been sending false and tendentious reports
to their agencies; and mounting proof of "the
dishonest" work of these correspondents has accumulated,
especially in the last few days. In this connection
he refers to Bernard Margueritte of Le Figaro
and says the "adventures" of May 1 and 3 in Warsaw
were described by Margueritte as provocations
organized by the authorities. Nencki concludes that
Margueritte and other correspondents of his kind
have overstepped the boundaries of the journalists
code, have misused Polish hospitality, and have worn
out "our patience."

MAY 17	Konstantin V. Rusakov, the top Kremlin official
for relations with ruling communist parties,
arrives in Warsaw for conferences with Polish
leaders. Note: This is Rusakov's second visit to
Poland in the last six weeks.

Radio Warsaw reports that the traditional international
music festival, called the Warsaw Autumn, will not
be held this year. The cancellation is due to what
is called technical difficulties.

MAY 18	The official Polish media play up allegations that
the man who attacked Pope John Paul II last week
in Portugal had contacts in Poland with Solidarity.
Ml newspapers carry a picture Of the man, Juan Fernandez Khron,
along with a police communique urging anyone who remembers
seeing him to contact the police. The photograph and communiqué
are also broadcast on television. Note: the wide publicity
given in Poland to the event is seen as yet another attempt to
discredit Solidarity, this time by association.

MAY 19	The Solidarity Mazowsze weekly (Tygodnik Mazowsze)
publishes an open letter to the underground Solidarity
leadership from Jacek Kuron in which he discusses
the possible shape of future underground resistance
(see forthcoming documents section).

MAY 20 A Polish delegation headed by General Wojciech
Jaruzelski returns to Warsaw from a one-day visit
to Sofia.

The Soviet agency TASS accuses the United States
of fomenting widespread subversion in Poland and of
trying to plunge the country into anarchy.

Polish authorities free Jan Josef Lipski, a
senior official of the suspended independent trade
union Solidarity, and give him permission to go to
England for medical treatment.

[page 93]

MAY 20 (Cont.)	Note: Lipski was under investigative arrest,
charged with organizing the strike in the Ursus
Tractor Plant last December, staged to protest
the martial law declaration.

MAY 21 In a statement published by the Cracow daily
Dziennik Polski, Jan Kulaj, the former leader of
Rural Solidarity, denies he has sold out to the
martial law authorities in exchange for his freedom
and says he has few regrets about his Solidarity
past.

MAY 23	Radio Solidarity resumes its broadcasts and is
drowned out after a few seconds. Only those living
on the outskirts of Warsaw or with special equipment
can receive the full 10 minute program, which gives news
of a formal work stoppage on May 13 and of the
demonstration in Cracow.

Plainclothes policemen enter the Warsaw bureau
of the West German ARD Television Network, seizing
a documentary film on the International Book Fair
held in Warsaw the previous week. Note: The
authorities make it clear later that they object
to a 10-second sequence which shows a balloon bearing
the logo of Solidarity, the suspended independent
trade union, apparently released at the fair by a
sympathizer.

The chairman of the new Association of Journalists
of the Polish Peoples's Republic, Klemens Krzyzogorski,
says today the membership of his association has
grown in two months to 4,200 journalists. Note:
The Association of Journalists of the Polish People's
Republic was registered in March and replaced the
dissolved Association of Polish Journalists (SDP).
The SDP had a membership of 7,200.

The independent Cracow-based Catholic weekly
Tygodnik Powszechny, whose guiding principle since
it was founded in 1945 has been "not to lie," is
reactivated after difficult and protracted
negotiations. It loses none of its old editorial staff
members but gains four new ones: respected historians
well known for their involvement with the Znak
group of independent Catholic lay writers and social
activists Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, Andrzej Micewski,
and Marcin Krol, and a regular contributor to
Tygodnik Powszechny, the poet and film critic of the
younger generation, Tadeusz Szyma. The weekly
retains the right to indicate censorship cuts in the
text, as well as its post-August 1980 circulation of
75,000 copies (still very low in comparison with
party-sponsored publications). The leading article
in the first issue to appear since the start of
martial law is signed by Father Jozef Tischner, the
chaplain of Solidarity, and is devoted to ethical
deliberations on the concept of the nation and duty

[page 94]

MAY 23 (Cont.)	to one's country. Another article by Szyma
on the anniversary of the feast of St. Stanislaw,
Bishop and Martyr, who was killed by order of a
king, speaks of "the sword of legalized lawlessness."

The weekly Rzeczywistosc (Reality), first published
in 1981 and reflecting the orthodox Marxist-Leninist
opinions of the Warsaw 80 Club of Creative Party
Intelligentsia, resumes publication. Some members
of the editorial staff of the openly anti-Semitic
weekly Plomienie, which is not to be reactivated,
join the Rzeczywistosc staff. The first issue to
appear since the start of martial law continues the
paper's "hard-line" profile. Note: Originally
believed to be connected with the Social and Political
Knowledge Clubs of the same name headed by
onetime Politburo member and CC Secretary Tadeusz
Grabski (disbanded 9 December 1981 for their outspoken
criticism of the official party line as represented
by both the former and the present First Secretaries
of the PUWP, Stanislaw Kania and Wojciech Jaruzelski),
the weekly Rzeczywistosc dissociated itself from the
clubs, adopting a more discreet tone with regard to
the policies of the present leadership.

MAY 24	Preaching in the Sacred Heart Basilica in Warsaw,
Primate Archbishop Jozef Glemp praises the suspended
Solidarity labor movement, urging the authorities
to end their biased criticism, since "only at the
price of truth, the whole truth. . . can we show
the road to agreement, to [national] accord."
Note: This was Glemp's most explicit sermon related
to Solidarity since the anti-state demonstrations
and riots that swept the country earlier this month.
Recently he has concentrated on sermons urging calm
and warning young people not to take to the streets.

A 15-minute strike takes place at Lublin's Marie
Curie-Sklodowska University in protest against
the dismissal of its Rector, Professor Tadeusz
Baszynski.

Stanislaw Ciosek, secretary of the government's
Social and Political Committee, asserts in an
interview with a Warsaw daily (Zycie Warszawy) that
the "authorities today possess a good knowledge of
the social moods, because all ministers and their
deputies are obliged to visit Poland's provinces
every week." Ciosek says he thinks that a majority
today understands the necessity for the introduction
of martial law in Poland last December and
"appreciates the peace and the first signs of
normalization [since then]."

[page 95]

MAY 25	The Interim Executive Committee of the Independent
Students' Union (Tymczasowa Komisja Wykonawcza
Niezaleznego Zrzeszenia Studentow) is set up.

MAY 26	The Underground Solidarity Regional Council for
Western Poland (Wielkopolska) is set up.

The second session of the Sejm this month
is dominated by two government reports about
current economic conditions. The official speakers,
Minister of Finance Marian Krzak and Deputy prime
Minister Zbigniew Madej, both agree that the economic
situation is bad and that there are few indications
that it will improve in the near future. Reporting
on the country's budget, Krzak says that the government
incurred a considerable deficit in its 1981 budget
and tells the Sejm that a similar deficit of about
14% is envisaged in the 1982 fiscal year. He also
admits that the recent steep price rises have failed
to eliminate the subsidies provided by the state to
large sectors of Poland's industry and agriculture.
Those subsidies will apparently be continued in the
current year. "We are still continuing to spend more
than we are producing," Krzak says, arguing for the
need to take drastic steps through savings programs
and additional taxation to cut the size of the deficit.
Against this background of economic decline and
administrative severity, phenomena commonly associated
with the prevailing rigors of the "state of emergency,"
perhaps the most interesting aspect of the session is
a government-proposed reshuffle of personnel in
the Council of State and in the Council of Ministers.
The changes in the Council of State involve the
election of three new members: Stanislaw Kania,
Alfons Klafkowski, and Kazimierz Morawski. Of the
three, the elevation of Kania appears the most
significant. Kania is elected by a majority vote in
the Sejm, with 17 deputies opposing and 42 abstaining.
The new members fill positions earlier occupied by
Jan Szczepanski, who resigned to take over the
chairmanship of the governments's Social Affairs
Council; Wladyslaw Kruczek, a former senior party
official who had lost his previous posts during the
1980 personnel changes; and Ryszard Reiff, a former
Pax leader who was ousted from his job following
his refusal to endorse the imposition of the
"state of emergency" in December 1981. The removal
of Reiff from the council is demanded by members of
the Pax parliamentary group.

In another development, the Sejm approves the
government's proposal to shift Jerzy Kuberski from
being Head of the Office for Religious Denominations
to being Poland's representative to the Vatican.
Kuberski's position In the government is taken over
by Adam Lopatka, Director of the Institute of State
Law at the Polish Academy of Sciences and head of

[page 96]

MAY 26 (Cont.)	the legislative group attached to the mixed
government-episcopate commission.

MAY 27 (Cont.)	Jan Kulaj, the former leader of Rural Solidarity,
appeals to the Polish authorities, in an interview
taped in Warsaw but broadcast by French Television,
to end martial law, free all internees, and restore
union rights. Note: Kulaj was released from
internment in April, and at that time the Polish media
claimed he was ready to work with the United Peasant
Party and thus with the authorities themselves. Kulaj
later conceded that he had been "manipulated" by the
authorities. See entries under April 28 and May 21.

MAY 28	Edward Skrzypczak, considered a party "liberal,"
is dismissed from the post of First Secretary of the
Poznan Voivodship PUWP Committee, He is replaced by
General Edward Lukasik.

About 2,000 people, defying the martial law ban on
illegal gatherings, pray and sing religious hymns
in Warsaw's Victory Square after a requiem Mass
celebrated to mark the anniversary of the death of
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski. Police send about 50 vans
to the square and bring several truckloads of riot
police to the area but take no action other than to
check the identity of young people and quietly tell
everyone to go home, witnesses say.

The International Labor Organization's (ILO) board of
directors adopts a report on Polish trade unions which
includes an interview with detained Solidarity labor
federation leader Lech Walesa admitting that Solidarity
had made sortie mistakes. The report by special ILO
representative Nicolas Valticos, who visited Poland
this month and met Walesa, is adopted by 45 votes to
3 with 1 abstention, after a long, stormy meeting.
Adopted with it is a report by the UN agency Trade
Union Freedom Committee which recommends the resumption
of negotiations between the Polish government and the
country's unions. Note: Although the ILO traditionally
takes all decisions by consensus, the voting this time
was done on the insistence of the Soviet Union. Poland,
for its part, has threatened to quit the ILO's
International Labor Conference, whose annual meeting
is to be held June 2, if the conference attacks the
the Warsaw government over its policies toward
Solidarity.

MAY 29	Roman Malinowski, Deputy Premier and the leader of
the United Peasants' Party, says that private farm
ownership will be written into the Polish Constitution.
Malincwski also says an agricultural program for the
period up to 1985 and the following years, which has
been under preparation since January and projects
self-sufficiency in food, will be discussed in the
near future by the Peasant and Communist Parties.

[page 97]

MAY 29 (Cont.)	He says this will be the first joint session in
the history of the two parties. Note: A law
guaranteeing farm ownership was passed by the
Sejm earlier this year. A constitutional guarantee
was one of the demands put forward by Rural Solidarity
and agreed to by the Warsaw government in the Rzeszow
and Ustrzyki Dolne accords in February 1981. The joint
PUWP and UPP plenum, in fact, took place on 20-21
January 1983.

MAY 30	Radio Solidarity resumes its broadcasts, giving for
the first time information about the organizational
preparation for a general strike.

Speaking to some 200,000 male pilgrims, in Piekary
Slaskie, Katowice Bishop Henryk Bednorz quoted Pope
John Paul II as saying that he still hopes to come
to Poland this year, despite martial law, "especially
if his current trip to Great Britain is a success,"
Note: Bednorz met the Pope in Rome just before the
latter left for Great Britain.

MAY 31 Jan Rulewski, one of the Solidarity activists on
hunger strike in the Bialoleka internment camp,
interrupts his hunger strike when the authorities
start force-feeding hint.

A memorial plaque in memory of the miners killed in
the Wujek Mine on 16 December 1981 is placed in
Warsaw's Victory Square. Note: the authorities
remove the plaque the same night, replacing it with an
ordinary paving stone.

A new weekly, Tu i Teraz (Here and Now), appears
on the newsstands. It replaces the old established
social and cultural weekly Kultura, which was suspended
with the imposition of martial law and could not be
reactivated because the majority of the staff refused
to cooperate with the new military order. The new
weekly reflects the official policy line. Its
editor-in-chief, Kazimierz Kozniewski, earned the
label of "collaborator" early during the martial law
period when he took a proregime position and insinuated
that the bulk of the Polish intelligentsia "had
betrayed its vocation" and suggested that the Polish
Writer's Union should be disbanded. One of the regular
contributors to the new weekly is government spokesman
Jerzy Urban.

Grazyna Karon, wife of Jacek Karon; Anka Kowalska,
KOR founding member and later its spokeswoman; and
Halina Mikolajska, the actress, are released, on
health grounds, from the Darlowek (northern Poland)
internment camp.

[page 98]

JUNE 2 The Polish authorities provide a new twist to a
three-day sparring match over a miners' memorial,
pouring concrete into the hole in a central Warsaw
square where the plaque had been placed. Note:
Solidarity's underground had placed a gray stone
plaque in Victory Square on May 31 and someone removed
it the very same night, putting a flagstone in its
place. People removed the stone and filled the
hole with candles, creating a makeshift memorial to
the miners killed during martial law clashes at the
Wujek Mine in Silesia (southern Poland) last December 16,
three days after the start of martial law.

Krzysztof Gorski, Deputy State Secretary at the
Ministry of Labor, Wages, and Social Affairs, and
government delegate to the ILO's annual meeting, says
in an interview in Geneva, that the Polish authorities
"are not proud" to have interned without charge
hundreds of Solidarity labor union activists since
the mid-December military crackdown. "But that," he
says, "was caused by a higher necessity." Asked
about reports that Poland might quit the ILO,
Gorski says such a development "does not depend on us.
We have a long tradition with the ILO." However,
should "politics dominate this forum, if critics
[are] one-sided, we would... present our point of
view to the public and would then act accordingly."
Note: The Polish ILO delegation represents only the
government side. One year ago, Lech Walesa, now
interned, was virtually lionized as the workers'
delegate.

JUNE 3	The leader of Poland's Democratic Party, Edward
Kowalczyk, speaks out against intellectuals who have
been refusing to take part in public life following
the imposition of martial law. Kowalczyk, addressing
a meeting of Democratic Party members employed in
scientific and research institutions and in industry,
says it is his party's task to restore a sense of
proportion among intellectuals, to make efforts to
mobilize people to work, and to combat what he calls
the suicidal idea of the so-called internal emigration.

JUNE 4	General Wojciech Jaruzelski arrives in Bucharest for
an official visit, heading a joint party and state
delegation. Note: Romania is the only Warsaw Pact
country that Jaruzelski has not visited since
imposing martial law.

JUNE 5	West German Catholic bishops, on a three-day visit
in Poland, meet with the Polish bishops in a cell
of the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz to sign a
petition asking the Pope to declare a Franciscan monk
who died in the camp 41 years ago a martyr, Cardinal
Joseph Höffner, the West German Catholic leader, and
Cardinal Franciszek Macharski of Poland lead the
delegations that sign the petition to Pope John Paul II
on behalf of Father Maksymilian Kolbe.

[page 99]

JUNE 5 (Cont.)	Note: Father Kolbe gave his life to save that of a
fellow inmate, Franciszek Gajowniczek, the father
of seven children, when the Nazis selected prisoners
to die in reprisal for the escape of one inmate in
August 1941. Father Kolbe was beatified in 1971
and is due to be canonized in October. The West German
bishops and the Polish Episcopate want Father Kolbe
to be regarded as a martyr.

A plenary meeting of the Warsaw PUWP Voivodship
Committee, ostensibly summoned to discuss its own
internal problems and activities, "accedes to the
request of Stanislaw Kociolek to be released from
the post of first secretary of the Warsaw Voivodship's
party organization," reportedly with three
abstentions. At the recommendation of the PUWP CC First
Secretary who is the country's military ruler,
General Wojciech Jaruzelskl, the plenum elects
Marian Wozniak, a deputy member of the Politburo and
the CC Secretary for industry and economics, as his
replacement, with 10 negative votes. Later, Warsaw
Television announces that Kociolek has been appointed
ambassador to Moscow.

JUNE 6	In an eighth, heavily jammed broadcast Radio Solidarity
expresses fear that the authorities may contemplate
"changing the status of internees to arrested or
sentenced," in order technically to rid the country
of "internees" prior to the expected visit of Pope
John Paul II. Note: The broadcast notes that Church
officials have recently said the Pope wants to visit
all the internees, estimated at 2,000, when he comes
to Poland.

JUNE 8 In the week-long tug of war over Pope John Paul II's
proposed pilgrimage to Poland in August, the Polish
Episcopate issues a communiqué following its plenary
session stating that the bishops will immediately
inform the Pope about their continuing expectation
of seeing him in Czestochowa during the August
celebrations and that they will engage in negotiating with
the state authorities on that subject.

Radio Solidarity broadcasts its first eight-minute
program in Gdansk. It is heard all over the tricity
area (Gdansk, Gdynia, and Sopot).

Soviet Premier Nikolai A. Tikhonov says his country is
"pleased with the gradual restoration of the normal
economic process in Poland." Tikhonov makes that
statement in a speech at the annual CMEA Council
meeting, which opens in Budapest today.

The Warsaw Militia headquarters issues a warrant for
the arrest of Jan Narozniak, a Solidarity printer,
who escaped from a Warsaw hospital where he was
being treated for gunshot wounds suffered a fortnight
earlier while trying to avoid arrest.
[page 100]

JUNE 8 (Cont.)	Note: Narozniak's name first became known when he
and an employee in the prosecutor's office, Piotr
Sapelo, were arrested following a police raid on
Solidarity's Warsaw branch on 20 November 1980, during
which a classified government document was found in
Solidarity's possession and promptly confiscated by
the police. The document had been prepared by the
Prosecutor-General and was in the form of a circular
to the Regional Prosecutors, instructing them on
ways and means of stretching and bending the law in
order to obtain evidence against dissident and opposition
groups. In order to avoid a confrontation and a threatened
strike in the Ursus plant, the authorities released
both, on 2.7 November 1980, into the custody of Polish
Journalists' Association Chairman Stefan Bratkowski,
on his personal guarantee that the accused would
report back to face official charges. The case never
reached the courts.

JUNE 9	Speaking at the annual ILO conference in Geneva, Pawel
Chocholak, Director of the Office for Cooperation with
Trade Unions, says that Solidarity and Lech Walesa
may yet have roles to play, "if he understands the
errors he and his union have made," making it clear
that both will have to respect state-imposed rules.
Chocholak says that Solidarity, suspended under martial
law last December, will not be allowed to pursue
"political aspirations running parallel with the policy
of the state, as it had done before." Note: Chocholak
said he met with Walesa for several hours on May 29
at "his place of internment."

JUNE 10 Roman Catholic Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp,
expresses confidence that the Church can ensure peace
and security for a planned visit by the Pope John
Paul II to Poland this summer.

Archbishop Glemp tells tens of thousands of people at
an open-air Mass in central Warsaw: "His visit to
Poland... will be a sign that the social situation
is becoming stabilized. Note: Pope John Paul II
accepted an invitation last summer to make a second
visit to his homeland as pontiff in late August,
He is to attend ceremonies marking the 600th anniversary
of the Black Madonna icon at Jasna Gora Monastry in
Czestochowa, which is a national symbol. The visit
was, however, thrown in doubt by the imposition of
martial law.

JUNE 12	On the eve of the six-month anniversary of the
declaration of martial law, Radio Warsaw stages a marathon
twelve-hour "phone in" program entitled "From Eight to
Eight." It begins at 0800 hours with excerpts from
the December 13 speech by First Secretary and Prime
Minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski in which he
declares himself head of the Military Council of
National Salvation. These excerpts are interspersed
with cuts of "man in the street" interviews about the

[page 101]

JUNE 12 (Cont.)	situation before and after December 13, about
national unity, and the outlook for the future.
The studio host then introduces the first of the
program's guests, Deputy Prime Ministers Janusz
Obodowski and Mieczyslaw Rakowski, in charge of
economic and sociopolitical matters, respectively.
After a few words from each, the telephone lines
are opened to the public. The conversations are
not, however, broadcast live; and usual Saturday
programs are meanwhile continued. After about 90
minutes the 2 personalities return to summarize
their first impressions after speaking to callers.
The same pattern is repeated with the next two guests:
deputy member of the Politburo and CC Secretary for
the party's internal organizational matters Wlodzimierz
Mokrzyszczak, and CC Secretary for ideology Marian
Orzechowski, who discuss the exercise of the party's
leading role, and the last two guests: Deputy Ministers
Jozef Wiejacz (Foreign Affairs) and Ryszard Strzelecki
(Foreign Trade). It is only at 1810 hrs that a selection
of the 6 guests' telephone conversations is played
back over the air by way of illustration. The aim of
the program is, it appears, to reconcile people to
the status quo; to convince them that peace, order,
and prosperity are of greater value to them than
democratic freedoms; and to induce them to cooperate
with the military authorities. However, very few people
apparently telephone in questions. Others simply
seize the opportunity to give official representatives
a piece of their minds. According to a Western
correspondent's report, it is a "fiasco," since there
is no real attempt to establish a dialogue between the
listeners and the officials. It is, he says, one more
piece of evidence that martial law has not solved
anything. Note; Although there was a consensus that
that martial law cannot replace economic laws and
cannot provide incentives for increased initiative and
better production, it is officially defended on the
grounds that it is necessary to create stability for
an economic reform to be possible.

A Gdansk court declares Jan Waszkiewicz, former
member of Solidarity's National Presidium, not
guilty of the charge of having organized a three-day
strike at the Lenin Shipyard. Note: As his release
would, according to the Ministry of Justice,
"endanger public order" he is immediately confined
(interned) in a psychiatric hospital upon acquittal.

The martial law authorities announce the release of
257 internees and say steps will be taken for a
further, selective easing of martial law regulations.

[page 102]

JUNE 12 (Cont.)	Note: The last reported release of internees was
at the end of April, when the Interior Ministry
ordered the release of 1,000 people -- 800 of them
to be freed and 200 to be granted conditional leave
from custody. More than 2,000 people are reported
to be still interned in Poland under martial law
regulations.

JUNE 13	Following the episcopate's communiqué on the papal
visit to Poland and Primate Jozef Glemp's repeated
support for the trip made at the Corpus Christi
day celebrations on June 10 in Warsaw, the PAP news
agency accuses the Church of making unilateral
decisions before having discussed the matter properly
with the government and the Vatican. The communiqué
reportedly precipitated a Politburo meeting on June 11.

Radio Solidarity broadcasts its ninth program. Two
documents are read out: one thanking scientific and
cultural workers for their attitudes and support, and
the other an appeal to soldiers not to shoot at their
brothers.

The six-month anniversary of the imposition of martial
law is mainly marked by the largely passive hostility
of the population, with no strikes but with
demonstrations resulting in violent street battles in Warsaw,
Nowa Huta, and in Cracow, lasting long into the night.
A peaceful protest is held in Gdansk.

JUNE 14 in the Bialoleka internment camp 20 sick internees
start a hunger strike demanding hospitalization.

Archbishop Luigi Poggi, head of the Vatican's working
group for relations with Poland, leaves Rome for Warsaw
for meetings with the Polish bishops and state
authorities on Pope John Paul II's planned visit to
Poland in August. Note: Poland's permanent
representative to the Vatican, Jerzy Kuberski, flies to Warsaw
on the same plane as Poggi. Kuberski, who was
previously Minister for Religious Affairs, came to
replace Kazimierz Szablewski on June 3 in the Rome post.

As a result of yesterday's disturbances Wroclaw
Voivod Janusz Owczarek re imposes curfew: 2300-0500 hours
for adults and 2000-0500 for minors. As additional
restrictions, all cultural and sporting events are
suspended; and a ban on sale of alchohol is introduced.

Speaking as Lech Walesa's personal representative
at the ILO's international conference in Geneva, Bohdan
Cywinski presents the situation of Solidarity and
its membership under the martial law regime, appealing
to the free world labor union movement to increase
its involvement in the defense of the Polish people.
Note: Cywinski was the deputy to Tadeusz Mazowiecki,
Editor-in-Chief of the Solidarnosc weekly.

[page 103]

JUNE 15	The Regional Executive Commission (RKW - Regionalna
Komisja Wykonawcza) of the Mazowsze Region Solidarity
declares a suspension of all types of protest until
further notice.

JUNE 16	A 15-minute work stoppage takes place at the Lenin
Shipyards in Gdansk. Similar symbolic protest
strikes take place in many of the larger industrial
and transportation enterprises in the tricity area
(Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot). No intervention on the part
of the authorities is reported.

JUNE 18	The chairman of the Lublin Voivodship Defense Committee
lifts the curfew imposed on the city last May, as
well as the ban on mass cultural and sports events.

Ten miners die in a cave-in at the Dymitrow Goal
Mine in Bytom (southwestern Poland) Note: This is
the latest in a series of accidents linked to the
pressure exerted on miners mobilized under martial
law. There were 65 fatalities in the first quarter
of 1982 alone.

JUNE 19	Speaking at the ILO's international conference in
Geneva, Polish Labor, Wages, and Social Affairs
Minister Antoni Rajkiewicz criticizes those who
have condemned the absence from this year's conference
of Solidarity leader Lech Walesa. Rajkiewicz, who
heads the Polish ILO delegation, says those speakers
who deplore the absence of Walesa quoted selected
extracts from the speech Walesa made to last year's
ILO meeting, but these critics completely omitted
passages in which Walesa promised to limit strikes
and cooperate with the Warsaw government in a
constructive manner to solve the Polish crisis.
Rajkiewicz says that, shortly after Walesa's return
from last year's Geneva conference, strikes multiplied,
accompanied by street demonstrations; and a state of
anarchy "inspired by extremists from Solidarity
threatened to destroy the socialist principles of the
Polish state."

Representatives of the banned Independent Student's
Union from Poznan, Cracow, Torun, Wroclaw, and
Warsaw, together with those officials of the ISU
who have not been interned or arrested on or after
December 13, meet to agree on common aims and actions.
A statement issued appeals for maintaining contacts
with the workers, for reinstatement of the
post-August gains at seats of higher education, and for the
defense of cultural and scientific values.

JUNE 22	Science, Higher Education, and Technology Minister
Benon Miskiewicz announces at a press conference in
Warsaw that a verification will take place of
faculty sociopolitical and ethical attitudes. Teachers
at higher educational institutions must complete a
questionnaire giving details on their work and
membership in social organizations.

[page 104]

JUNE 22 (Cont.)	The Soviet weekly Literaturnaya Gazeta claims that
some churches in Poland had been turned into
places for meetings and instructions before the
street disorders in some Polish cities earlier this
month. The weekly draws attention to the fact that
the disorders in Gdansk, Wroclaw, and Nowa Huta on
June 13 began just after services in Roman Catholic
churches "which had been turned into places for
meetings and instructions and as a refuge for those
who opposed public order."

The International Poznan Fair (IPF), held from
June 13 to 22, ends with the official statement
that even if its results were expectedly modest, the
mere holding of it was useful "when judged by the
future prospects for Polish trade." Of the more
than 60,000 million zloty worth of business done,
about 95% was with the CMEA countries, with exports
accounting for nearly 83% of the total contracts
signed. While it is extremely difficult to draw
comparisons with previous years, it seems that the
business done this year was about 16% (in current
prices) below last year; but, in fact, it must have
been down far more in real terms, if inflation rates
are taken into account. Although about the same
number of countries exhibited this year as last,
the number of exhibitors (2,600) was down about
25%, with 1,900 from the CMEA countries (of whom
1,000 were domestic exhibitors) and 700 from the
West.

The International Labor Organization
Director-General Francis Blanchard says the organization's
inquiry into the condition of workers in Poland
will continue. Blanchard makes the statement to
reporters after the ILO conference in Geneva fails
to approve a report charging the Polish authorities
with what it calls serious infringements of ILO
principles. Blanchard describes the failure to adopt
the report as a great setback for the ILO's work
to monitor a government's compliance with the
international labor conventions it signs. Blanchard
says that the Polish story, however, is not over,
because a major French union organization, the
Force Ouvriere, has made a formal new complaint
about the suspension of the independent trade union
Solidarity. Blanchard also says he is willing to
go to Poland himself to talk with the authorities
on labor problems there. He says the response of
Polish authorities to such a mission will affect
the way the ILO deals with the new French complaint.
Note: Some 230 delegates voted to approve the
report while only 3 voted against, but 173 delegates
abstained. That means the total number voting was
insufficient for adoption.

[page 105]

JUNE 23 In a series of routine meetings with representatives
of various social groups, Poland's ruling body, the
Military Council of National Salvation (WRON),
convenes in Warsaw to discuss the current domestic
and international situation with a number of women
activists and to ask their support and cooperation
in a "superhuman" effort to pull the country out
of its current social and economic doldrums. In
return, they are promised that a monument of honor
to Polish "women and mothers" will be erected soon
by the army at an unspecified location. It appears,
however, that they are also expected to cope more
patiently with the day-to-day problems resulting
from martial law and to help pacify the nation's
restive mood, especially among the younger generation.
Note: The meeting is presided over by General Wojciech
Jaruzelski, who also delivers the key address. Among
the other speakers are Generals Florian Siwicki
(First Deputy Defense Minister), Jozef Baryla (another
Deputy Defense Minister), and Czeslaw Kiszczak
(Minister of Internal Affairs), who all brief
the audience not only on problems of law and order
and the Western "imperialist threat to world peace,"
but also on their task as women and mothers in
bringing up the new generation of Poles as well.
Their audience includes several dozen women activists
representing the communist and allied political
parties, social organizations, and various unspecified
(presumably proregime) Catholic associations,

JUNE 24	Stanislaw Handzlik, member of the Executive Committee
of Solidarity's Malopolska (southwestern Poland)
Region is arrested in Nowa Huta, near Cracow.
The security service apparently set a trap for him,
pretending that his son had been kidnaped.

JUNE 25	Several hundred workers gather at the Ursus Tractor
Plant outside Warsaw to mark the sixth anniversary
of the 1976 demonstrations protesting the government's
decision to raise food prices. According to Western
agency reports, the workers place flowers at the
memorial plaque commemorating the 1976 demonstrations.
The same day, the plant's public address system
broadcasts an appeal from Zbigniew Janas the Ursus
Solidarity Chapter Chairman who is a member of
Solidarity's National Coordinating Committee, to
persevere in the struggle for Solidarity.

JUNE 26	The authorities lift the suspension on the activities
of the Polish Actors' Union (Zwiazek Artystow Scen
Polskich), suspended after the imposition of martial
law.

[page 106]

JUNE 26 (Cont.)	Solidarity's Underground Interim Coordinating
Commission issues an appeal not to stage any
strikes or mass demonstrations before July 22.
Note: The move is justified as a good-will
gesture, in expectation of concrete signs from
the authorities that they are willing to
resume a dialogue with society at large.

JUNE 27	A crowd of about 3,000 people shouts "long live
Solidarity" and "free Lech Walesa" during an
officially sanctioned ceremony marking the 26th
anniversary of bloody rioting in Poznan (western
Poland), where some 75 workers were reported to have
been killed and several hundred wounded in 1556
when the authorities sent regular troops to pacify
marchers protesting against the failure of the
authorities to take action on the various economic
grievances of workers in a large machinery plant
(the Cegielski Plant). Note: The monument, two
huge concrete crosses linked with rope, was unveiled
one year ago in a gala, emotional ceremony which
included representatives of the Church, the authorities,
and Solidarity, including Walesa. The monument bears
the dates of a series of clashes between society
and the authorities: 1956, 1968, 1970, 1976,
and 1980, and the words "For Freedom, Law, and
Bread."

An Interfactory Coordinating Committee (Komitet
Porozumienia Miedzysakladowego Solidarnosci) is set
up in Warsaw and the surrounding region, encompassing
some 62 enterprises. It places itself under the
jurisdiction of Solidarity's National Interim
Coordinating Committee. Note: Similar local and
regional committees and commissions have been set
up in many other parts of the country, often as
a result of mergers with other bodies such as the
many resistance committees.

JUNE 28 Helmeted riot police swinging long batons clash
briefly with youths shouting "long live Solidarity"
during an unauthorized rally by workers commemorating
the 26th anniversary of rioting in Poznan (western
Poland). After a big show of strength by the police
and repeated appeals to the crowd to break up,
most people leave peacefully.

In a communiqué issued after the 186th plenary
conference of the Polish Episcopate, held over
the weekend at Koszalin (northern Poland) the
Polish bishops say plans for Pope John Paul II's
trip to Poland have been discussed and that
consultations are going on with the government on conditions
for a papal visit. The communiqué indicates that

[page 107]

JUNE 28 (Cont.)	there has been no final agreement on whether the
Pope will be able to make his trip as planned at the
end of August to attend ceremonies marking the
600th anniversary of a sacred Polish icon called
the Black Madonna. In their statement, the Polish
bishops also express concern over the continuing
detention of some 2,000 Solidarity activists, as
well as over the condition of the Polish economy,
which they say is deteriorating owing to the economic
sanctions imposed by the NATO nations after martial
law was declared. But they also warn that "the crisis
cannot be overcome by the excessive use of force and
violence." The bishop's statement appears highly
conciliatory in tone and designed to reassure
hard-liners in the party and government apparat, who
remember how the demonstrations unleashed by the
Pope's last visit contributed to the formation of
the Solidarity reform movement. The communiqué
appears thus to signal that the Church has abandoned
its earlier, somewhat forceful campaign of public
statements urging a papal visit and has opted instead
for conciliation to ease the authorities' fears.

JUNE 29	Vatican envoy Monsignor Luigi Poggi leaves Poland
after a two-week visit during which he met with
top Church and government officials to discuss a
planned papal visit despite martial law.

A local newspaper in Wroclaw,(southwestern Poland)
says that 257 people were detained there
during yesterday's confrontation between Solidarity
supporters and the riot police. Heavy patrols of
armed riot police, backed by a show of force including
water cannon, dispersed a crowd of about 500 people
who gathered outside a Wroclaw church. Although
the display of force was big and there was a
feeling of deep tension, witnesses said, no violence
occurred and there were no clashes.

The Polish Politburo says the party will undertake
new initiatives to put into practice the idea of
national accord. The Politburo is meeting to discuss
the strengthening of what it calls "the patriotic
movement of national revival." It says the party
will "undertake constructive new initiatives serving
the work of socialist renewal and the implementation
of the idea of national accord." Though these
initiatives are not spelled out, the Politburo
emphasizes "the creative role" being played by
"Civic Committees of National Revival," saying that
conditions have arisen making possible essential
progress in raising the committees' "social and
political rank." The Politburo also adopts guidelines
for "a long-term program" of ideological work
outlining the party's tasks in what is called "the
development of the socialist conscience of the nation."

[page 108]

JUNE 30 The curfew, reimposed in Warsaw after the May 3
disturbances, is lifted again, as of July 1; and
permission is given to reopen students' clubs,
discotheques and other places of entertainment.
Note: A nationwide curfew imposed after the
declaration of martial law last December was lifted
on May 1 but was reimposed in Warsaw and some other
areas three days later in the wake of street disturbances
in protest against martial law.

JULY 2	A strike takes place in the Gdansk Repair Shipyards,
Workers return to work only after management revokes
its decision not to pay the 13th-month salary to
those absent because of illness for more than six
days at a stretch.

The Polish press agency PAP announces higher prices
for coffee and tea. Tea, as of July 5, will go up
by 60% to 100% and coffee by 130%. In addition to
rationed alcoholic beverages, free-market alcohol
will be made available at prices 20% higher for
wines and 40% to 51% higher for the various types
Of vodka.

JULY 5	A senior Polish episcopal delegation arrives in Rome
to brief Pope John Paul II on the conditions set
by the Warsaw regime for his projected visit to
Poland, The delegation, headed by the primate,
Archbishop Josef Glemp, also includes the country's
three other archbishops -- Franciszek Cardinal
Macharski of Cracow, who had arrived the day before
at the Vatican; Henryk Gulbinowicz of Wroclaw; and
Jerzy Stroba of Poznan. Note: Pope John Paul II's
visit was planned in connection with the ceremonies
for the 600th anniversary of the installation of
the icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa at Jasna Gora.
The visit was to have taken place in August. In
view of the imposition of martial law on December 13,
however, grave doubt was cast over the feasibility
of the visit and, in particular, of its timing.

The main speaker at the Sejm debate on the government's
economic policies, Zbigniew Gertych, admits a 13%
decline in Domestic Net Material Product for 1981
and a 22% drop in the average standard of living.

In a Sejm debate, Romuald Bukowski, Sejm deputy for
the Baltic port of Gdynia, demands the lifting of
martial law and the restoration of civil liberties.
Note: Bukowski, whose past history is largely unknown,
has established a reputation since August 1980 as
an outspoken and impassioned advocate of social justice
and national reconciliation and as a committed defender
of Solidarity and its cause.
[page 109]

JULY 5 (Cont.)	Czeslaw Domin, Suffragan Bishop of Katowice and
Poland's chief coordinator for the Roman Catholic
aid organization Caritas, tells a news conference
that the 400% hike in the prices of basic foods
has resulted in the disuse of about 30% of the
ration cards issued for groceries. The bishop,
who is responsible for the distribution of foreign
aid goods in Poland, appeals to West Germans to
continue sending parcels of food and medicine to
Poland. He says the Catholic Church in Poland received
43,500 tons of aid from abroad in the first 6 months
of 1982, including 12,370 tons from West Germany,
but deliveries fell sharply after the beginning
of May.

Sztandar Mlodych, in an analysis of the activities
of the Citizens' Committees of National Rebirth
(OKON - Obvwatelski Komitet Odrodzenia Narodowego),
complains of the low participation in these committees
by youth and nonparty people.

JULY S Radio Solidarity broadcasts a 13-minute program,
its first from Cracow.

Representatives of 19 Western banks meet in Vienna
to discuss proposals for rescheduling Poland's 1982
commercial debt. The bankers are slated to meet
with officials from Bank Handlowy, Poland's foreign
trade bank, tomorrow. The meeting will be the first
at which Western bankers and Bank Handlowy officials
are to discuss Poland's 1982 debts. The meeting
will also break precedent with procedures used last
year, when creditor banks insisted that Poland's
debts to foreign governments be settled before
agreement could be reached on its commercial debts.
Note: So far this year Western governments have
refused to negotiate with the Polish foreign trade
bank, as a means of protesting Poland's martial law.
Poland owes approximately $3,500 million in
principle and another $3,500 million in interest
payments to Western banks and governments this
year. Poland's total Western debt is an estimated
$27,000 million.

At the conclusion of its two-day session the Sejm
elects Wlodzimierz Berutowicz, Chief Judge of the
Supreme Court, as Chairman of the State Tribunal.
Witold Lassota is named Deputy Chairman. Also
appointed are 22 members and 5 deputy members.
Note: According to the enabling legislation passed
by the Sejm on March 26, the State Tribunal, first
of its kind in the East European countries, is to
ensure the personal responsibility of top government
and state administrative officials for their performance
in office and to determine whether they are acting
and have acted in compliance with the constitution
and other legal acts. The State Tribunal members are
to be sworn in on July 20.

[page 110]

JULY 6 (Cont.)	Because of the critical shortage of footwear the
authorities decide to put all tanneries under
military jurisdiction. (For a full list of enterprises
under such jurisdiction, see Appendix V. below.)

JULY 7 A team of French doctors who have just returned
from a trip to Poland report that they found
increased repression there. The doctors, members
of the French Medical Association for Poland, are
Hugues Monod, Francois Liot, and Jean-Louis Le Guay.
They tell a Paris press conference that their
impression, after a week-long tour of Poland, is
that purges are now systematic and affect thousands.

The Polish authorities announce that curfew and
other martial law restrictions in the city and region
of Wroclaw will be lifted as of tomorrow night.
Also lifted is a ban on public gatherings, entertainment,
cultural and sports events, and on the sale of alcohol.
Note: Nationwide curfew restrictions were lifted
earlier this year. They were reimposed on June 14
in Wroclaw. That was the day after street disturbances
in that city, Nowa Huta, and Gdansk to protest six
months of martial law in Poland.

Polish Television announces that police have detained
a group of people it describes as organizers of
Warsaw's clandestine Radio Solidarity. It does not
say how many people are involved but reports they
include announcer Irena Romaszewska, the wife of
Zbigniew Romaszewski, the Radio Solidarity organizer,
and a Belgian identified as Roger Noel. Noel is
alleged to have smuggled radio transmitting equipment
into Poland in a shipment of medical supplies.
Note: The arrests took place on Monday, July 5.
Polish Television gave the impression that the group
had not been the first to be detained since Radio
Solidarity went on the air in April, Its report said
"another group of organizers" of that radio had been
detained, although there have been no previously
published reports of such detentions.

July 8.	Novosti Press Agency publishes a booklet in several
languages setting forth the official Soviet point
of view on the reasons for the crisis in Poland.
Entitled "Who Pushed Poland to the Brink" and written
by a team of six authors, the booklet criticizes
the development of free labor unions in Poland and
offers a justification for the imposition of martial
law there. As a whole, the work is a compilation
of arguments repeatedly advanced by TASS and NPA since
the imposition of martial law. The theme of a conspiracy
of anticommunist forces against Poland runs through
the booklet. Mentioned as principals in the conspiracy
are the United States and "its allies," the CIA,
RFE-RL, the AFL-CIO, and the West German BND. These
organizations are alleged to have methodically

[page 111]

JULY 8 supported antisocialist groups in Poland for many
(Cont.) years, their ultimate goal being "to wrest the Polish
People's Republic from the socialist system, to
disrupt the political balance in Europe, and to create
a situation fraught with the danger of a third world
war." According to the booklet, this conspiracy
of antisocialist forces (which the authors refer to
as "the conspiracy of the doomed") has carried on
its activities ever since the founding of a Polish
People's Republic and has been most active during
periods of economic difficulty. A parallel is drawn
between the tactics of the antisocialist forces in
Poland and those in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia
in 1968.

JULY 9	Solidarity activists say they have suspended underground
radio broadcasts from Warsaw because of jamming by
the government, the arrest of their announcer, and
seizure of a transmitter. However, they say, illegal
broadcasts from Poznan and Gdansk will continue, and
leaflets will be distributed when the Warsaw programs
resume.

Underground Solidarity issues a document entitled
"Five Times Yes." It sets out the five principal
objectives of the union's activity under martial
law, expanding and updating the original ICC
declaration of 22 April 1982. These five objectives are:

1. The release of all interned union activists.
This point includes demands for an amnesty
for all those already sentenced for union
activities after December 13, as well as an
end to legal proceedings against all those
liable to prosecution in this connection.
It also demands satisfaction for these victims
of martial law: return to former or comparable
posts for all those dismissed from work and
compensation for psychological and material
damages suffered by union activists and their
families.

2. Restoration of the rights of trade unions and
their independence on the basis of the Constitution
of the PPR and the various unions' statutes.
Any negotiations should be conducted with the
unions' legally elected representatives.

3. Representation of the group interests of the
working people. Martial law has proved that
Solidarity remains the authentic representative
of the interests of the working people. Solidarity's
aim is neither to take over the government, nor
to be a political party, but simply to be an
independent and self-governing labor movement.
It is time to put a stop to mutual recriminations
and start afresh.

[page 112]

JULY 9 4. (Cont.)	The creation of a national agreement.
The principles on which such an agreement should
be based are: the creation of "mechanisms" capable
of solving conflicts between the economic and
social interests of Solidarity members and
their families, on the one hand, and the interests
of other groups and the national interest, on the
other, through negotiation, arbitration, and
cooperation on all levels (including the individual
enterprise, regional, and national levels)
in order to reduce the need for strikes to a
minimum.

5. Guarantees for the future. Solidarity would
support all those moves of the authorities that
are intended to uphold lawfulness and the creation
of a just and honest state administration. It
is also prepared to join any body serving as a
meeting point for ideas from official and social
circles, as long as its powers and modes of action
are clearly defined. Note: This document was
followed by a short memorandum dated 10 July 1982,
which said that the April 22 offer of a national
accord was still open and that the only conditions
for negotiations were the release of internees
and an amnesty for those detained or sentenced
for union activities. (Dated July 8, the statements
were published in the Mazowsze Weekly, dated
July 14 and made available to foreign reporters
on July 29).

The Polish news agency PAP announces a further series
of 11 prison sentences meted out to members of the
suspended Solidarity trade union for continuing
"illegal" activities such as union organizing and
disseminating leaflets on behalf of Solidarity.
Note: Hundreds of Solidarity union activists and
members have been sent to prison or given suspended
sentences for continuing union activities, which
are banned under martial law and subject to summary
procedure.

JULY 10 The Polish news media announce that Poland has
decided to raise the status of the Palestine
Liberation Organization's Permanent Mission in Warsaw
to diplomatic level. Newspapers publish a government
statement saying the decision reflects support for
the FLO and "faith in the victory of its just cause."
The statement repeats the government's condemnation
of the Isreali invasion of Lebanon.

[page 113]

JULY 11	Polish Television screens an expose of the clandestine
Radio Solidarity which broadcast in Warsaw during
May and June, saying that seven of its organizers
have been arrested and that it will not go on the air
again. A special 10-minute program screened after
the regular evening news shows a block of apartments
in central Warsaw and says the transmitter which made
the last broadcast on June 8 was hidden in the elevator
shaft. Note: The arrests were subsequently confirmed
in a four-minute Radip Solidarity broadcast saying that it would
suspend its operations for two months owing to its
"particular situation."

JULY 12	Archbishop Jozef Glemp, the Roman Catholic primate
of Poland, indicates that Pope John Paul II's
projected visit to Poland may not take place until
next year. "The Holy Father should come [to Poland].
He has been invited by the Church," Glemp says in an
interview broadcast by Italy's state-run television
network. "The Holy Father wants to be faithful to
his promise," he says. "It is only a question of dates.
The Jubilee Year will continue into next year and we
expect the Pope within that year." Note: The Jubilee
Year Glemp refers to is the 12 months of Church
celebrations marking the 6th centenary of the Black
Madonna of Czestochowa. Pope John Paul II has stated
repeatedly that he wants to go to his native Poland
on 26 August 1982, the starting date of the centenary
celebrations. But when Glemp reached Rome last Monday
he told reporters the Church in Poland "must still
negotiate some points" with the communist military
government.

JULY 13	The Polish soccer team, silver medalists of the World
Cup competition in Spain, returns to a triumphal
reception in Warsaw welcomed by a high-level party/
government delegation headed by Deputy Premier Mieczyslaw
Rakowski. Note: While Rakowski claims the team's
performance helped to unite its politically fragmented
country, there is evidence -- the elimination by
Poland of the Soviet team -- that such unity was
directed both against the Polish government and its
Soviet sponsor. Of the over 800 fans allowed out of the country
for the World Cup, more than half defected.

A leaflet released by underground Solidarity calls
for a suspension of strikes and demonstrations until
the end of July, partly to ease the way for a planned
visit by the Pope. The appeal, signed by fugitive
leaders of the suspended free trade union in Warsaw,
Gdansk, Cracow, and Wroclaw, says the gesture is also
designed to show the readiness of the underground
activists to reach an understanding with the country's
communist rulers. It says the signatories expect
a move of conciliation from the authorities to show
their willingness to engage in a dialogue, and this
should include release of political internees, and

[page 114]

JULY 13 (Cont.)	an amnesty for those punished under martial law rules
imposed last December 13, If no such response
were to come from the authorities, the underground
would be forced to resume its resistance, perhaps
by staging a general strike. The appeal, dated
June 26, is made available on the day marking the
start of the eighth month of martial law, an occasion
previously marked by demonstrations. The four
signatories of the appeal say the moratorium is also
designed to ease the way for a planned visit to Poland
next month by Pope John Paul II.

According to Solidarity sources, the government,
without making any official announcement, has released
some of the internees held since martial law was
imposed last December. The internees have been
released in a number of groups, seeming to confirm
recent rumors that up to 1,000 detained activists
would be freed before Poland's National Day, July 22.
Among those released was Maciek Kuron, the son of
leading interned dissident Jacek Kuron.

JULY 14	Radio Warsaw reports that the trial of the former
executives of the Polish Radio and Television Committee
will not resume until September 1 because of the illness
of one of the five defendants. That sick defendant
is Jerzy Hanbowski, whose condition, according to
doctors, will not allow him to leave the hospital for
several weeks. Hanbowski is also to undergo psychiatric
examination. Note: The trial opened in Warsaw at
the beginning of January and has been adjourned several
times. The five defendants are former Committee
Chairman Maciej Szczepanski and his four aides,
Eugeniusz Patyk, Jerzy Hanbowski, Zbigniew Liszyk,
and Jadwiga Talachowa. The charges against the main
defendant, Szczepanski, include appropriating public
property worth at least 3,750,000 zloty, accepting
bribes from foreign firms worth over 1,500,000
zloty, failing to meet his duties, and abusing his
authority.

In an interview with the weekly Polityka Minister
for Internal Affairs Czeslaw Kiszczak accuses the
suspended Solidarity organization of being "a
smoldering hotbed of civil war" and says that underground
activists must stop such activities or the police will
take action against them. Kiszczak also promises
that every internee at present in government detention
centers will be "released immediately" if he pledges
not to continue activities against the state. He
says many former internees have applied for passports
to leave the country, but very few have obtained visas
from Western embassies. Note: the interview appears
in the July 17 issue of Polityka, but in view of the
importance of the minister's pronouncements, PAP
quotes excerpts three days in advance of publication.

[page 115]

JULY 15	The communist party newspaper Trybuna Ludu says
there can be no agreement with the underground
Solidarity movement and says the latter's offer to
suspend antistate activity is linked to "threats."
The comments come as the party's 200-member Central
Committee begins a 2-day session to discuss
disenchantment among Polish youth. "There is no agreement and
there cannot be one with the enemies of socialism,"
the newspaper says and accuses Solidarity extremists
of having learned nothing from martial law and of still
desiring to gain power and overthrow socialism.

JULY 16	On the second and last day of the ninth PUWP CC
plenum, changes are announced in the party leadership,
the most far-reaching since the imposition of martial
law. They mainly involve the apparent demotions of
two of the most notable political figures in Poland
today, Stefan Olszowski and Hieronim Kubiak; the
strengthening of economic expertise at the top level
of the party through the spectacular promotion of
Manfred Gorywoda, a personal aide to General Jaruzelski,
and the elevation of Zycie Gospodarcze Editor-in-Chief
Jan Glowczyk; and the maintenance of the principle of
local representation in top party bodies by the
promotion of the recently appointed party leader from
Gdansk, Stanislaw Bejger, and the new Warsaw party
leader, Marian Wozniak (whose simultaneous departure
from the Secretariat appears routine in view of the
Warsaw appointment), and the catapulting into full
Politburo membership of the politically unknown
Stanislaw Kalkus, a foreman from the Cegielski plant
in Poznan.

JULY 19	The PAP news agency reports the government's decision
not to import any grain and fodder in 1982 due to a
shortage of hard currency. To meet domestic needs,
the authorities will have to buy around 5,000,000
tons from private farmers. Note: Despite a reasonable
grain harvest of about 21,000,000 tons, the farmers
have so far delivered only about 2,000,000 tons to
the state. The reason for their reluctance to do so
is the collapse of the market and thus the diminishing
value of money and also the peasants' realization that
the sale of scarce fodder would also, in the long
run, affect livestock production and thus result in
the collapse of the meat market, a yardstick of the
country's prosperity.

PAP reports that the Polish parliament's new
Social-Economic Council held Its first meeting in Warsaw today.
The agency quotes Sejm Marshal Stanislaw Gucwa as
saying at the meeting that the establishment of the
council is connected with sweeping social and economic
reforms now being carried out in Poland. PAP says 94
people have been nominated to the new council today.
They include workers and farmers, representatives of
science and technology, economists, and social activists.

[page 116]

JULY 20	Leaders of Poland's three political parties, the
Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP), the United
Peasants' Party (UPP), and the Democratic Party
(DP), meet in Warsaw to agree upon plans to set
up a Provisional Council of the Patriotic Movement
for National Rebirth, to be composed of "activists
who enjoy unquestionable social prestige." The
meeting, also attended by representatives of Christian
and lay Catholic organizations, adopts a declaration
which says that there is room in the new 
movement for those who have become passive during
"the recent difficult and dramatic period, who
combine in their hearts feelings of love for their
motherland with sentiments of grief and sorrow because
of what has proved bad, unjust, mean, and undignified"
in the life of Poles. The declaration also says "there
is room for all, except the opponents of socialism
and of a socialist renewal, except those who treat
the nation and the state, its independence and
security as a card in a political gamble that does
not serve Polish interests." The declaration calls
on all Poles to join in a "common march" toward
"surmounting the crisis." Note: The new movement,
the Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth (PRON --
Patriotyczny Ruch Odrodzenia Narodowego), is to be
built on the basis of the OKONs -- the Citizens'
Committees of National Rebirth.

JULY 21	In his long awaited address to the Polish Sejm, on
the eve of Poland's national liberation holiday --
the 38th anniversary of the proclamation of the
Polish People's Republic on 22 July 1944 -- Prime
Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski's speech does not come
up to more optimistic expectations voiced earlier)
but he does announce some limited steps in the direction
of reducing tension within the Polish body politic.
He does not, for example, mention any plans to amnesty
those convicted of martial law violations, although
he does say that most internees, including all women,
will be released. In addition, the Prime Minister
announces an easing of curbs on foreign travel,
telephones, and mail and says that the provincial
governors have been authorized to lift the suspension
from a "significant group of associations." An olive
branch of sorts is also extended to those Poles who
have illegally remained abroad since the proclamation
of martial law on December 13. Those who have not
"deliberately and actively" taken part in intestate
maneuvers can come home on the basis of their current
passports, he says, even if those documents have
expired. Martial law itself, Jaruzelski states, will
continue for the time being, because Poland is still
allegedly being attacked by forces of subversion and
counterrevolution that are supported by "certain
circles in the West who are applying unparalleled
sanctions against Poland.

[page 117]

JULY 21 (Cont.)	After a tug of war lasting many months between
the Vatican and Poland's military rulers on the
subject of Pope John Paul II's proposed visit next
month, it finally becomes clear that the pontiff's
second trip home -- originally planned for next
month, to coincide with the celebrations of the
600th anniversary of the installation of the icon of
Our Lady of Czestochowa at Jasna Gora Monastery on
August 26 -- will have to be postponed for several
months, possibly until next year. The announcement
comes in a sermon Poland's Primate, Archbishop
Jozef Glemp, who on July 5 went to Rome, gives at the
Polish chapel in the grotto of St. Peter's Basilica
there. Speaking at a Mass for Polish residents in
Rome, Archbishop Glemp states that, after having
weighed all the pros and cons, the Pope has decided
to put off his Polish visit until a later date but
still "within the framework of the Jubilee Year
connected with the Jasna Gora festivities," i.e.,
prior to September 1983. The reason for the
postponement is mainly linked to the present, "very difficult
and tense" situation in Poland, which is not deemed
propitious for such a momentous event as a papal visit."

Concurrently in Warsaw, Poland's party and government
head, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, takes up the same
subject in his speech to the Sejm. While publicly
extending his government's invitation to the Pope,
he makes it clear that the latter's visit cannot
take place this year for more than one reason.
Jaruzelski says that the visit "His Holiness, Pope
John Paul II wishes to make to Poland" had met from
the very beginning with what Jaruzelski claims is
a "positive attitude" on the part of his government,
which is well aware of the "momentous significance"
of the event. In order to provide the illustrious
guest with the reception he deserves, however, peace
and calm must reign in the country, and all "activities
threatening the security of the state" must cease.
This, in Jaruzelski's view, cannot be achieved before
the end of the year, the time for which the suspension
of martial law has been tentatively set. An important
role in bringing about the desired peace is expected
to be played by the Church, "in accordance with the
talks that are currently underway."

After the plenary debate, the Sejm adopts a resolution
in which it approves the government's assessment of
the situation in Poland after seven months of martial
law; "welcomes with satisfaction" the announcement
that there is a possibility for a speedy lifting of
martial law and the news that a large majority of
those who are still interned will be released;
expresses the conviction that the releases will be
viewed as an expression of the authorities' good will
and their desire to avoid the use of coercion and
repression "beyond what is absolutely necessary";

[page 118]

JULY 21 (Cont.)	stresses the importance of reactivating workers1
self-management; and, finally, welcomes with
satisfaction the joint declaration of the three
official political parties and the three proregime
Catholic lay associations concerning the setting up
of the new unity facade under the name of the
"Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth." It expresses
full support for the policies contained in the
declaration and supports the idea of creating an
interim council of the PMNR.

The last point of the day's proceedings involves
several changes in the Sejm Presidium and in the
government line-up. Traditionally, the Sejm
Presidium -- the speaker and his three deputies --
has been composed of representatives of the three
parties and one nonparty member, with the post of
speaker going to the United Peasant Party in formal
recognition of the "worker-peasant alliance" on
which the Polish system is supposed to be based.
The Presidium is now enlarged to make room for yet
another deputy speaker -- a representative of the
Catholic "lobby" -- an obvious attempt to add
credibility to the officially propagated policy of
"broadening the social base" of the system but also
as a reward to the proregime Catholics for their
loyalty. The new appointee is Jerzy Ozdowski, a
member of the Polish Catholic Social Union, who
simultaneously loses his government post as Deputy
Prime Minister. In this post, too, Ozdowski had.
been little more than a figurehead, with responsibility
for coordinating the distribution of charity,
strengthening the role of the family, and helping
wage the campaign against alcoholism.

Ozdowski's place on the Council of Ministers as the
token Catholic is now given to Zenon Komender,
chairman of the proregime Catholic Pax association.
He was recruited by the Jaruzelski team back in October
1981, when he was appointed Minister of Domestic
Trade and Services. He obviously won the trust of
Jaruzelski and his advisers, for after martial law
was declared he succeeded in ousting his more liberal
predecessor, Ryszard Reiff, as Pax chairman and in
imposing a promartial law orientation on the association,
which had undergone quite a substantial evolution
under the influence of the August 1980 movement.
The man who was demoted, after only four months
in office, to make room for Komender as Minister
of Domestic Trade and Services in October 1981.
Zygmunt Lakomiec, now returns to his former post.

The PUWP's Deputy Speaker Andrzej Werblan is
released from this post, apparently at his own
request submitted in writing. He is replaced by

[page 119]

JULY 21 (Cont.)	another PUWP member, Zbigniew Gertych, a
60-year-old horticulturalist and an economist who has
gained prominence, particularly since last January,
when he became Chairman of the Sejm Economy, Budget,
and Finance Committee.

Perhaps the most important change, and one that
has already been rumored ever since the reshuffle
of the party's central leadership at the end of
last week, concerns the appointment of Stefan Olszowski
as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Olszowski,
formerly the CC Secretary in charge of the media,
was properly acknowledged to be the leader of the
unofficial internal party opposition to Kania and
then Jaruzelski and is still a member of the
Politburo. He replaces Jozef Czyrek, who should
normally have automatically surrendered his ministerial
post one year ago when he became the CC Secretary
in charge of foreign affairs. One final appointment
is worth noting. In the wake of the recent CC
plenum on youth, which recommended the setting up
of a Youth Committee attached to the Council of
Ministers, the Sejm now approves the proposal and
Andrzej Ornat, the 36-year old head of the Polish
Scouts' Union since May 1980, is appointed secretary
of this new committee with the rank of Minister
without Portfolio, a measure of the importance the
authorities wish to attach to the question of youth.

Major Wieslaw Gornicki, spokesman for the Military
Council, announces that 1,227 people still held in
internment, including all women, will be freed --
913 unconditionally, with the remaining 314 placed
"on leave"; 637 are to remain in custody.

JULY 22	The Militia removes the flower cross in Victory
Square, which is replaced by the people of Warsaw
immediately after the official celebration of the
Polish Independence Day ends. Note: The cross,
also called the Wyszynski Cross, marks the place
where, beneath a large wooden cross, Pope John Paul II
held an open-air Mass in June 1979; almost exactly
two years later, another Mass was celebrated there --
the Requiem for the late Primate, Stefan Cardinal
Wyszynski. Cardinal Wyszynski's coffin rested
where the papal cross stood during the Pope's
homecoming. People remembered the spot and the
events there and tended to gather around it spontaneously
until it became a sort of national pilgrimage site.
The idea of marking the place in a special way
originated with the local parishioners. On 2 June
1980 a group of young people from nearby St. Ann's
Church decided to commemorate the first anniversary
of the papal Mass by laying out flowers and evergreens

[page 120]

JULY 22 (Cont.)	in the form of a cross and by singing prayers and
hymns. Nobody prevented them from doing so, but
during the following night the cross disappeared,
apparently dismantled on official orders. It was
rebuilt regularly until the following year.

In 1981 the anniversary coincided closely with the
primate's funeral (on May 31), so the parishioners
decided that a new floral cross should be laid
out to commemorate both occasions and should remain
in place for the whole month of Church mourning.
Scores of Warsaw residents joined them, along with
visitors from other parts of the country, continually
supplying fresh flowers and pictures of the two great
Church leaders, and joining in the chants. Even after
the period of mourning ended, the cross remained
as a memento and soon became a familiar, colorful
Warsaw landmark. The Varsovians pledged to
maintain it there until a more permanent monument
to the primate could be erected.

JULY 23 Poland's official press unleashes one of its
sharpest attacks to date on US President Ronald
Reagan, whom it accuses of pursuing a diplomacy of
unprecedented aggressiveness, recklessness, and hatred.
The communist daily Trybuna Ludu says "Mr. Reagan
represents the most reckless and aggressive tendency
of the entire post-World-War-II period." The attack
comes in response to Reagan's "Captive Nations
Week" speech last Monday which Trybuna Ludu calls
"a cesspool of invective, insult, and insinuation."
The hard-line army daily Zolnierz Wolnosci also
lashes out against the US President for referring
to communism as an ideology that "wishes to destroy
all that is good in human nature."

International telephone communications placed through
operators are restored. The move to ease martial
law restrictions also includes the acceptance of
cables for recipients at home and abroad from all
senders, including cables transmitted by phone, and
the reopening of the international telex service,
handled by operators to subscribers with telex stations
and telex services. Telex and cable messages can
be sent in Polish, Russian, English, French, and
German.

JULY 26	Anna Walentynowicz, believed to be the most
prominent Solidarity union activist so far released
under martial law, says the relaxation of martial

[page 121]

JULY 26 (Cont.)	law announced last weak is a "step forward" toward
national agreement. But, she says in a telephone
Interview from her Gdansk home, no agreement between
the military rulers and the masses will be possible
unless all interned union activists are released
from prison. "I think General Wojciech Jaruzelski
took a step forward in order to reach the agreement
which he mentions in all his speeches,"
Mrs. Walentynowicz says. "But no agreement is
possible while even one Solidarity member is under
arrest or is serving a sentence," she says.
"I think that those people who were released should
think about how they can help free others still
imprisoned." Note: Mrs. Walentynowicz, a crane
driver in her 50s, was one of the leaders of the
August 1980 shipyard strike in Gdansk. A long-time
activist in the dissident free trade unions, it was
her dismissal from the Lenin Shipyards that served as
the ultimate spark that triggered the strike that
snowballed into Solidarity. On her release from
internment, she went to the shipyards to get her old
job back but did not succeed in her effort.

Police find an illegal radio transmitting station
in the western city of Wroclaw that broadcasts
programs supporting the suspended Solidarity trade
union, according to the official PAP news agency.
The agency does not say whether anyone was detained
when the clandestine radio station was found in an
apartment building late last night. The radio
transmitted programs of what is called "militant Solidarity,"
which PAP says "represents the most extreme wing of
underground Solidarity." The radio apparently urged
confrontation with the authorities and ruled out
a national agreement. Note: Earlier in July police
arrested seven people running' a Radio Solidarity
station in Warsaw and announced on television that
they had eliminated the station. Two days later it
broadcast again to tell listeners it was suspending
transmissions for two months.

The Main Statistical Office's (GUS) semiannual
report indicates a further precipitous decline in
the Polish economy. The data provided do not give
much cause for optimism, particularly since the
few positive signs (e.g., increases in coal
production) do not seem to have contributed to efforts
to achieve short-term stabilization. Well in line
with long established practice, the report attempts,
with one notable exception, to obfuscate the country's
real economic state, an effort in which it succeeds.
According to the data provided, overall industrial
production (in fixed prices) is 7.8% lower than
during the same period last year. In the individual

[page 122]

JULY 26 (Cont.)	sectors of the economy the situation is even worse.
While gross production is down 16.9% in the
construction sector, housing, a sensitive economic
index in Poland, is down 32,4% from the corresponding
period of last year. Agricultural results do not
seem to vary substantially with the stagnation
indicating a lack of incentive, a shortage of inputs,
and a tendency to limit production or to hold back
produce because of the weakness of the zloty and the
desolation of the consumer market. Particularly
affected is foreign trade. Exports, valued at
425,000 million zloty, are 0,9% higher than in the
corresponding period last year, while imports,
totaling 370,000 million zloty in value, are 20.9%
lower. It is unclear how the sharp devaluation of
the zloty against both the West and the CMEA countries
has been factored into these data. The report does
note, however, that, in fixed prices, exports are
2.4% lower and imports 261 down.

JULY 27	Former Polish Building Industry Minister Adam
Glazur faces the Warsaw District Court on corruption
charges but pleads innocent to accusations of
swindling, theft, and bribery. The Polish news
agency PAP lists the charges against Glazur as:
theft of building materials and illicitly hiring
workmen to build a summer house near Warsaw, thus
costing the country 2,700,000 zloty; lavishing
illicit gifts on private persons; and swindling 2
engraved ivory tusks from two Nigerian businessmen.
PAP reports Glazur said he had contracted for the
materials and workmen "in accordance with the law
and had paid for all the items in question." Note:
Glazur is one of several officials to be charged
with corruption. There has been no verdict yet
in the corruption trial of former Polish Radio and
Television chief Maciej Szczepanski, which has been
going on for more than half a year.

JULY 28	Underground Solidarity's Interim Coordinating
Commission (ICC) issues six statements, marking
the beginning of a new phase in the union's struggle
for the lifting of martial law (see forthcoming documents section).
Intended as an answer to General Wojciech Jaruzelski's
speech in the Sejm on July 21, the statement rejects
the relaxation of martial law announced by Jaruzelski
as a meaningless gesture and as further evidence
that the authorities do not want to cooperate with
Polish society. Note: On June 26, in a gesture of
good will intended to give the authorities some
breathing space and to enable them to prove their
good intentions, the ICC ordered a moratorium on
protest actions until the end of July. This appeal
stated that the strikes and the street demonstrations
to date had served their purpose in that they had
shown the authorities that repression was ineffective,
that the people had refused to be cowed,

[page 123]

JULY 28 (Cont.)	and that Solidarity was gaining in strength and
becoming increasingly well-organized. The people
were now more confident of their rights and real
powers, and the ICC believed that the new political
situation required a show of unity in discipline,
organizational efficiency, and immunity from
provocation. It called upon the authorities to
respond to the strike moratorium by proclaiming
an amnesty as the first step to the renewal of
a dialogue. At the same time, it warned that
rejection of its offer would force the union to
resort to new methods to exert pressure, up to and
including a general strike. The five signatories
were reported to be Zbigniew Bujak, former head of
Solidarity's Warsaw chapter; Wladyslaw Frasyniuk,
from Wroclaw; Wladyslaw Hardek, from Cracow; Bogan
Lis, Solidarity National Commission member and
former deputy chairman of the union's Gdansk chapter;
and Eugeniusz Szumiejko, also from Gdansk and also
a National Commission member.

JULY 29	Police and military roadblocks along most major
Polish highways have been removed in the wake of
last week's relaxation of martial law, according
to travelers' reports. Travelers returning to
Warsaw from the Baltic port city of Gdansk report
that there are no roadblocks along the entire
340-kilometer-long E-81 highway. Similar reports
come from people who have traveled the high-speed
four-lane highway south of Warsaw to Katowice,
Poland's coal, iron, and steel center. Other travelers
also report that most roadblocks have disappeared
along the western highway through Poznan to the
East German border. Note: The roadblocks, which
often included red-and-white painted barriers and
caused long delays for some travelers whose documents
were checked by police, appeared shortly after
martial law began last December 13.

JULY 31	On the eve of the 38th anniversary of the Warsaw
Uprising, many Varsovians gather around the cross
in Victory Square, laying flowers and singing
patriotic songs. Note: the official celebration,
which is held in rather low key, takes place in
the Polish Theater.

AUGUST 1	Sol darity issues a new call to resist martial law,
and thousands of Poles flash victory signs and
chant "free Lech" (Walesa) at graveside ceremonies
marking the 38th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising.

A recorded appeal by fugitive Solidarity leader
Zbigniew Bujak is broadcast from atop a monument
to veterans of the Home Army who launched the
city's uprising against Nazi occupiers on 1 August 1944.

[page 124]

AUGUST 1 (Cont.)	"We shall fight for the rights of Solidarity,"
Bujak says. "We shall fight for the revival of
independent unions. We shall fight for the release
of our colleagues." The message is repeated three
times. Note: Warsaw's Powazki Cemetery, where the
broadcast took place, is a site of confusion as
military bands play at official ceremonies a few
meters from a chanting and singing crowd commemorating
the deaths of Polish officers in the Katyn Forest
massacre during World War II. In the center of
town, hundreds of people keep up a continuous vigil,
singing hymns and raising their hands in the victory
sign around the 40-foot floral cross honoring the
late Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski laid out on the pavement
in Victory Square.

AUGUST 3	The communist party newspaper Trybuna Ludu comes
out openly in favor of scrapping all the suspended
trade unions, including Solidarity, The paper's
commentary is the first official statement of the
authorities regarding Solidarity and the opposition
movement since underground leaders recently opened
a new campaign of resistance. The paper accuses
"Solidarity extremists," backed by Western broadcasting
stations transmitting in Polish, of "outlining plans
for a confrontation." "Although these are but dreams,
this type of action continues to create a situation
endangering public order," it adds.

AUGUST 5	The PAP news agency reports that one of the variations
in the three-year economic plan presented to the Sejm
calls for a possible end to free Saturdays. Note:
This merely formalizes a fait accompli. The declaration
of martial law itself restored the six-day workweek
in the country's key industries, which were militarized
and the workers put under the jurisdiction of the
military commissars. In any case, the six-day work-
week was often to include Sunday as well. The
six-day workweek, which in practical terms means Saturday
work, was a major issue, fiercely discussed
between Solidarity and the government in the winter
of 1980-1981. (see "Poland: A Chronology of Events
November 1980-February 1981, RAD Background Report/263
[Poland], Radio Free Europe Research, 11 September 1981),

AUGUST 6	Thousands of Polish pilgrims leave Warsaw on the
annual pilgrimage to Czestochowa, keeping up a religious.
traditions dating back nearly 300 years. Walking
behind banners and chanting prayers in the sweltering
heat, priests and nuns mingle with the young and the
old for the 277 km walk which one describes as a
supreme religious experience. Note: This year the
event is overshadowed by the postponement of a planned
visit to Czestochowa by Polish-born Pope John Paul II.
The Pope planned to come in August for celebrations

[page 125]

AUGUST 6 (Cont.)	marking the 600th anniversary of the Black Madonna
icon, a national religious symbol kept in the Jasna
Gora Monastery in Czestochowa. The military
authorities said, however, that his visit could not
take place until next year, because conditions were
not right for it.

AUGUST 10 The Mayor of Warsaw, General Mieozyslaw Debicki,
lifts the ban on the activity of three national
societies; the Polish Sociological, Philosophical,
and Historical Societies.

The PAP news agency reports that the trial of eight
people, including a Roman Catholic priest, Sylwester
Zych, charged with setting up an armed underground
group responsible for shooting a policeman, Sergeant
Zdzislaw Karos on February 18, will begin on August 23.
PAP says that these people are accused of establishing
a conspiratorial group, which started by distributing
leaflets in January, then began stealing weapons from
policemen. Members of the group made two successful
attempts to steal guns from policemen without injuring
anyone, but on the third occasion they shot a
policeman on a Warsaw tram, who later died of his injuries.
Two weeks after the February 18 killing, the eight
were rounded up. The priest was accused of hiding
weapons for the group on Church property in the town
of Grodzisk Mazowiecki, southwest of Warsaw.

Some 1,000 people stage a demonstration in support
of the suspended Solidarity union at the funeral
of the son and daughter-in-law of Marian Jurczyk,
Solidarity leader in the northwestern port of
Szczecin, Jurczyk was permitted to attend the funeral.
Note: According to the official local newspaper
Glos Szczeclnski, Jurczyk's daughter-in-law, Dorota,
died in the hospital August 5 after falling from a
window of her fourth floor apartment. Her husband,
Jurczyk's son Adam, hurled himself to his death
from a friend's fifth floor apartment later that
same day. Glos Szczecinski (of 11 August 1982) says
that well over 1,000 people gathered for the funeral
ceremony, then about 700 people dropped out and
headed for the center of the city shouting intestate
slogans, "Because of the increasing aggressiveness
of a group of about 1,000 people, the decision to
use the security forces was taken." A later issue
of Glos Szczecinski (16 September 1982), giving
a full description and background (albeit tendentious)
of the event, says that the funeral was attended by
"some 2,000 to 3,000 people."

The Polish authorities unleash a new onslaught against
the opposition in an attempt to forestall
demonstrations marking eight months of martial law and the
second anniversary of the mass strikes which led
to the formation of Solidarity.
[page 126]

AUGUST 10 (Cont.)	Official newspapers and the Polish radio network
blast underground activists, warning them that
protests will not change government policy. "These
forces want to use existing difficulties and various
anniversaries to sow unrest and danger for the
national and state existence," says an article in
the armed forces newspaper Zolnierz Wolnosci.
The official communist party newspaper. Trybuna
Ludu, says "nothing can be achieved through adventurism,
through negation, through the insane fanning of
passions and hatred. And this is what the opposition
is offering us today."

AUGUST 11 Speaking to student activists of the Marie
Curie-Sklodowska University (Lublin) gathered at a summer camp
in Firlej (Lublin Voivoidship), Deputy Prime
Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski is quoted (by Radio
Warsaw) as saying "there is a need for prompt
reactivation of workers self-management in Polish
factories," However, Rakowski points out, there
are three obstacles to this: there is a reluctance
on the part of some administrators to give up part
of their powers, the level of activity of factory
communist party organizations is too low, and present
economic conditions "require iron discipline in
enterprises."

AUGUST 12	The PAP news agency reports that a number of people
released from internment last month have been
reinterned because those concerned had resumed
activities described as incompatible with state
security.

AUGUST 13	Adam Wazyk dies at the age of 75. An outstanding,
but controversial literary figure, Wazyk left a
lasting mark on Polish literature as a poet, a writer,
and a translator. For all his abundant and diverse
output -- he made his literary debut in 1922 and
kept writing for nearly six decades -- Wazyk is
likely to go down in Polish history as the author
of one specific piece of poetry, his famous "A Poem
for Adults" that sparked the literary revolt of the
mid-1950s. Before becoming a beacon of cultural
freedom, however, he had for quite some time been
a staunch Communist of the orthodox Moscow persuasion
and a committed proponent of socialist realism, and
thus, partly responsible for the damage done to Polish
literature during the Stalinist period.

Warsaw's underground leaders, headed by Solidarity's
chief in the region, Zbigniew Bujak, call for a
campaign of leaflets, posters, and the daubing of
slogans during the second half of August to prepare
the way for a peaceful demonstration by all Solidarity
members on August 31. The demonstration is to start
at 1600 hours and is to last for 2 hours, the
Solidarity bulletin says, and afterwards Mass will be

[page 127]

AUGUST 13 (Cont.)	celebrated in several churches "for the fatherland
(Cont.) and for Solidarity." Note: August 31 marks the
second anniversary of the signing of the Gdansk Shipyard
Agreement, which opened the way for independent trade
unions.

In Gdansk riot police fire tear gas and use water
cannon to break up a demonstration by some 10,000
supporters of Poland's suspended Solidarity trade
union. Witnesses say police wielding batons charged
at the demonstrators after they marched through
the old Baltic city toward the regional headquarters
of the communist party. When they were within 150
meters (164 yards) of the building, the police launched
a barrage of tear gas, opened up with water cannon,
and shot flares over the crowd. The demonstrators,
who had been chanting pro-Solidarity slogans and
making the V for Victory sign at the police,
retreated down the alleys of the old town in the
face of the police onslaught.

In Warsaw, a crowd is chased from Victory Square,
where police remove a wreath emblazoned with the
words "To Workers Murdered by the People's Power."
"There was some clubbing of people, but not much,"
a witness says. At least two dozen people are
arrested and there is at least one incident of
youths chanting "Gestapo, Gestapo" while hurling
rocks at police.

In Nowa Huta, a huge industrial suburb of Cracow,
riot police backed by armored personnel carriers,
launch tear gas and water cannon attacks to disperse
about 2,000 people marching through the city chanting
Solidarity slogans, flashing the V for victory sign,
and carrying a huge Solidarity banner.

AUGUST 15	Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, speaks
to an estimated 300,000 pilgrims at the Jasna Gora
Monastery in Czestochowa. The sermon, which begins
celebrations marking the 600th anniversary of the
Black Madonna, Poland's holiest shrine, makes no
mention of the recent clashes and no direct reference
to Solidarity itself. In fact, unlike many statements
issued by the Polish Episcopate since the imposition
of martial law on 13 December 1981, there are no
demands for the release of internees, for the amnesty
of martial law violators, or for the restoration of
Poland's only independent workers' movement. There
are, instead, long passages devoted to the issue
of a peasant's union and the need for a general
improvement in rural life.

Guards use truncheons to quell a disturbance by
interned members of Poland's suspended Solidarity
union at a detention camp at the northern town of
Kwidzyn. The internees are alleged to have surged

[page 128]

AUGUST 15(Cont.)	toward the fence when visitors arrived at the
camp. Reports circulating among Solidarity
supporters say 60 internees were beaten in the
incident, and some had to be treated in the hospital.
Note: The internees demonstrated because their
visitors were refused entry. An internee had
escaped during visiting hours the previous week.
AUGUST 16 Polish leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski goes
to the Crimea for "a short, working visit" with
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. Jaruzelski's visit
is the third in this year's series of visits with
Brezhnev in the Crimea by his East European
counterparts. Gustav Husak and Erich Honecker, the leaders
of the ruling parties of Czechoslovakia and East
Germany, respectively, preceded Jaruzelski in
making the customary summer pilgrimage to the Soviet
leader's vacation retreat on the Black Sea. Note:
Symbolic of the continuing Polish crisis is the
fact that Jaruzelski is the third Polish party leader
to head a delegation to the Crimea in as many years:
in 1980 it was Edward Gierek and in 1981 Stanislaw
Kania.

Police cordon off the area around the entrance to
the Gdansk shipyard as Poles mark the anniversary
of strikes there which led to the formation of
the Solidarity free trade union two years ago*
Police patrols are posted at the square in front
of the gates to prevent people from approaching the
yards or the nearby monument of three crosses, where
flowers are usually laid by Solidarity supporters.

AUGUST 17	Party and government chief General Wojciech Jaruzelski
returns to Poland after a 24-hour trip to the Soviet
Union to report to President Leonid Brezhnev on the
situation in the country. According to a TASS news
agency summary of his talks in the Crimea, Jaruzelski
told the Soviet leadership that a "counterrevolutionary
underground" is preventing Poland's recovery from
its crisis. He was clearly referring to calls by
clandestine members of the suspended Solidarity trade
union for a two-week protest campaign which has
produced a big show of force by Polish riot police in
the last few days.

Solidarity supporters string up two red and white
banners and send down showers of leaflets calling
for mass demonstrations over a busy downtown
intersection in Warsaw. The seven-meter-long banners
bear the Solidarity logo and the slogans: "Free the
Internees, "Amnesty for Those Sentenced," and "We
Demand Agreement." In addition, a white,
Helium-filled balloon bearing another Solidarity banner
floats high above one of the buildings involved,

[page 129]

AUGUST 17 (Cont.)	attached by a string. The banners are removed
by the police within 15 minutes. Also in Warsaw,
on the night of August 17, youthful demonstrators
shout insults at Polish government officials gathered
at a diplomatic reception in a downtown hotel. The
demonstrators, who also chant expressions of
support for Solidarity and its leader, Lech Walesa,
are dispersed by a truncheon-swinging, water-spraying
squad of ZOMO riot police.

AUGUST 18	The Polish Scouts' Union's (PSU) Supreme Council,
elects a new chief scout, 36-year-old Ryszard Wosinski.
In the voting, which is conducted by secret ballot,
Wosinski receives 44 of the 78 votes cast; his rival
Piotr Grzazek, also a deputy chief scout, receives
32 votes. Since the total number of the Supreme
Council members is 96, Wosinski receives the support
of less than 50% of the Supreme Council. Note: The
election was necessitated by the recent promotion
of the previous chief scout, Andrzej Ornat, to the
post of Secretary of the Council of Ministers' Youth
Committee.

AUGUST 19	Zdzislaw Krasinski, head of the Office for Prices,
tells a news conference in Warsaw that the cost of
living has increased by 25% "in. the last few months."

On the pretext of the need to modernize heating
facilities, Warsaw's Victory Square is blocked off,
preventing access to Wyszynski's cross of flowers.
Note: On the same day, a new location for the cross
is found: under the Zygmunt Column in Castle Square.

AUGUST 20	The Soviet TASS News Agency renews its criticism
of the Polish Catholic Church with an attack on
the conduct of this year's Czestochowa pilgrimage.
A report carried by TASS says the "so-called
pilgrimage to Czestochowa," to use the agency's
words, was turned into a political demonstration,
with the ranks of the procession carrying
antigovernment banners of a counterrevolutionary content.

Polish authorities appear to be intensifying their
campaign against the suspended Solidarity union
in advance of the second anniversary of its foundation.
Polish Television airs several programs highly
critical of the union and deploring recent street
protests that have been quelled by riot police.
Film of last week's water cannon assaults on people
gathered around a floral cross in central Warsaw's
Victory Square are shown for the first time.
Furthermore, while the Politburo, in a communiqué, reminds
people that unrest will only prolong martial law,
the official PAP news agency issues a commentary
criticizing the 31 August 1980 agreements as "a fruit
of the time -- edited in haste, under pressure, in
an atmosphere of bargaining in which recognition of
reality failed the signatories." It says demands in

[page 130]

AUGUST 20 (Cont.)	the agreements -- free Saturdays, higher wages, and
other demands -- were unrealistic and were responsible
for Poland's rapid economic decline.

The Polish authorities suspend the accreditation of
Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times reporter
John Darnton for three days in protest over a story
Darnton filed earlier in the week. Darnton says
he was called to the Foreign Ministry where his
official press card was confiscated and he was
told he was banned from filing any material for
three days. Darnton says a Foreign Ministry official
told him the authorities had "taken objection to"
a story he wrote describing a riot in an internment
center near Gdansk in which, according to his sources,
riot police used clubs and water cannon to subdue
internees, beating 60 people and sending 6 to the
hospital. Note: The incident took place at Kwidzyn
(see entry for August 15). The authorities have
admitted that some sort of incident did occur at the
detention center but deny that riot police or water
cannon were used and that anyone was severely injured.

AUGUST 21	Interviewed in Zycie Warszawy Deputy Prime Minister
Mieczyslaw Rakowski maintains that the Solidarity
union's underground "has no future in Poland" and
rejects suggestions that the underground activists
can be treated as partners.

Riot police threatening to use water cannon disperse
several hundred people who gather peacefully in
Castle Square in Warsaw. The protesters gather at
a 20-foot floral cross laid out earlier in the
evening. They are just a few blocks from Victory
Square, which used to be the main gathering place
for protest before the authorities sealed it off
to the public with a six-foot-high wooden fence.
When riot police position some dozen vehicles and
a water cannon at Castle Square, the crowd breaks
up; but some 300 Poles still sing religious songs
and hymns at a second floral cross laid out outside
St. Ann's Church nearby. Another 1,000 people watch
the scene from sidewalks. Police check the documents
of some passers-by, but there are no incidents and
no reports of arrests or detentions.

AUGUST 23	The PAP news agency reports that diplomats from four
Western embassies in Warsaw, the US, West German,
French, and British, nave been summoned to the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs to be told that radio broadcasts
from their countries "are a brutal interference in Poland's
internal affairs." The ministry demands an end to this kind
of activity "and reserves the right to take appropriate measures."

The trial of eight defendants, charged with
participating in an illegal armed association allegedly called
The Armed Forces of Underground Poland, opens before
the Warsaw Military Court. Note: the group, from

[page 131]

AUGUST 23 (Cont.)	Grodzisk Mazowiecki, is also involved in the February
shooting of police Sergeant Zdzislaw Karos, who died
later (on February 23) of his injuries (see entries
for February 18 and August 10).

AUGUST 24 The Authorities briefly free interned Solidarity
adviser and dissident Adam Michnik to attend the
funeral of his father, Ozjasz Szechter, who died on
August 20. About 500 people, many of them activists
of the now suspended independent union, sing the
national anthem and "God Who Watches over Poland,"
a religious hymn, as Michnik's father's coffin is
lowered into his grave at Powazki Cemetery. Michnik,
a historian and former leader of the dissident
group KOR that helped launch Solidarity during the
Gdansk shipyard strike two years ago, flashes a
V for victory sign at the end of the ceremony,
drawing an immediate response of more "V" signs from
the crowd. After chatting briefly with friends and
colleagues, Michnik, who has grown a mustache during
his confinement, turns and says: "Thank you for
your friendship and solidarity." Then he is whisked
back to Bialoleka Prison.

On the second day of the trial of the eight-man group
from Grodzisk Mazowiecki accused of illegal armed
activities, the main defendant, Robert Chechlacz,
pleads guilty to having killed a policeman, Zdzislaw
Karos, while trying to steal his gun.

AUGUST 25	Poland keeps up its attack on Western radio stations
beaming Polish-language services into Poland, saying
they seek to foment disturbances and even civil war.
The communist party daily, Trybuna Ludu, says 40%
of the output of the American, British, West German,
and French stations is explicitly subversive and
the rest plays an important role in plans to destabilize
the country.

AUGUST 26	Speaking before a large crowd of pilgrims gathered
for ceremonies marking the 600th anniversary of the
Black Madonna in Jasna Gora Monastery, at Czestochowa,
Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, delivers
one of his toughest sermons in months, appealing for
the release of Lech Walesa, while nevertheless calling
on Poles not to take their grievances onto the streets.
Note: Archbishop Glemp was speaking five days before
planned demonstrations in all major cities called
by underground Solidarity leaders to express the
continued strength of the movement two years after
it was formed and more than eight months after its
suspension. The sermon was very likely at least a
partial response to the speech made the previous
night by Interior Affairs Minister Czeslaw Kiszczak,
who warned of possible bloodshed at the demonstrations,
saying that the security forces would use all means
available within the law to prevent them.

[page 132]

AUGUST 26 (Cont.)	With the approach of the second anniversary of the
signing of the Gdansk and Szczecin Agreements, the
crescendo of the official campaign against Solidarity
intensifies as Politburo member Kazimierz Barcikowski,
who negotiated and signed the agreement with striking
workers in the Baltic port of Szczecin two years
ago, tells a meeting at Szczecin Warski Shipyard
that the Solidarity underground is plotting an
uprising to overthrow the state. "The plans of
the extremists are the following," he tells party
members at the shipyard, scene of the Szczecin strike
in August 1980; "public gatherings, a general strike,
and, if necessary, an uprising aimed at overthrowing
the social system." He says, "I accuse Solidarity
leaders of political stupidity, leading to crimes
against the state and the nation."

AUGUST 27	In a lengthy statement published in the clandestine
Tygodnik Mazowsze, Zbigniew Bujak, Mazowsze Region
Solidarity leader, now underground, calls for mass,
peaceful rallies and demonstrations on August 31
to mark the second anniversary of the agreement
between the striking workers in Gdansk (and Szczecin)
and the government.

The army newspaper, Zolnierz Wolnosci, reports that
joint Polish-Soviet army exercises were held
yesterday in northeast Poland. The paper says the
exercises involved paratroops, helicopters, and
Soviet tanks, and were watched by General Florian
Siwicki, Army Chief of Staff and a member of Poland's
Military Council for National Salvation.

AUGUST 29	Speaking at a commissioning parade for army officers
in Poznan (western Poland), General Wojciech
Jaruselski appeals to people to stay away from the
opposition demonstrations planned for August 31
and says no violation of martial law will be tolerated.
His speech contrasts in its mildness with earlier
grave warnings by other government leaders that the
demonstrations could be a prelude to a general
strike and an armed uprising.

AUGUST 30	On the eve of the feared clashes with pro-Solidarity
demonstrators, the military authorities deploy water
cannon, armored personnel carriers, and hundreds of
helmeted riot police in strategic areas of Warsaw.
At the same time, officials bluntly warn that riot
police, backed by army units, will use force if
necessary against any protest. "The martial law
decree makes the forces of law and order absolutely
responsible for ensuring public order," a statement
by the official PAP news agency says, adding that
"in order to fulfill this duty, the agencies of law
and order may use means of direct compulsion and
in special cases they can be aided by units of the
armed forces."

[page 133]

AUGUST 31	The second anniversary of the Gdansk Agreement,
signed by representatives of the authorities and
the workers on 31 August 1980, is marked by widespread
public agitation, numerous clashes between the
police and the population, and general turmoil
throughout the country. According to official
reports, 54 localities in 39 voivodships are
directly affected by the unrest. There are violent
confrontations between the demonstrators and the
police in several cities; on at least two occasions
the police use firearms to subdue the protests
(Lubin and Wroclaw). Seven people are killed during
the demonstrations (or die as result of their
injuries) and many hundreds are seriously hurt.
Thousands are detained and many sentenced to prison
in summary proceedings. Demonstrations take place
not only in the major industrial centers (Warsaw,
Gdansk, Cracow, and Wroclaw), but also in smaller
provincial cities (Rzeszow, Przemysl, Czestochowa),
and even little towns such as Lubin in southwestern
Poland, which accounts for three of the dead:
Andrzej Trajkowski and Mieczyslaw Pozniak, both
killed during the demonstration, and Michal Adamowicz,
who dies on September 5, as a result of the injuries
he Suffered. The other dead, according to Solidarity
sources, are Kazimierz Michalczyk (Wroclaw), Piotr
Sadowski (Gdansk), Mieczyslaw Joniec (Nowa Huta),
and Jacek Osmanski (Torun). Note: The treatment of
the demonstrators clearly shows that the authorities
are both ready and able to act ruthlessly to crush
any public violation of martial law. It is also now
feared, as Zbigniew Bujak said in his appeal for the
demonstrations, that if Solidarity makes its presence
felt, as in the eyes of the military it perhaps has,
the authorities will feel strong enough to harden
the suspension of Solidarity into an eventual outright
ban.

The security police arrest Zbigniew Romaszewski,
moving spirit of the clandestine Radio Solidarity
network. Romaszewski is caught in Warsaw, together
with Andrzej Machalski, who runs a private business.
Documents purportedly leading the authorities to
suspect that they are engaged in "criminal activities
directed against the legal order of the state" are
found upon them. Both men are now being held in
custody, and the case is under investigation. Note:
Romaszewski, a 42 year-old physicist formerly
employed at the Polish Academy of Sciences, has
been actively involved in democratic opposition since
June 1976, when a small group of intellectuals began
to organize help for those workers who had been
victimized by the authorities after the food price
riots at Ursus and in Radom, although he
did not immediately join the Workers' Defense
Committee "KOR" founded for this purpose. Romaszewski

[page 134]

AUGUST 31 (Cont.)	and his wife Irena, also a physicist, always acted
as an inseparable team. They reached many of the
2,000 Radom victims and organized medical, financial,
and legal aid for them. Irena Romaszewska was
arrested on July 5, though this was not announced until
two days later (see entry for July 7).

Accordinq to Western banking sources, most of Poland's 500
Western bank creditors have agreed to put the deadline for
for rescheduling Poland's 1982 debts back for two
months. Note: The Western banks and Poland set
September 10 as the final date for reaching an agreement
to defer payment of the debts clue this year, but both
sides realized in the past few weeks that that
deadline could not be met. After the deadline, which now
becomes November 10, creditors can theoretically
call in the loans, an act that could, in turn,
trigger defaults on all of Poland's $27,000 million
of outstanding debt to the West.

SEPTEMBER 1	New street riots erupt in Lubin (southwestern Poland)
24 hours after violent demonstrations there in which
3 people lost their lives. PAP says two groups of
"several hundred people" gathered by the city's
post office and hospital and then began marching on
local communist party headquarters, building barricades,
and fighting with police late into the night.

The PAP news agency says that during the August 31
demonstration, police detained 4,050 people nationwide,
with 589 people detained in Warsaw, 645 in Wroclaw,
201 in Szczecin, and 120 in Gorzow Wielkopolski.
The Military Council of National Salvation dismisses
the demonstrations as "irresponsible occurrences and
adventures" and says that they were "limited in both
territorial and social terms." At the same time,
noting that "they (the demonstrations) should not be
disregarded," the council blames their outbreak on
"internal and external agitators." These, the
council says, include foreign broadcasting institutions,
particularly Radio Free Europe, which, "in a
gangster-like fashion, incites antisocialist activities and
then publicizes tendentious and false information
about them." They also include "extremist activists
and ideologists of the antisocialist opposition,
especially KSS "KOR." The Military Council of
National Salvation formally charges the Committee for
Social Self-Defense "KOR," a dissident group particularly
active in organizing opposition against party and
government policies between 1976 and 28 September 1981,
when it was dissolved, with responsibility for "the
organization and leadership" of public unrest in
the country. The council calls upon the government
to "speed up the completion of the investigatory
proceedings against the leaders of KSS "KOR," so
they can be indicted for crimes committed against
the state and society."

[page 135]

SEPTEMBER 1 (Cont.)	Wladyslaw Gomulka, Poland's communist party leader
from 1943 to 1948 and again from 1956 to 1970,
dies in Warsaw at the age of 77, reportedly of
throat cancer, nearly 12 years after the workers'
upheavel of Poland's Baltic Coast that brought
about his downfall in December 1970. He spent the
rest of his life in almost complete political
oblivion in the Warsaw suburb of Konstancin,
reportedly working on his memoirs. The news of
Gomulka's death is given great play in the media,
with large front-page portraits in the papers,
accompanied by elaborate eulogies. The party
Politburo, convened on the following day, pays
spectacular tribute to Gomulka's memory and sets
the date for his funeral, which is to take place on
September 6 in the Alley of Honor of the historical
Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw. It also announces the
formation of an honorary committee in charge of the
ceremonies, including such top state and party
officials as General Wojciech Jaruzelski, and State
Council Chairman Henryk Jablonski.

The new school year opens under martial law conditions
(in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools).
Closely following the widespread demonstrations marking
the second anniversary of the 31 August 1980 Gdansk
Agreement, the customary inaugural ceremonies in
schools are held in an exceedingly low-key manner:
pupils are to refrain from taking part in street
demonstrations and are warned of the grave consequences
involved. As a result of the verification campaign
carried out earlier in the year, many teachers formerly
involved with Solidarity have been dismissed from
school (some of them to be interned) and replaced by
young substitutes lacking professional qualifications.
The military commissars assigned to the schools
earlier in the year reappear to watch over the teachers'
and students' ideological allegiance.

SEPTEMBER 2	Riots and demonstrations continue in Lubin and Wroclaw,
where police fire "warning shots" (according to PAP).
Attempting to explain the death of one man shot and
seven wounded, the official news agency PAP says an
investigation into the Wroclaw shooting shows that
"some rioters also had weapons on them, including
a pistol seized from a policeman in a tram."

SEPTEMBER 3	At a press conference for foreign journalists,
government spokesman Jerzy Urban announces the
authorities' rejection of any possibility of
negotiations with Solidarity's leadership about
conditions under which the labor movement could
resume overt operations. Charging that "Solidarity's
leadership has failed to react to the authorities
offers to start a dialogue" on the matter and
implying that "extremist" activists of the suspended

[page 136]

SEPTEMBER 3 (Cont.)	labor movement have been in the forefront of the
demonstrations that took place on August 31, Urban
says that "under no circumstances will talks [between
the authorities and] the initiators of the unrest be
held." This refusal to become involved in anything
that would suggest even a semblance of negotiations
with the labor movement's elected officials is further
underscored when Urban rules out any possibility of
talks with Lech Walesa, the interned Solidarity
Chairman, as well, remarking that the decision to
exclude the movement's top leader was taken because
"of his [Walesa's] political attitude." He adds
that "it is difficult to say anything definitive.
Walesa is silent. It depends on what he says when
he opens his mouth."

Urban also announces, following the Military Council
of National Salvation's explicit accusations against
KSS "KOR" (see entry under September 1), the formal
arrest of the most prominent leaders of the disbanded
movement: Jacek Huron, Jan Litynski, Adam Michnik,
and Henryk Wujec, all of whom were active in Solidarity,
with Wujec occupying the elected position of a member
of the Rational Commission. All have been interned
throughout the duration of the martial law period.
As for other members of the group, which had 34
participants by the end of 1979, no names are provided
by the authorities in their announcement of the
arrest warrants, although the government spokesman
indicates that charges are to be preferred against
Miroslaw Chojecki and Jan Jozef Lipski, who are at
present outside Poland.

SEPTEMBER 5	In a sermon preached on the occasion of the harvest
celebration, Przemysl Diocese Bishop Ignacy Tokarczuk
is applauded by the gathering of farmers when he
points out the need to preserve basic human values
such as "man's dignity and freedom," as well as
"justice" and "love," in the current situation in
Poland. Tokarczuk distinguishes two elements as
characteristic of current Polish conditions. One is
the pervasive presence of "blind and brutal forces
[which], however great, are incapable of solving
anything." The other is the need for national unity,
since "a nation that is united, a nation that consciously
aspires toward the greatest, most important values,
will, in the end, attain those values, despite huge
obstacles." Expanding on those themes, and stressing
that he is speaking "on behalf of the Church . . .
[whose] role is to be the teacher of truth and the
defender of the oppressed," the bishop says that "it
becomes necessary today to say clearly that the blind
force that torments young people and workers is not
in any way acting in a positive sense, neither where
the nation is concerned nor where it itself is
concerned.... The highest price for this...
mistake will be paid by those who supervise the ones
who use such methods."

[page 137]

SEPTEMBER 5 (Cont.)	Tokarczuk goes on to recall for his audience the
events that took place on August 31 in Przemysl,
when a peaceful demonstration by workers was met
with a violent reaction by the police, when people
were "beaten in a horrendous manner," when even
some innocent bystanders were "beaten up and knocked
to the ground," when "tear-qas canisters were hurled
in the direction... of women standing with [baby]
carriages, so that the women had to "shield their
babies... to prevent them from suffering a shock
that could... leave them handicapped for the rest
of their lives."

SEPTEMBER 6	Radio Warsaw attempts to make a connection between
the armed seizure of the Polish Embassy in Bern
(Switzerland) and the arrested top leadership of
KSS "KOR," particularly Jacek Kuron, now accused of
engaging in "incitement to acts of terror" in a
letter smuggled from his place of internment in
Bialoleka.

SEPTEMBER 7	According to PAP, the Polish news agency, a total of
3,023 people have been fined or jailed in summary
proceedings by misdemeanor courts, with 111 cases
handled by the higher courts. Full investigations
have been instituted against 236 people "believed
to have played a leading role in the demonstrations
last week."

SEPTEMBER 8	The government paper Rzeczpospolita warns the Polish
Catholic Church that, if it fails to recognize "the
realities of socialism" in Poland, this failure will
have a strongly negative impact upon the development
of Church-state relations in the future. The
Raeczpospolita article is actually a critical review
of a sermon delivered on September 5 in Czestochowa
by Bishop Ignaey Tokarczuk, head of the Przemysl
(southeastern Poland) Diocese and a member of the
supreme council of the episcopate. The general
scope of the criticism, as well as the publicity
accorded to the article by the media -- it is immediately
broadcast by the national radio network -- suggests
that it represents the views of the authorities,
rather than those of the paper's editors or staff.
(see entry under September 5)

In the trial of the Grodzisk Mazowiecki group,
accused of forming an illegal armed association and
of shooting a militiaman, the Warsaw Region Military
Court sentences Robert Chechlacz to a 25-year prison
term with 8 years deprivation of citizen's rights
and a 10,000 zloty fine; Tomasz Lupanow to a 13-year
prison term and a 10,000 zloty fine; Stanislaw
Matejczuk to a 6-year prison term; Father Sylvester
Zych to 4 years; Tadeusz Wlaszczuk to 2 years; and
Jaroslaw Weclawski, Tomasz Krekora, and Andrzej
Hybik to a 2-year prison term each, suspended for a
5-year period, and a 10,000 zloty fine each.

[page 138]

SEPTEMBER 8 (Cont.)	Note: The military prosecutor has appealed the
sentence in the case of Father Zych, demanding
a heavier prison term. (See also entries for
February 18, August 10, and August 23).

SEPTEMBER 10	Radio Warsaw announces the resignation of Mieczyslaw
Rakowski as editor-in-chief of the social and
political weekly Polityka. According to the
official communiqué, Rakowski earlier informed his
colleagues at Polityka that his duties as Deputy Prime
Minister place such demands upon him that he is no
longer able to continue as editor-in-chief. Jan
Bijak, who was his first deputy, is named as his
successor. A new "editorial council" is also to be
set up to "define the paper's policy line, program,
and profile and to act in a consultative capacity
with the editorial staff." Note: Rakowsk's
resignation as Editor-in-Chief of Polityka, a post he had
held since May 1958, a few months after the weekly
was founded, had theoretically been on the cards
ever since he was appointed a Deputy Prime Minister
in February 1981. He stayed on, however, amid
speculation that the government post was a temporary
one and that he would return to full-time work at
Polityka in the future.

Western media quote a communiqué‚ issued by
underground Solidarity which describes the widespread
protests that took place at the end of August as a
"moral victory." "The national demonstration,"
according to the communiqué, "proved once again the
nation's determination in its fight to restore human
rights. In responding to the Solidarity appeals for
peace in July and for demonstrations in August, the
nation proved that it is disciplined and united in
the effort to achieve its goals. Such a nation cannot
be ruled by violence. If the authorities do not
understand this, if they do not start negotiations
with Solidarity or its leader Lech Walesa, we may
lose the chance to achieve a peaceful solution of the
conflict." The communiqué‚ also appeals to Poles not
to participate in actions that are not coordinated by
Solidarity. It says that the union's local units
should "intensively work on building the structures of
an underground society as a basic means of
self-defense against the apparatus of oppression." The
document does, nevertheless, raise the possibility
of new demonstrations on November 10, the second
anniversary of Solidarity's registration as a union.

SEPTEMBER 11	In Poznan (western Poland) Radio Solidarity broadcasts
its second program, on the television wavelength.
Its subject is KSS "KOR."

SEPTEMBER 13	Radio Warsaw announces the resignation of Torun
Voidvodship party organization First Secretary
Edmund Heza. Note: The resignation (read: dismissal)
comes in the wake of a negative second report after
a joint checkup in Torun conducted by the Party Control

[page 139]

SEPTEMBER 13 (Cont.)	Commission and an army task group.
Foreign Affairs Minister Stefan Olszowski arrives
in Moscow for meetings with his Soviet counterpart,
Adrei A. Gromyko on bilateral relations and
international problems. Without disclosing any
specifics, TASS "notes with satisfaction the
successful implementation of the basic accords"
reached on Soviet-Polish relations during the
meeting of General Wojciech Jaruzelski and President
Leonid I. Brezhnev in August. Note: The next day
Pravda delivers a stern lecture to Poland's military
rulers, warning them they can solve their problems
only by taking Moscow's advice.

Leading Polish dissidents, among them Professor
Edward Lipinski, writer Anka Kowalska, and actress
Halina Mikolajska, issue a statement condemning the
military rulers for attempting to place four
Solidarity officials on trial for plotting to
overthrow the communist system, The four are the ex-
members of the now dissolved KSS "KOR": Jacek Kuron,
Adam Michnik, Jan Litynski, and Henryk Wujec.

In the trial of the four Confederation of Independent
Poland (KPN) leaders, the military prosecutor, Second
Lieutenant Tadeusz Gonciarz, demands prison sentences
of 10 years for Leszek Moczulski, 9 years for Romuald
Szeremietiew and Tadeusz Stanski, and 6 years for
Tadeusz Jandziszak.

SEPTEMBER 14	Speaking at a press conference in Warsaw, Adam Lopatka,
the Head of the Office for Religious Denominations,
praises the current dialogue between the Church and
the Polish authorities. Lopatka says that the
dialogue between various religious denominations and
the state has grown very lively recently. He says
this is advantageous to all parties concerned,
although for obvious reasons, the most important is
the dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church, which,
he says, is taking place continuously at various levels.
"This dialogue is a positive occurrence showing that
elements of cooperation play a dominant role in the
state's relations with the Church," he says.

SEPTEMBER 15	The Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth, a front
organization simulating mass support for the military
rule of General Wojciech Jaruzelski, is finally
institutionalized at the inaugural meeting of a body
curiously styled the Initiating Commission (IC) of
an Interim National Council of the PRON, as the
movement is called in Poland. Note: The reason
for this odd terminology lies in the fact that the
PRON is supposed to be a spontaneous, grassroots
movement rather than a well-structured scheme imposed
from above. The title is meant to suggest that the

[page 140]

SEPTEMBER 15 (Cont.)	movement is still in the making and its final
shape is still to emerge, according to the laws
of spontaneity. This would also account for the
character and motley composition of the IC, with
its 40-odd founding members ranging from the
chairmen of the three official political parties
and the three lay Catholic proregime "social
associations" through representatives of social
groups: workers, farmers, and intellectuals, as
well as women and army veterans, right down to
personalities supposedly enjoying popular esteem,
such as film directors and even the coach
of the national soccer team. Apparently the IC
is to be expanded as new personalities "register
their agreement." Its immediate task is to "prepare
materials and plans for further activity."

Jan Jozef Lipski, one of the KSS "KOR" dissidents
indicted on charges of seeking to overthrow the
the regime in Poland, flies home from England after
medical treatment. Interviewed in London, Lipski
says that he is returning to be with his colleagues
and family and that he does not want to give the
Polish government's propaganda machine the opportunity
to tell workers that an intellectual always gets away.
Note: Two days later, the military authorities announce
Lipski's arrest "for plotting to overthrow the country's
political system."

SEPTEMBER 16	A one-day session of the Polish Sejm enacts several
laws concerning cooperatives, artisans, and civil
servants. The significance of the session, however,
does not lie in these normal legislative activities
but in a report on the status of public order in
Poland by Minister of Internal Affairs Czeslaw Kiszczak.
The minister reveals that an attempt was made in
April to negotiate with some of the underground
Solidarity leaders. According to Kiszczak, the
initiative to make contact was taken by the Ministry
of Internal Affairs, which "also made use of the
mediation of people of good will, including
representatives of the Church and lay Catholic activists."
The ministry, he says, gave the fugitive leaders a
guarantee of safe conduct to and from the meeting
place, no matter what the outcome. "The only response"
to the offer, Kiszczak says, was "silence or public
pronouncements testifying to a lack of the indispensable
realism needed to assess the situation." The final
reaction, he declares, "was the organization...
of more demonstrations, street disturbances, and
brawls." Kiszczak's accusations of irresponsibility
are not limited to the active underground, however,
but seem also to include Lech Walesa and the Solidarity
National Commission. According to the minister, "even
those still interned could not and cannot draw realistic
conclusions. Their attitude does not provide an
appropriate guarantee of responsible conduct."

[page 141]

SEPTEMBER 16 (Cont.)	Note: The implication of these remarks is that the
government is continuing to rule out further
attempts to negotiate with the Solidarity leadership
and has decided to take the public position that it
is Solidarity's intransigence and lack of realism
that make any compromise impossible.

SEPTEMBER 17	A communiqué, issued after a two-day meeting of the
Polish episcopate, expresses concern at "the multiple
crises shaking Poland" and the lack of dialogue
between the government and the suspended Solidarity
independent trade union. The bishops condemn the
beatings and arrests of Solidarity supporters by riot
police during nationwide demonstrations at the end of
August. Note: The bishops' statement is one of their
most forthright since the imposition of martial law
in December. It appears to reflect the fear of Church
leaders that social tensions could become unmanageable
if the present political stalemate continues.

SEPTEMBER 21	A provincial party paper, Glos Szczecinski, imputes
that the United States and underground Solidarity
staged a protest demonstration in the copper basin
town of Lubin (where two people were killed on
August 31, and a third died later as a result of his
wounds) "to destroy Polish competition for American
copper concerns in Europe."

SEPTEMBER 22	The funeral of Henryk Kuron, father of Jacek Kuron,
the interned cofounder of KSS "KOR" and Solidarity
adviser, is held in Warsaw. Note: Jacek Kuron is
allowed to attend the funeral for only 15 minutes.
Professor Leszek Gilejko of the Institute of
Marxism-Leninism (attached to the PUWP Central Committee)
is quoted by the Warsaw evening paper Express
Wieczorny as saying that an opinion poll showed
workers support a restoration of labor unions under
martial law. Gilejko says a majority believe Solidarity
played a positive role at factory level but should
have given up any aspirations of becoming a political
party. He does not say how many workers were
questioned in the survey.

The party daily, Trybuna Ludu, says an opinion survey
has shown that 56% of young people in Warsaw believe
the imposition of martial law was wrong. The
newspaper says that the survey, carried out last
February and March, showed only 36% of rural youth
held the same view. It says 51.5% of Warsaw students
believe the authorities imposed martial law to retain
power. The paper says the survey shows people are
not well informed about the problems of the Polish
state and society, "and frequently there is a lack of
political knowledge and wisdom."

[page 142]

SEPTEMBER 22 (Cont.)	Trybuna Ludu contends that many people feel pressure
from their peers to display hostility to the
communist authorities, while deep down they do
not really harbor such feelings. The paper says "such
situations are now emerging in the student community."
It says they "impede rational and purposeful efforts
and deepen the tendency to submit to demagogic
leaders."

The government's official paper, Rzeczpospolita,
hints that the martial law authorities are planning
the final legal dismantling of the suspended Solidarity
trade union. The paper argues that the word
solidarity has become inextricably associated with
resistance to the communist state. It proposes that
entirely new "independent and self-governing" unions
be set up on the basis of the same agreements that
give birth to Solidarity in August 1980. Note: The
Rzeczpospolita article is signed "an observer," a
formula that has been used in the past to reflect
authoritative government views. It says that a draft
trade union bill will be submitted to the national
assembly in the near future.

SEPTEMBER 28	The Government Plenipotentiary for Economic Reform
Minister Wladyslaw Baka, tells a news conference for
foreign journalists in Warsaw that Poland's economy
is regaining strength month by month as a result of
consistent implementation of the economic reform and
growing national support for the government's policy.

Cracow's Radio Solidarity station broadcasts the
latest communiqué‚ of the Solidarity Regional Executive
Commission and of the Interim Coordinating Commission.

The Supreme Court upholds, on appeal, the sentence
of three and a half years given to Miroslaw Krupinski
Deputy Chief of Solidarity, imposed on July 29
by the Gdansk Naval Court sitting in special session in
Bydgoszcz. Note: Krupinski was charged with organizing,
as chairman of the National Strike Committee based in
Gdansk's Lenin Shipyard, a general strike on
13-15 December 1981 and with circulating appeals to
shipyard workers, citizens of Gdansk, and to soldiers
"containing false information which caused public
concern."

SEPTEMBER 29	Western correspondents in Warsaw report that the
veteran worker activist Anna Walentynowicz, released
from internment in July, has been detained again.

SEPTEMBER 30	Solidarity's ICC declares Remembrance Day in memory of all
those killed during the August 31 demonstrations.
Appropriate ceremonies take place in Elblag, Gdansk,
Katowice, Nowa Huta, Siedlce, Warsaw, and Wroclaw.
They take the form of quiet marches, masses, hymn
singing, the placing of plaques and flowers, and
the lighting of candles.

[page 143]

SEPTEMBER 30 (Cont.)	Jerzy Ozdowski resigns from membership in the
Polish Catholic Social Union (PZKS - Polski Zwiazek
Katolicko-Spoleczny) and from the Union's Sejm group.
Note: His resignation is connected with his
appointment to the Sejm Presidium. The four remaining members
of the PZKS's Sejm group are: Janusz Zablocki
(chairman), Waclaw Auleytner (secretary) , Rudolf
Buchala, and Zbigniew Zielinski.

OCTOBER 1	The traditional start of the academic year in Polish
universities and institutes of higher education is a
a rather subdued occasion this year. Seven of the
nine democratically elected university rectors and
many of those formerly in charge of the twelve
technical universities and academies are gone; the
reforms introduced since the August 1980 "renewal"
have been severely pruned back; the students' movement
is in a state of total collapse; there are fewer
freshmen and even some vacancies, for young people appear
to have lost the desire to obtain a higher education;
and a new system of grants coupled with increased
costs will hit many students. Teaching programs in
the new academic year will be organized according to
the provisions of the higher education law that has
been in force since September 1. The students will
have heavier workloads. Although the students have
been left some leeway in choosing subjects of study,
this is very limited, confined to optional blocks,
and does not affect the compulsory political
indoctrination courses. The new law also gives greater
interventionary powers to the minister, accordingly
reducing the Main Council of Science and Higher
Education to a largely advisory role and depriving
it of its controlling functions; weakening the
universities' own elected bodies by diminishing their
influence; reducing the proportion of student
representation; and introducing indirect elections to these
bodies.

PUWP Central Committee Secretary Jan Glowczyk says
everything should be done to create conditions in
Poland that will make possible a suspension of
martial law before the end of the year. Glowczyk
makes the statement at a meeting of representatives
of textile workers in Lodz. Speaking on the future
of trade unions in Poland, Glowczyk says they will
reflect what workers want. He adds: "However, it
is already known that the trade unions must be
self-governing and independent, defending the interests
of their members but at the same time respecting
the principles of the constitution and strengthening
the socialist system of our state."

[page 144]

OCTOBER 2	The former Rector of the Silesian University in
Katowice, Henryk Rechowicz, is sentenced to a
3-year prison term and a fine of 250,000 zloty for
using his post for personal benefit.

OCTOBER 3	The Soviet daily Sovetskaya Rossiya comments on
underground activities in Poland under martial
law and accuses what it calls "NATO subversive
centers" of encouraging Poland's "domestic
counter-revolutionaries." The newspaper charges these
centers with conducting "secret operations against
Poland" and trying to preserve and increase so-called
"controlled tension" in the country. It claims that
"domestic reaction" in Poland, allegedly directed
by those centers, has continued to "kindle nationalist
moods." The newspaper asserts that Poland's
"reactionaries" are not hiding their intention to continue the
power struggle and to destroy the existing social
order and are "intimidating and blackmailing" others
from "their narrow sphere in the underground."

OCTOBER 4	Poland's military rulers sentence former Polish
Ambassador to the United States Romuald Spasowski
to death in absentia after his defection soon after
the declaration of martial law last December. The
PAP, Polish news agency, says the sentence was handed
down after the Judge Advocate General's office
appealed a less harsh sentence by a lower court
martial on August 28. Spasowski and another ambassador,
Zdzislaw Rurarz, who represented Poland in Japan,
have been bitterly condemned in the state media as
traitors with links to American intelligence agencies
and anticommunist groups because of their defection
shortly after the imposition of martial law.

OCTOBER 5	Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, announces
the cancellation of his trip to the Vatican and the
United States in order to be in Warsaw when the
Sejm meats on October 8-9 in a session that is
expected to outlaw the Solidarity trade union. Note:
Glemp was to have attended the canonization ceremony
of Franciscan monk Maksymilian Kolbe, who died
voluntarily in place of a fellow inmate, Franciszek
Gajowniczek, in the Auschwitz Nazi concentration
camp during World War II.

One of the main leaders of the underground Solidarity
organization, Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, is "detained" by
the Wroclaw security services. Frasyniuk
was a member of the presidium of the suspended
Solidarity National Commission and the Chairman
of Solidarity's Lower Silesian Region. Since martial
law was declared on 13 December 1981, he had emerged
as one of the main leaders of the labor organization
after it went underground.

[page 145]

OCTOBER 5 (Cont.)	Note: Frasyniuk, a 28-year-old skilled driver and
mechanic, who is married with two small children,
was one of the organizers of the August 1980
strikes in Wroclaw. He subsequently became a press
spokesman for the local Interfactory Founding
Committee (MKZ). In February 1981 Frasyniuk was elected
chairman of the Wroclaw MKZ. The first voivodship
congress elected him Chairman of the Wroclaw voivodship
Solidarity Council. He remained chairman after the
voivodship organization assumed regional scope,
numbering nearly 1,000,000 members. The martial law
declaration caught him on a train on his way home
from a National Commission meeting in Gdansk. On
learning that the militia were waiting for him at
the Wroclaw railway station, the railwaymen made an
unscheduled stop, enabling Frasyniuk to avoid arrest,
the fate of the majority of the top Solidarity
leadership.

OCTOBER 7	A Polish state delegation leaves for the Vatican
to attend ceremonies marking the canonization of a
Polish priest, Father Maksymilian Kolbe, The delegation
is led by Deputy Speaker of the Sejm Jerzy Ozdowski
and includes Office for Religious Denominations head
Adam Lopatka and leaders of lay Roman Catholic
parliamentary groups.

OCTOBER 8	The Chief Executive of the International Labor
Organization Francis Blanchard expresses "alarm" over
a draft law designed to disenfranchise Solidarity.
Blanchard makes this statement while briefing reporters
about ILO comments submitted to the Warsaw government
on the draft law, which was presented to Blanchard
earlier in the week by a three-man Polish delegation.

The Warsaw Military Court sentences the leaders of
the Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN).
Leszek Moczulski is sentenced to seven years,
Romuald Szeremietiew and Tadeusz Stanski get five
years each, and Tadeusz Jandziszek two years, suspended
for a five-year period. Note: The Military Prosecutor
demanded considerably heavier penalities (see entry
for September 13).

On the first day of a two-day session the Sejm passes
two laws that, in essence, outlaw both the independent
Solidarity union of workers as well as Rural Solidarity,
an organization of independent peasants. The
legislation consists of two laws. The first officially
terminates the legal existence of all organizations
of workers, while providing a framework for the
establishment of a new labor movement in the future.
Solidarity, as well as two other labor organizations,
the branch unions , and the autonomous unions, are
banned through an indirect clause in, the law that
simply stipulates that "the registration of any

[page 146]

OCTOBER 8 (Cont.)	labor union made before this law goes into force
loses its validity." The second law forces a
"merger" of the independent peasants' union with
the already existing rural associations. Note:
The first bill passes, with 12 votes against and
10 abstentions, and formally ends the 2-year
experiment in workers' democracy under a communist
regime. (In the vote on the peasants' organization,
there are no votes against and only 9 abstentions.)

Those voting against:

From the Polish Catholic Social Union (PZKS):
Rudolf Buchala, Janusz Zablocki, Zbigniew Zielinski;

From the Democratic Party (SD): Maria Budzanowska,
Jan Janowski, Halina Mankisiewicz-Latecka, Dorota
Simonides, Hanna Suchocka;

Nonparty: Edmund Osmanczyk, Anna Plawska, Ryszard
Reiff, Jan Szczepanski

Abstentions:

From the United Peasant Party (SSL): Janina Banasik,
Wladyslaw Kupiec, Genowefa Rejman, Szymon Bala

From the Democratic Party: Jadwiga Gizycka-Koprowska,
Zbigniew Kledecki, Szczepan Styranowski

Nonparty: Halina Kozniewska, Witold Zakrzewski,
Ryszard Bohr.

OCTOBER 9	In swift reaction to the delegalization of Solidarity,
President Ronald Reagan moves quickly to suspend
Poland's most-favored-nation status.

On the final day of the Sejm session several changes
are introduced in the government Presidium (a sort
of inner cabinet). The most important involve the
dissolution of the Economic Committee attached to
the Council of the Ministers -- a short-lived body
set up shortly after the imposition of martial law,
with Deputy Premier Janusz Obodowski as its head.
The committee's tasks will now be divided between
the Office of the Presidium (a sort of chancellery)
and the Planning Commission.

The more significant ministerial level changes
involve the departure of Marian Krzak from the post
of Finance Minister. He became internationally
known over the last year for his efforts to manage
Poland's heavy foreign debts and to renegotiate its
servicing terms. While Krzak is soon to be assigned
another "government post of responsibility," his
Finance Ministry job goes to Stanislaw Nieckarz,
who was previously First Deputy President of the
Polish National Bank.

[page 147]

OCTOBER 9 (Cont.)	The only personnel change not connected with the
economy concerns the Ministry of Culture and the
Arts. Josef Tejchma's departure is largely
regarded as evident proof of the military regime's
failure to win the approval of the intellectual
and artistic worlds for its recent cultural policies.
Unable to overcome the persistent boycott by
television and theater actors, journalists, writers,
and other members of the "creative intelligentsia,"
who are stubbornly shunning what they call
"collaboration" with the country's military rulers, Tejchma
asked to be relieved of his function (he has not yet
been assigned another job).

Speaking in the Sejm, Wojciech Jaruzelski defends the
delegalization of Solidarity, expresses hopes that
martial law may be lifted before the end of the year,
and announces that the authorities plan to free a
large number of political internees.

OCTOBER 10	According to the consumer weekly Veto, a brisk
market in Revaluation Bonds has lately been observed
in Warsaw. It seems that private loan sharks are
accepting the bonds as collateral, but only at a
rate of 20% of their face value. This means that
for every 1,000 zloty lent, a bond for 5,000 zloty
has to be deposited with the lender; such a high
discount rate is mainly explained by the public's
general lack of confidence in the government's ability
to control the rate of inflation. It appears that part
of the reason for this is the "private bankers'"
conviction that the government's assessment of a mere 25%
rise in prices for 1983 and up to 20% in 1984 is
unrealistic and that the rise may be double that,
if not more. Note: The Revaluation Bonds were
introduced by Council of Ministers' Decree No. 27, 27 January
1982, as an anti-inflationary measure. The move was
intended to be a one-shot revaluation of personal
savings to soften the effects of the drop in the retail
value of money as a result of the reform of retail
prices. The revaluation rate was set at 20% of total
savings as of January 1982. The interest, set at 15%,
is to run from 1 September 1982 to the end of 1983.
The bond itself, however, is not redeemable until
1 February 1985.

Underground Solidarity issues a statement proclaiming
a four-hour general strike, starting at 1000 hours in
protest against the delegalization of Solidarity, The
statement is signed by four Solidarity leaders in
hidings Zbigniew Bujak, Bogdan Lis, Wladyslaw Hardek,
and Piotr Bednarz.

[page 148]

OCTOBER 10 (Cont.)	In a first public response to the delegalization of
Solidarity, Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp,
criticizes the martial law authorities for "embittering
the nation" with their decision to ban the Solidarity
union. "The delegalization of Solidarity causes
great pain to many of our believers," the Archbishop
says, "but, brothers, we know that what is just; what
is ideal cannot fall; structures can disappear, but
no idea can disappear." Note: Glemp is speaking in
Niepokalanow (near Warsaw) on the occasion of
conferring sainthood on Father Maksymilian Kolbe.
The main canonization ceremonies are being held the
same day in Rome. Because of the tension in Poland
Glemp canceled his initial plans to go there.

OCTOBER 11	The Polish authorities order the release of 308
internees "whose attitude shows that they will not
engage in activities detrimental to the country's
political interests." Note: According to Radio
Warsaw the decision was made by the Internal Affairs
Minister following up General Wojciech Jaruzelski's
promise in his October 9 Sejm speech.

Striking shipyard workers in the tricity area
(Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot) issue leaflets demanding
the release of Lech Walesa and all other internees,
the lifting of martial law, and the reconstitution of
Solidarity and the other trade unions. Radio Warsaw
says that initiating groups and founding committees
have emerged spontaneously in the country following
today's publication of the new labor union legislation.

OCTOBER 12	In a message published in the armed forces paper
Krasnaya Zvezda, Soviet Defense Minister Dimitrii F.
Ustinov assures Poland's military leadership of the
Soviet Union's full support in its battle to control
unrest. Marshal Ustinov gives this assurance in
a message to Polish military leader General Wojciech
Jaruzelski to mark the 39th anniversary of the founding
of the Polish People's Army. "There can be no doubt
that all the plans of the internal counterrevolution
and imperialist forces to undermine the foundations
of socialism in Poland and to weaken the unity and
cohesion of socialist cooperation are doomed to failure,"
he says. "The Polish People's Republic as a member
state of the Warsaw Pact can be certain of the full
support [of] and help from the Soviet Union," he adds.

The Gdansk shipyard workers' strike ends as the
authorities announce the militarization of the Lenin
Shipyard. Note: Under militarization, refusal to
follow orders or quitting one's job amount to
insubordination and can result in a trial before a court martial.
[page 149]

OCTOBER 12 (Cont.)	To ensure the "correct" implementation of the new
labor union law, the Council of State issues a
decree dealing with the mechanics of the establishment
of the new unions. Under its provisions, the unions
are to be built from the factory level upward. This
is to be done through the initiative of workers in
the individual factories, plants, and offices. Those
groups of workers are to submit an application to
the authorities, accompanied by the charter of the
proposed organization. The application is to indicate
the character of the union by including "only the
words "labor union of the employees" and then the
name of the given work place and its nature; this
name may also include the words "self-governing" and
"independent." This provision effectively precludes
the possibility that any of the unions could take
Solidarity as its proper name. The creation of unions
is restricted to individual work places until the end
of 1983, and the first steps toward nationwide bodies
uniting people of various professions will be taken
only in 1984. The creation of any interunion bodies
or institutions is projected as starting in 19S5 at
the earliest. Furthermore, in a step that clearly
indicates the authorities' apprehension that control
over the workers might somehow slip from their hands,
the decree creates a "social consultative commission"
as a nationwide body with "advisory and informative
functions" to coordinate the task of setting up the
new workers' organizations. The specific functions
of the commission include "giving aid to founding
committees of the unions..., preparing a model statute
for unions and presenting it in the media..., drive
to gain public support for those unions acting in
accordance with the law..., dissemination of information
about the role and tasks of the unions..., and (above
all) initiation as well as evaluation of steps
leading to the preparation of training programs for
the union's activists." The work of the commission
is to be supervised by the Council of State, which
also directs that specific bodies beset up at all local
people's councils throughout the country charged with
the mechanics of establishing them.

OCTOBER 13	Spontaneous strikes are reported from all over the
country: Gdynia, Elblag, Poznan, Wroclaw, Warsaw,
Cracow, and Nowa Huta, where about 10,000 are said
to have protested the banning of Solidarity.

According to PAP, in Nowa Huta 67 policemen were injured, 21 of
whom had to be hospitalized, including 2 in "very serious
condition"; in addition, 1 demonstrator, the 20-year
old Bogdan Wlosik, was shot, and 27 were injured, 8 of whom
had to be hospitalized. All in all, 135 people are
said to have been detained. A similar situation must

[page 150]

OCTOBER 13 (Cont.)	have prevailed in Wroclaw, for although details are
lacking, officials are said to have reported that
174 people were taken into custody. In Gdansk,
where the protests began on October 11, 148 people
were detained by the police over a 2-day period;
and the Gdansk newspaper, Glos Wybrzeza, provided
a long list of the damage and destruction, including
streetcar tracks ripped up, vehicles burned, and
windows smashed. Note: Wlosik dies on the operating
table the next day. The accounts of the Wlosik killing
are very contradictory. According to the authorities'
version, the plainclothes man involved in the
incident was "brutally attacked" by the crowd and
pushed to the ground. Acting in self-defense, he
fired a warning shot and then another shot that fatally
wounded Wlosik. Independent witnesses, including
Western television crews, say the incident began when
Wlosik pointed to the plainclothes man and yelled to
fellow demonstrators that he recognized him as an
agent of the security police. The policeman, who has
not been identified, pulled a pistol from his coat,
according to these witnesses, and, while running away,
fired two shots at Wlosik from a distance of about
10 yards. He jumped into a passing police car and
was driven away.

OCTOBER 14	In an interview given to the Rome newspaper La Repubblica,
the Italian communist labor leader Bruno Trentin,
Secretary of the CGIL Trade Union Federation, says
that "for us, the decree dissolving Solidarity does
not exist, we recognize Solidarity as the sole Polish
labor union movement." The Italian unions, Trentin
says, can draw only one conclusion from the latest
disturbances in Poland: "We must become more than
ever convinced of the necessity to increase our support
of Solidarity. The clear and precise response that
the workers' movement in Italy gives to the Sejm's
decision to outlaw Solidarity, the reply we give to
the workers of Gdansk, is this: For us, the dissolution
does not exist." Note: A Solidarity delegation headed
by Lech Walesa was on an official six-day trip in
Italy in January 1981 at the invitation of the three
main Italian unions.

OCTOBER 15	Former Polish Construction and Building Materials
Minister Adam Glazur is sentenced to a 7-year prison
terra for defrauding the state of at least 1,000,000
zloty. Radio Warsaw reports that the court found him
guilty of the illegal purchase of materials and the
illicit hiring of workers to build himself a summer
house in Popowo, near Warsaw, and of making generous
gifts out of state funds. Glazur is also fined
150,000 zloty with his summer house confiscated.
Note: Glazur was Minister of Construction and
Building Materials from 1975 to June 1980, when he
was removed from that post. In December of the same
year he was dropped as a Central Committee candidate
member. He was arrested in April 1981.

[page 151]

OCTOBER 15 (Cont.)	Riot police use tear gas and water cannon against
demonstrators for the third consecutive night in the
Polish steelmaking center of Nowa Huta near Cracow,
where a protester was shot to death two days earlier.
The disturbances occur near the site of the fatal
shooting, where local residents have set up a
makeshift shrine surrounded by flowers and candles.
The clash is believed to have started after several
hundred supporters of the outlawed Solidarity union
gathered outside Nowa Huta's huge modernistic church
and began to chant pro-Solidarity slogans.

Deputy Premier Mieczyslaw Rakowski accuses the
United States of engaging in the "most clamorous
and brutal interference" in Poland's internal affairs.
In an Interview with PAP, Rakowski says that the US
is the leading culprit, followed by the NATO countries.
Asked about international reaction to the introduction
of Poland's Trade Union Law, which outlaws Solidarity,
Rakowski says: "I do not think that one can speak of
a general and all-embracing wave of protests." He
also attacks new West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl,
saying his views on Poland do not open up "particularly
pleasant prospects" for relations between Poland and
West Germany.

With only 75 of its 434 members attending the debate,
the European Parliament condemns the Polish law banning
the Solidarity union as a "violation of fundamental
human rights" and calls for the release of Solidarity's
leading members in prison. All the speakers, including
Communists, condemn the action of the Polish government.
The communist parliamentary members, however, abstain
from voting, because their wishes on an amended
compromise resolution are not taken into account.
The compromise resolution, adopted by agreement of
the five main political groups, softens an earlier
move to have all further EEC loans and financial aid
to Poland suspended until martial law is lifted,
political prisoners released, and the dialogue among
Solidarity, the government, and Church resumed.

OCTOBER 16	Speaking during the evening mass in Warsaw's All
Saints Church to mark the fourth anniversary of the
elevation to the papacy of John Paul II, Primate
Archbishop Jozef Glemp in a strong and emotional
sermon attacks the martial law authorities for dashing
public expectations for a just social accord by
eliminating what he calls the most important "element
in the social dialogue -- Solidarity." Note: The
sermon constitutes a departure from the cautious and
moderate line the Primate has followed since the
imposition of martial law last December. The Primate
does not mince words in touching upon the problems
related to the current social unrest in Poland.

[page 152]

OCTOBER 16 (Cont.)	Starting from the premise that the Church cannot
carry out its mission "in a social vacuum," he says
that the bishops consider it their duty to pass
moral judgment on "certain events and attitudes" in
society, contrasting the "reality of life in Poland
at present" with the highest values of "truth,
justice, peace, and... human dignity."

OCTOBER 17	Clark Todd, a reporter with the CTVS Canadian
television company, is ordered out of Poland after being
interrogated by police for five hours. Todd was
arrested yesterday while covering the Nowa Huta
demonstrations.

OCTOBER 18	Deputy Prime Minister and former Polityka
Editor-in-Chief Mieczyslaw Rakowski invites representatives
of the stage and film worlds to a meeting at which
he hopes to win the artists over. Rakowski begins
by justifying once again the 13 December 1981
decision to impose martial law as a "step designed
to safeguard the integrity and sovereignty of the
Polish state" but one implemented "in true Polish
style," that is, an implication that Polish-style martial
law is a watered-down version of the real thing.
He insists that social and economic reforms will be
based on the program adopted by the Extraordinary
Ninth PUWP Congress held in July 1981 and warns
"whoever wants more than is written there is a dreamer."
He expresses his conviction that time is required to
"restore psychological equilibrium and a sober assess
meet of reality," hinting that the authorities can
afford to wait, while the artists will eventually give
in. He stresses the openness and tolerance of the
PPR's cultural policies, claiming that since the
imposition of martial law cases of banning plays have
been rare, that there are no "black lists" as in
bygone eras, and that the government has tried to
respond maximally to the aspirations of the artistic
community as a whole. Eleven speakers take part in
the debate that follows. The most interesting
contribution is that of the esteemed veteran of the Polish
theater Bohdan Korzeniewski, who says that Polish
culture has for many years been harmed and consistently
crippled and that the situation today is still far
from satisfactory. He denies that all Poles have
equal rights: one cannot speak of equality when the
ruling side has at its disposal a policemen with a
truncheon and a pistol. He reminds Rakowski that
all Poles are defending the freedom they enjoyed for
a short time. Some defend it in the streets, while
actors defend it in the theater. He calls for the
reactivation of the Polish Writers' Union and the
Polish Filmmakers' Association. While several speakers
support Korzeniewski, most of the remaining speakers
express varying degrees of support for the authorities.

[page 153]

OCTOBER 18 (Cont.)	Tadeusz Aleksandrowicz criticizes some of Korzeniewski's
comments, insisting that the boycott is the result of
moral pressure on artists, and echoes allegations
of hypocrisy against the protesting actors. He says
that the silence of the Union of Polish Stage Artists
(ZASP) authorities betokens consent to what he sees as
the destruction of the Polish theater. Andrzej Kurz,
Deputy Chairman of the Radio and Television Committee, says "The
underground's attempts to manipulate the actors are
an attempt to harm the state and they must be resisted."
Witold Filler of Warsaw accuses Korzeniewski of
propagating "a political program." Halina Kossubudzka
from Warsaw echoes Rakowski's comments about the people
being deprived of culture. Ignacy Gogolewski from
Lublin calls for "dialogue at any price and under any
circumstances." Finally, CC Cultural Department
Director Krzysztof Kostyrko promises reform in relations
between the television authorities and the world of
the theater, the unsatisfactory state of which he blames
on the previous regime.

OCTOBER 19	The army paper Zolnierz Wolnosci publishes an
interview with Colonel Zbigniew Zinowicz of the
Internal Affairs Ministry in which he says that
"the events of August 1980 initiated a new chapter
of interest in Poland and intensified penetration
by [Western] intelligence services." Zinowicz
accuses Western intelligence services of having had
a hand in turning the now outlawed Solidarity labor
movement into what he calls "an opposition political
party trying to overthrow the socialist political
system" in Poland.

OCTOBER 20	In Grembalow (Nowa Huta, near Cracow) thousands of
people, many carrying banners declaring "Solidarity
lives," their hands raised in the V for victory sign,
the symbol of resistance of the martial law authorities,
attend the funeral of the 20-year old electrician
Bogdan Wlosik, who died on October 14 as a result of
being shot by a plainclothes man the day before
in a workers' demonstration protesting the banning
of Solidarity.

Solidarity's Interim Coordinating Commission (TKK)
publishes four statements concerning:

1. The boycott of the new, party-sponsored
unions.

2. The general strike planned for spring 1983.

3. She eight-hour strike called for November 10
(earlier planned to last only four hours) and
ceremonies commemorating, on November 11,
the sixty-fourth anniversary of the regaining of
Poland's independence on 11 November 1918.

[page 154]

OCTOBER 20 (Cont.)	4. Instructions on strike organization, without
revealing the structures of underground
Solidarity's labor union network.

The Soviet press bluntly accuses the Polish Roman
Catholic Church today of inspiring and "funding"
opponents of the martial lav government of General
Wojciech Jaruzelski. This Is the sharpest and most
direct attack on the Polish Church since the
outbreak of unrest in Poland. The broadside, which
appears in the weekly Literaturnaya Gazeta, is
unlike anything seen in the Soviet media during
more than two years of turmoil in Poland. It says
the Church is directly linked to the
counter-revolutionary underground that is urging Poles to
strike and commit sabotage and that it is "even
calling for an armed uprising." Note: The article,
which takes up nearly a full page, comes on
the eve of a scheduled meeting in the Polish capital
of Warsaw Pact defense ministers. It appears to
reflect Soviet alarm about the course of events in
Poland. Thus far, the Soviets have been cautious
in their infrequent criticism of the Polish Church,
presumably hoping that it would play a moderating
role in the crisis. Diplomats in Moscow suggest that
the attack on the Church also reflects continued
Soviet pressure on Jaruzelski for more vigorous action
against antigovernment forces and possible
dissatisfaction with his policy toward the Church. They note
that the Soviet press recently carried Jaruzelski's
criticism of the Church in a speech on October 9
but avoided mentioning his desire for improved
Church-state relations and his conciliatory remarks addressed
to Catholics.

OCTOBER 22	Andrzej Treumann, North American representative of
Poland's Bank Handlowy, defects to the United States.
According to The Hew York Times, Treumann, his wife,
and daughter have been placed in protective custody
near Washington for further investigation of the
case. Note: The Hew York Times intimates that, in
addition to his banking job, Treumann was a "highly
placed spy for the Polish intelligence service."
Treumann is the third high-ranking Pole to defect
to the United States since the imposition of martial
law in his homeland, following in the steps of former
Polish Ambassador to the United States Romuald
Spasowski and former ambassador to Japan Zdzislaw
Rurarz.

After a series of attacks on US property and the
daubing of paint on US cars and the American Trade
Office, the American Embassy in Warsaw increases
its security and asks for extra protection from the
Polish authorities.

[page 155]

OCTOBER 25	Poland's Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, arrives
in Rome for a visit to the Vatican. During his
stay, which may last for about 10 days, Glemp is
expected to confer with Pope John Paul II and other
Vatican officials about the situation in Poland in
general and Church-state relations in particular.
The visit comes amid signs of growing
tension in Poland, as well as of problems and
difficulties within the Polish Catholic Church.

OCTOBER 26	The Sejm passes a package of laws that are likely
to introduce major changes into the legal concept
and practical implementation of civil rights. The
laws include a bill on "social parasites," a bill
on "juvenile delinquency," and a bill on methods
to "fight alcoholism." Significantly for the state
of martial law, all three bills are presented by
Prosecutor General Franciszek Rusek. They are
justified by the deputies who report on them as
measures that will "strengthen the rule of law and
contribute to a more vigorous struggle against the
most dangerous symptoms of social behavior." The
bill on "social parasites" requires that all men
between the ages of 18 and 45 who are not employed
or studying for a period of 3 months be registered
by local agencies of the state administration. Those
agencies, after having established the source of
income that allows those men to exist without work,
can provide them with "aid" in finding either
employment or schooling. Those unable to justify
their absence from work or school in a way acceptable
to the agency, or who are not excused by that
agency from an obligation to work or to continue
their education, will be listed in a "register of
people deliberately avoiding work." In that case,
they can be forced to perform public service work
designated by the agency or can be further punished
by both administrative and judicial means.

The bill on juvenile delinquency deals with issues
related to "the prevention of, and the fight against,
the demoralization of juveniles," as well as "the
procedure to be used in cases of punishable acts
committed by juveniles." The bill defines juveniles
as persons from 13 to 17 years of age. All those cases
will be considered by family courts for juveniles.

The bill on methods to "fight alcoholism" is probably
the least controversial. It restricts sales of
alcohol during specific hours of the day, particularly
in the morning, and provides punishment for drinking
on the job. The bill provides for an expansion of
administrative agencies and centers that will deal
with problems of alcoholism and try to impose
limitations on consumption. Note: The bill on
"social parasites" is adopted with 12 votes against
and 22 abstentions; the bill on juvenile delinquency

[page 156]

OCTOBER 26 (Cont.)	is passed without any opposition, but with 4
abstentions; the bill on "alcoholism" is adopted
with 3 abstentions (Sejm membership: 460).

The common denominator of all three bills is the
premise that social problems -- in this case,
"parasitism," "juvenile delinquency," and "alcoholism" --
should be tackled by the authorities through
administrative means. None of them envisages any
significant measure of public involvement or
participation in solving those problems. The public,
in fact, is implicitly reduced to the position of a
mere object of administrative concern; it is to be
investigated, ordered to do things, and, above all,
is expected to comply with specific procedures and
instructions. That alone exemplifies the magnitude
of the change or, more precisely, of the retreat
from the methods and policies that prevailed in the
recent, premarital law past.

Speaking in the Sejm Prosecutor-General Franciszek
Rusek says that the Judge Advocate General and the
Ministry of Internal Affairs are conducting an
investigation of leaders of the disbanded Social
Self-Defense Committee "KOR." Note: According to
Radio Warsaw, Rusek called KSS "KOR" "an illegal
organisation" whose leaders had committed acts
against the state similar to those "perpetrated" by
the leaders of the Confederation of Independent
Poland (KPN).

Over 100 Sejm deputies present a motion demanding
that former party leader Edward Gierek and former
Premier Edward Babiuch be called before the State
Tribunal to answer, together with former Premier
Piotr Jaroszewicz and his deputies Tadeusz Wrzaszczyk,
Jan Szydlak, and Tadeusz Pyka, charges of economic
mismanagement.

Krystyn Dabrowa resigns from his post of First
Secretary of the PUWP organization in Cracow.
He is an obvious political casualty of the three
days of fierce rioting in Nowa Huta and Cracow which
took place in the wake of Solidarity's delegalization
on October 8. He is replaced by Jozef Gajewicz,
Mayor of Cracow and chief of the city's Defense
Committee. Note: Dabrowa, regarded as tolerant
and liberal, was an ally of both former party chief
Stanislaw Kania and current Politburo member
Hieronim Kubiak, under fire recently for his liberal
stand.

OCTOBER 27	President Ronald Reagan formally suspends Poland's
most-favored-nation status ending 22 years of
preferential low tariffs on Polish imports to the
United States. The move comes in direct retaliation
for the Polish government's ban on the Solidarity
union and is meant to show Mr. Reagan's "deep disapproval"
of martial law in Poland.

[page 157]

OCTOBER 27 (Cont.)	Trybuna Ludu features an article by its leading
writer, Ignacy Krasicki, which says that Poland's
links to the communist bloc are a basic part of
what it calls "realistic political thinking."
This "truth" is, according to Krasicki, especially
important for the young people who make up half
of Polish society. Krasicki says Poland's place
in the East has been determined by two main factors --
first, what he calls its "liberation" by the Soviet
Army and, second, by what he says was a "conscious"
choice made by the Polish Left. While history shows,
Krasicki says, that the West took an interest in
Poland only when it could exploit the country to
further its own ends, Poland's links with the East
are in the best long-term interests both of itself
and of the Soviet Union.

OCTOBER 28	Speaking at the 10th PUWP CC plenum held October 27-28,
General Wojciech Jaruzelski expresses concern over
the fact that "subversive foreign centers and the
antisocialist underground have announced a call to
action against the national economy to undermine the
process of normalization." He also appeals to "the
working people and to all citizens of Poland to make
a mature, responsible, and patriotic decision." The
general says that "it is up to the working people
what decisions the [authorities] will make... in
the interests of the security of the state and
society." Then, repeating his promise eventually
to rescind martial law, Jaruzelski proclaims that
"the duration of martial law will be determined by
the situation, and the situation is determined by
the people."

Tadeusz Grabski, a former Politburo member and
reputed hard-liner, now banished to a minor post as
commercial representative to the Polish diplomatic
mission in the GDR, circulates among the CC
membership at a plenum a letter formally addressed to his
basic party organization in Poznan. In it he charges
that the policies conducted by General Jaruzelski and
his advisers have proved ineffective in "crushing
the counterrevolutionary opposition" in the country,
have brought the country to economic disaster, and
have caused a major decline in the party's ability to
cope with political problems. He advocates a
major change in political orientation, including efforts
to "eliminate the anticommunist underground," to
"purge the party of opportunistic and weak elements,"
and to adopt new economic policies designed to
"provide justice for the working class." In addition,
Grabski severely condemns the official policy of
"tolerating" the Catholic Church's public role,
arguing that such a role threatens " a progressive
clericalization of political life."

[page 158]

OCTOBER 28 (Cont.)	Waldemar Swirgon, a 29-year-old CC alternate member,
skyrockets to the prestigious and powerful post of
CC Secretary. Biographical Note: Swirgon emerged
on the public scene only two years ago, during the
stormy fall of 1980. He became involved in youth
organization work in 1970 when he joined the Rural
Youth Union (RYU) and the Socialist Youth Union
(SYU), and later the Polish Student's Union (PSU,
renamed the SUPS in 1973 by adding the prefix
"Socialist"), of which he became a faculty council
member at his university (1976 to 1980). When, in
the fall of 1980 a move emerged among rural
youth to revive the Rural Youth Union (discontinued
in 1976 after a merger with the Socialist Union of
Polish Youth, SUPY) Swirgon became one of the
strongest and most active advocates. He organized
and led a rural youth caucus at the university,
cooperating with similar local committees cropping
up throughout the country. When the first national
meeting of rural youth circles was convoked in
Warsaw on 3 December 1980 and an Interim National
Board was established, Swirgon became the chairman.
Three months later, on 22 March 1981, the first
congress of the revived RYU formally elected him
its leader. Merely a modest rank-and-file PUWP
member until that election, he was chosen to be a
delegate to the Extraordinary PUWP Congress in 1981,
which, in turn, appointed him an alternate member of
the party CC. Swirgon's role did not diminish under
martial law. On the contrary, when the Council of
Ministers' Planning Commission created a study team in
February 1982 to work out a program for "improving
young farmers' start in life and their conditions
of work," Swirgon became its head. Concurrently,
he also became a member of the Council of Ministers'
Social and Political Committee, where he is in charge
of rural problems.

Banking sources announce that western and Polish
bankers have agreed on a formula to reschedule
Poland's 1982 loan interest payments and will sign
the agreement on November 3. Under the new plan,
approximately 50% of the $1,100 million in interest
for 1982 will be channeled back into the Polish
economy in the form of trade credits, the sources
said. Poland will also pay 5% of its outstanding
$2,400 million principle to Western banks this
year, while the remaining 95% will be repaid over
the next 7 to 8 years. This is similar to the
rescheduling formula for 1981.

[page 159]

OCTOBER 29	The Polish government issues a statement condemning
as "blackmail and pressure" President Ronald Reagan's
decision to revoke most-favored-nation status for
Poland and hints it might downgrade relations with
Washington. Although it does not elaborate further,
the government statement suggests that Poland might
take retaliatory steps to counter the US move, which
it terms a violation of "the basis for normal
relations between both countries." The statement also
says that "the American decision cannot be assessed
other than as a further step in the policy of
confrontation carried on by President Reagan, who in
a predetermined way is taking advantage of the Polish
issue to increase international tension and limit
cooperation."

Radio Warsaw confirms persistent reports in the
Western press concerning a meeting in early October
between Stanislaw Ciosek, Minister Without Portfolio
responsible for labor union affairs, and Solidarity
leader Lech Walesa. The purpose of the meeting,
according to Radio Warsaw, was to inform Walesa about
draft legislation concerning unions then before the
Sejm. The statement denies that any official proposals
or conditions were made to Walesa, thus "refuting the
false information concerning the meeting that appeared
in the West." Note: Reports in the Western press
suggested that Ciosek offered Walesa his freedom, in
exchange for supporting the new
party/government-sponsored unions.

In the first retaliatory move against the suspension
of Poland's most-favored-nation status, the Polish
authorities ban the circulation of the US government
Quarterly Review and stipulate that all US scholarship
invitations must now go through the government.

OCTOBER 30	Speaking in Taranto (Italy), where he went to collect
the peace prize awarded him by the local Christian
Cultural Center, Polish Primate Archbishop Josef
Glemp openly admits that the Polish Church hierarchy
strongly opposes the planned November protests; in
his view, strikes could lead to bloodshed and
renewed repression and might dangerously increase
present tension and nervousness in Poland.

Speaking to a specially invited small group of
Western correspondents, government spokesman Jerzy
Urban attacks Western support for the Solidarity
underground's November 10 strike call and warns
that such protests could lead to bloodshed, stressing
that the duration of martial law would depend in
part by what happens that day.

[page 160]

NOVEMBER 2	Government posters appealing against the strikes
and demonstrations called for by underground
Solidarity for November 10 appear on Warsaw walls
as the authorities initiate a campaign against
protests which, as they warn, could lead to
bloodshed.

NOVEMBER 3	PAP, the Polish press agency reports that the
first batch of the country's new unions have been
registered in Warsaw, Wroclaw, and Poznan. The
first union to be registered by the Warsaw Voivodship
Court is the Independent Self-Governing Union of
Employees of Warsaw's Enterprise for Transport in
Domestic Trade.

At the resumed trial of Jan Rulewski, former chief
of the Bydgoszcz Solidarity, the authorities drop
manslaughter charges against him stemming from an
automobile accident on 15 March 1981, when a man
named Jacenty Golab was killed.

The trial of Jan Jozef Lipski, charged with
organizing a strike at the Ursus Tractor Plant
in protest against martial law, is indefinitely
postponed due to Lipski's poor health.

Representatives of some 500 Western banks sign
agreements with Polish officials rescheduling the
debts Poland owes the banks this year and granting
Warsaw new trade credits. Under the agreements,
85% of the $2,400 million of principal due
to the banks in 1982 is to be repaid over 7 years,
although Poland will pay off all the interest,
estimated by bankers at $1,100 million, by
next March. In return for its willingness to pay
interest, the banks are granting Poland 550,000,000
dollars of fresh credits, the first major loan given
to Warsaw since early last year.

On his return from two days of talks in Moscow
Deputy Premier and Planning Chief Janusz Obodowski
says the Soviet leadership has shown "full understanding"
and support" for Polish proposals. Radio Warsaw reports
that Obodowski said the results of his talks with the
Soviet leaders were of "fundamental significance for
the recovery and development of the Polish economy,
and our proposals ha s found full understanding and
support."

NOVEMBER 4	Polish Foreign Minister and PUWP Politburo member
Stefan Olszowski completes a two-day visit to the
German Democratic Republic. During his stay in the
GDR, Olszowski engaged in two rounds of meetings with
East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. He also
conferred with SED Secretary-General Erich Honecker,

[page 161]

NOVEMBER 4	as well as Council of Ministers1 Chairman Willi
(Cont.) Stoph. The joint communiqué‚ issued following
the completion of the visit casts little light
on what was or, equally important, what was not
discussed during the course of Olszowski's stay.
Both sides note their "satisfaction11 with the
implementation of arrangements agreed upon during
the March 1982 visit of Military Council of National
Salvation Chairman General Wojciech Jaruzelski to
the GDR. What the precise nature of these
"arrangements" is remains a matter of conjecture.
Nonetheless, both sides find it necessary to emphasize
that a "further consolidation of cooperation between
the two fraternal parties is a crucial precondition
for the continuous molding of friendly cooperation
between the GDR and Poland."

NOVEMBER 5	The first issue of Tygodnik Polski (Polish Weekly)
published by the Christian Social Association (CSA)
(Chrzescijanskie Stowarzyszenie Spoleczne), appears
on the country's newsstands. The nationwide periodical
contains many articles about religious, social, and
cultural topics. The editor-in-chief of the
16-page weekly is Sejm Deputy Wojciech Ketrzynski, a
journalist and long-time Deputy Chairman of the CSA.
Speaking in Warsaw at a ceremony marking the 65th
anniversary of the October Revolution Soviet Ambassador
to Poland Boris Aristov says that the Soviet people
welcome the signs of stabilization in Poland. Aristov
says the Soviet public is well aware that Poland's
normalization process is taking place under conditions
of a sharp class struggle, imposed by what he terms
the counterrevolutionary underground, whose activity,
he says, is inspired and supported by subversive and
destructive Western circles.

NOVEMBER 7 Speaking at the inaugural ceremonies of the Lublin
Catholic University, the Primate Archbishop Jozef
Glemp admits the existence of nationwide discontent
about martial law and all it implies and acknowledges
the "right to protest" of a nation that has been
unjustly humiliated. While identifying with the
people's bitterness, the Church refuses to be forced
into a political role, which is not its true mission.
Pebuffing implicit criticism that he has been too
conciliatory to the martial law authorities, the
primate stresses that "nobody should expect the Church
to leave the path of peace," and he appeals to people
to prevent bloodshed in the country. In his view,
the nation can achieve more with its "pride and wisdom"
than through what he calls "desperate acts." Note:
The thrust of Glemp's address, as well as his
acquiescence in joining Jaruzelski's call for calm
and order at this particular moment, three days before
[page 162]

NOVEMBER 7 (Cont.)	the general strike is due to start, apparently
reflects the recent round of talks with the Pope
for the purpose of mapping out Church strategy
in the wake of the union ban in Poland. It is to
be assumed that the Primate's stance enjoys the
pontiff's support. The Church hierarchy has
evidently decided to base its strategy on the
fundamental premise of avoiding civil war. That
approach is believed to involve condemning any
act that could prompt new violence, while at the
same time siding firmly with the demands of the
people.

In yet another manifestation of deteriorating
relations between Poland and the US, anti-American
leaflets appear on walls and fences in Lublin to
protest the planned presence of an American official
at the opening ceremony of the academic year at
Lublin's Catholic University. The leaflets, which
appear in the early morning, say "We protest against
the visit of Reagan adviser and CIA agent Mr. Baldyga,"
and are signed by a "temporary union of independent
Catholics." Note: Len Baldyga, Director of European
Affairs at the US Information Agency in Washington,
is currently on an official visit to Poland. He was
part of a large group of Polish and Church officials
and foreign diplomats who attended Sunday's ceremony,
at which Polish Primate Archbishop Jozef Glemp spoke.
A university spokesman says no one has any knowledge
of the "Temporary Union of Independent Catholics"
and that the leaflets must have been put up by the
secret police.

The Wroclaw security service arrests Piotr Bednarz,
who succeeded Wladyslaw Frasyniuk (arrested October 5)
as the leader of underground Solidarity's Lower
Silesian Region.

NOVEMBER 8	Four days after his return to Poland from an
extensive round of consultations with Pope John Paul II
(October 25-November 4), which centered on the
increasingly tense situation in their native country,
and only two days before the Solidarity-planned
eight-hour strike and mass street rallies in protest against
the outlawing of the free unions, Archbishop Jozef
Glemp meets with the country's military ruler, General
Wojciech Jaruzelski, to assess the situation and
set the date for the long-awaited second homecoming
trip of the "Polish Pope." Breaking the news about
the meeting in its noon newscast, Radio Warsaw states
that the two leaders "reviewed the current situation
in Poland" and expressed "common concern" for the
preservation and strengthening of "peace, social order,

[page 163]

NOVEMBER 8 (Cont.)	and also honest work." They also agreed about
a formal invitation to be issued jointly by the
state authorities and the Bishops' Conference
for the pontiff to "begin his pilgrimage to
Poland on 18 June 1983."

Lech Walesa, the interned Solidarity leader, sends
a letter to General Wojciech Jaruzelski saying that
"it is time to explore some problems and to
undertake steps toward agreement. Many people needed
some time to understand what is still possible on
both sides. I propose a meeting and serious discussions
on interesting problems. And, with good will, we will
certainly find a solution." The letter is signed
"Corporal Lech Walesa," presumably a sarcastic reference to
martial law, in which the military plays a major
political role and most workers remain employed in
"militarised" plants. Note: It is significant that
while the communiqué‚ from the meeting between
Archbishop Jozef Glemp and General Wojciech Jaruzelski
was released immediately after their meeting,
presumably to influence the course of the demonstrations
announced for November 10, Walesa's letter was not
made public until November 11, the day after the
long-announced public demonstrations that were to
commemorate the second anniversary of Solidarity's
registration as a labor union, were to have taken
place. This delay strongly implies the authorities'
concern over the scope and the direction of those
demonstrations.

NOVEMBER 9	On the eve of the eight-hour Solidarity strike,
Poland's martial law authorities stress their
determination to put down all and any protests or
demonstrations. This is announced by government
spokesman Jerzy Urban as the authorities wind up a
campaign of persuasion and threat meant to discourage
people from taking to the streets. He tells a press
conference there is uncertainty about how workers
will respond to the call by fugitive Solidarity
leaders for an eight-hour strike, followed by street
demonstrations; but he says the authorities, who
have mounted a campaign of meetings, leaflets, and
speeches in factories and the mass media, are prepared
to use all means to repress protests if they begin.

Banking sources in Frankfurt am Main announce that
Poland has made its first interest payments for 1982,
covering the first two months of the year, slightly
ahead of schedule. Under the terms of the rescheduling
agreement signed November 3 in Vienna, interest for the
first four months of 1982 is due to be paid on
November 19. The balance of the $1,100 million of
interest due in 1982 is supposed to be paid on 20
December 1982 and 20 March 1983.

Polish security agents detain Roman Laba, an American citizen,
for allegedly maintaining close contacts with Poland's
underground and for collecting underground publications. Warsaw

[page 164]

NOVEMBER 9 (Cont.)	Television and pap says that Laba was a research
student at the Polish Academy of Sciences1 Institute
of Philosophy and Sociology. Laba is said to be a
frequent visitor to Poland and to have had contacts
with dissident groups.

NOVEMBER 10	While the response to Solidarity's call for an
eight-hour strike and demonstrations to mark the
second anniversary of the union's registration
fails to match the magnitude of earlier protests,
according to both official Polish media and
Western correspondents, demonstrations do take
place in Warsaw, Wroclaw, and Nowa Huta, near
Cracow. All are put down by riot police firing
flares and smoke bombs. Some 800 people are
detained and dozens injured in the clashes between
the demonstrators and the police. Note: Sporadic
strikes, symbolic in nature, take place all over
the country: in Czestochowa, Gdansk, Cracow, Lodz,
Poznan, Torun, Warsaw, and many other places, often
only for a very short period of time. In Warsaw
and Cracow the clashes continue until the next day
but are quickly contained by the police.

NOVEMBER 11	Government spokesman Jerzy Urban announces that the
authorities are ready to release Lech Walesa from
detention. The spokesman reveals that the readiness
to release the labor leader is based on a
conversation between Walesa and Minister of Internal Affairs
General Czesiaw Kiszczak, in the wake of Walesa's
letter to General Wojciech Jaruzelski. Expanding
the reasons behind the release, the spokesman is
reported to have suggested that Kiszczak determined,
during the conversation with Walesa, that "the release
would not create any danger to public peace," adding
that "this decision stems from the general conditions,
an evaluation of the situation in Poland." Amplifying on
that remark, the spokesman says that "the way the
previous day (November 10) went was one indication
of the progressing stabilization in Poland and that
progressing stabilization permits decisions concerning
the release of internees."

NOVEMBER 12 While on a visit to the Nowa Huta steel plant, General
Wojciech Jaruzelski, accompanied by the Internal
Affairs Minister Czeslaw Kiszczak, also visits the
parents of Bogdan Wlosik, the 20-year old electrician
killed by a security agent on October 10. According
to Radio Warsaw, Jaruzelski spoke directly to workers
and discussed many issues with them, including the
union and the chances of lifting martial law. Most
questions concerned the release of Lech Walesa from
internment. The broadcast also said there were many
critical remarks and "sharp formulations."

NOVEMBER 14	The governing body of the International Labor
Organization (ILO) calls on the Polish government to amend
its new labor union legislation to allow for the

[page 165]

NOVEMBER (Cont.)	14 right to strike, collective bargaining, and the
formation of free unions. It also expresses "deep
concern" that about 700 members of Solidarity are
still in detention. The resolution is passed by 47
members of the 56-member governing body. Four
delegates -- all from Eastern Europe -- vote against,
and three abstain. Polish Deputy Minister of Labor
Krzysztof Gorski walks out in protest after the vote.

Lech Walesa returns to his family in Gdansk. At the
time of his arrival, the Polish press agency issues
a report in English to the effect that "Lech Walesa
is a free man; he can decide for himself what he
wants to do and what kind of job he takes." Walesa
himself tells a welcoming crowd that "I will certainly
remain independent.... In my future conduct I
will be courageous but also prudent.... I will
have talks and will act, not on my knees, but
rationally." Note: Walesa seems to be referring to
his proposal to have a meeting with General Wojciech
Jaruzelski and to discuss with him the possibility of
finding a solution to the country's problems.
The proposal is also repeated during a Walesa
interview with Polish Television. That interview has not
been shown, although excerpts have been leaked to
Western press correspondents in Poland. Moreover,
the very prospect of a meeting between Walesa and
Jaruzelski is dismissed by the authorities. As the
official press agency reports, with a degree of
irritation, "it is hard to understand some voices in
the Western press that treat a meeting and talks
between General Jaruzelski and Lech Walesa as
something inevitable." The agency adds that "the former
head of the former Solidarity is now a private person."
That implies that Jaruzelski does not meet with
"private" persons or perhaps that, in the agency's
opinion, Walesa does not represent anyone but himself.

NOVEMBER 15	In his first day in Gdansk, Walesa is reported to
have a series of meetings with some, still unknown,
persons or groups and grants Western correspondents
several press conferences. These are attended by
several advisers, including two prominent experts
associated with Solidarity ever since the August 1980
strikes: the lawyer Wladyslaw Sila-Nowicki and
Solidarity's economic adviser, Andrzej Wielowieyski.
In his press conference after 11 months of internment,
Walesa stresses the need for peaceful solutions to
Poland's problems but remains committed to the
idea of independent unions. He reaffirms his moderate
stance by saying he still sticks to the Gdansk
Agreement of August 1980, which won Solidarity government
recognition, skirting the issue of the future of
Solidarity itself. Note: In an interview with the
British paper The Guardian {November 15), General
Wojciech Jaruzelski indicates that Walesa's future
depends on his actions now that he is free. The
general makes it clear that he will judge Walesa by

[page 166]

NOVEMBER 15 (Cont.)	the discipline he displays; by his public declarations,
especially to the Western press; and by his future
activity.

The trial of Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, former Chairman
of Solidarity's Lower Silesia Region and a member
of the Interim Coordinating Commission until his
arrest on October 5, starts in Wroclav. He is
charged with continuing with his "illegal" union
activities in the period between the declaration
of martial law on 13 December 1981 and his arrest.

NOVEMBER 17	The Governing Body of the International Labor
Organization publishes a report calling on the
martial law regime to release interned Solidarity
members and amnesty those sentenced by the military
authorities for leading or participating in strikes.
The report says this is the only way to bring about
a revival of what it terms genuine union activity
in Poland. The committee was reporting on complaints
from Western union representatives that the martial
law regime in Warsaw is violating ILO conventions,
which Poland signed, on the right to form and join
free labor unions.

The Polish authorities suspend classes at Warsaw
University's Department of Psychology following
a student protest there on November 10. According
to PAP, Minister of Science, Higher Education, and
Technology Benon Miskiewicz has suspended all lectures
at the department "until a rector's commission
completes an inquiry into the question why classes
failed to take place there on November 10." The
move follows the temporary closing of Copernicus
University in Torun, northwest of Warsaw, where
student disturbances took place on November 11.
Note: Student protests in response to a call by
underground leaders of the outlawed Solidarity union
were also reported at a number of other campuses,
including the Jagiellonian University, the
Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow, and
Poznan University. Some 1,500 Warsaw University
students gathered for a brief campus protest rally
during their midday break on November 10, but the
psychology department students were the only ones
known to have boycotted all their classes on that
day. The next day Trybuna Ludu reported that the
authorities had suspended the Dean of the Warsaw
University Psychology Department and his assistant
for not preventing a student protest. They will
face the university disciplinary commission for
"tolerating or even favoring... activities hostile
to the people's authorities."

[page 167]

NOVEMBER 18	At the Congress of the Socialist Union of Polish
Students (SUPS), the organization is quietly disbanded,
together with its national leadership. In its place
is installed a new organization, the Polish
Students' Association (PSA). Note: The SUPS was
created in 1973 and given a monopoly over the
organization and control of students' problems,
interests, and activities. It quietly disintegrated
after the August 1980 reforms. Its formal dissolution
opened the way for the Fourth Congress of the SUPS to be
transformed into the Founding Congress of the PSA,
with the participants proceeding to adopt a
declaration, a program resolution, and statutes and to
elect officers of the new organization, with Cezary
Droszcz, a complete unknown, being elected on November 22
as Chairman of the PSA Main Council.

Polish security agents reveal pictures and tape
recordings of Lech Walesa in "sexually compromising
situations," apparently in an effort to blackmail
the union leader, according to an NBC News report.
This "documentary material" was shown to Roman
Catholic Church officials at a private meeting with
Polish security agents shortly before Walesa was
released from detention. The pictures and tapes,
along with documents, the security agents claim,
also implicate Walesa in financial irregularities
and may be used to discredit the 39-year-old union
leader if he tries to become a public figure again,
the report says. Note: NBC quotes Walesa as responding:
"I am not surprised by these charges. I expected
such attacks from my enemies as long as 18 months
ago. Any such attacks are only a plus for me; no one
will believe them."

NOVEMBER 20	Lech Walesa meets Archbishop Josef Glemp for more
than two hours. The meeting, in Warsaw, is the
first between the two since the imposition of
martial law. The Solidarity leader drives to
Warsaw from Gdansk in the company of his parish
priest, the Rev. Henryk Jankowski, and a legal
adviser. Neither Walesa, nor Church officials
comment on the talks. After the meeting Glemp
is apparently invited to meet Adam Lopatka, Head
of the Government Office for Religious Denominations,
presumably to brief the martial law authorities on
his discussion with Walesa. Although a meeting
between Archbishop Glemp and Lech Walesa had been
expected, some observers speculate that the actual
timing of it could turn out to be connected with
reported allegations that security officials had
shown senior Church officials videotapes of Walesa
in a sexually compromising situation. Church
spokesmen have formally denied this story; and, despite
intensive inquiries, Western journalists in Warsaw

[page 168]

NOVEMBER 20 (Cont.)	have not found any reliable evidence to support it.
Advisers to Walesa, however, are known to be
anxious to avoid the impression of a rift between
him and the Church. The meeting is, therefore,
being interpreted in part as an attempt to demonstrate
that Walesa still enjoys the confidence of the Church.

According to a Justice Ministry report, voivodship
courts throughout Poland have so far received
1,345 applications for the registration of unions
and they are receiving further applications every
day. About 226 unions have been registered. In two
cases, the courts rejected applications because they
had been filed by managers of factories, which is
incompatible with the provisions and the intention
of the law.

NOVEMBER 22	 Radio Warsaw criticizes the boycott of Polish Television
by actors in protest against martial law, calling
it a boycott of society. The broadcast says pressure
is being put on actors who would like to come back to
television, and those who see no reason for the
boycott are being harassed.

The Provisional Coordinating Commission, a clandestine
body that has acted since April as the leadership
of Solidarity's underground organization, formally
cancels all plans for future protest actions against
the government and its policies. At the same time,
the commission pledges its readiness "to submit to
decisions" that may be taken by Lech Walesa with respect
to the future organization of Solidarity and its
activities. The commission's position is expressed
in a statement signed by its six members -- Zbigniew
Bujak of Warsaw, Wladyslaw Hardek of Cracow, Bodgan
Lis and Eugeniusz Szumiejko of Gdansk, Janusz Palubicki
of Poznan, and Jozef Pinior of Wroclaw.

The cancellation of plans for protests, according
to the statement as quoted by various Western news
organizations, is the result of the emergence of
"a new political situation in Poland." This "new"
situation, it says, was created through the apparent
failure of the November 10 strikes, the release of
Lech Walesa from internment, and the announcement
of the Church-government agreement relating to a
date for a possible visit by Pope John Paul II to
Poland. In addition, the statement alludes to the
prospects for a forthcoming lifting of martial law,
as well as to the population's genuine weariness with
protests, particularly since they have encountered
effective repression by the authorities, as major
contributory factors in forging the new situation,
Radio Warsaw announces that some 15,000 executives
in state and local government administration are to

[page 169]

NOVEMBER 22 (Cont.)	be tested to assess their familiarity with the
economic reform they have been responsible for
implementing during the year.

The trial of the 27-year-old Belgian Roger Noel,
accused of smuggling radio transmitting equipment
for use by Radio Solidarity, starts in Warsaw.
Note: Noel was arrested on July 5 (announced on
July 7), when police detained a group of people
described as organizers of Radio Solidarity.

An armed security guard Piotr Winogradzki, hijacks
a Polish airliner to West Berlin and is wounded
in an exchange of gunfire with two colleagues
after the plane lands. News of the gunfire exchange
is given in a statement by West Berlin security
officials. Four passengers on the plane take
advantage of the hijacking to defect to the West and
ask for political asylum. Note: According to a
statement by Police General Jozef Bejm made in the
Sejm Justice Commission, every political and
economic crisis in Poland has brought an increase
in hijacking attempts. After the bloody riots on
the Baltic Coast in 1970, which resulted in the
reshuffle of the communist leadership, for example,
there were 20 hijacking attempts, compared with 16
in 1981 and 7 this year, Bejm says. According to
other sources, the figure for the 1982 hijacking
attempts appears to be somewhat understated.

NOVEMBER 23	Grazyna Kuron, the 42-year-old wife of Poland's
best-known dissident, Jacek Kuron, dies of a lung
infection in a hospital in Lodz. Note: The funeral
takes place on November 26 and is attended by more
than 1,000 people, making the V-for-Victory sign
and singing national songs. Jacek Kuron is given
a week's leave from Rakowiecka Prison in Warsaw,
where he is being held while the authorities
prepare charges against him of trying to overthrow
the state by violence.

Military Operational Task Groups return to the
Polish countryside to survey "recent changes" in
the work of basic local administration and to
check on the implementation of previous recommendations.

NOVEMBER 24	Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, underground Solidarity leader
in the Lower Silesia Region, receives a six-year
prison sentence on charges of leading strikes and
demonstrations in violation of martial law. In
addition, the Wroclaw Court also suspends Frasyniuk's
civil rights for four years. Note: At the trial
on November 15, the Prosecutor demanded a 10-year
prison term for the accused.

[page 170]

NOVEMBER 24 (Cont.)	Roger Noel, a Belgian accused of smuggling radio
transmitting equipment to Solidarity, is fined
900,000 zloty (c. $10,000) by the Warsaw
Military Court. Note: It appears that the original
sentence was a three-year prison term, subsequently
changed to a fine.

An appeal by the official Patriotic Movement for
National Rebirth (PRON) to end the state of martial
law "at the earliest possible date" is being taken
as a strong signal that the authorities are
planning to lift martial law next month.

NOVEMBER 25	Speaking at a party meeting at the Polkowice Mine
in Legnica (western Poland), Deputy Prime Minister Zbigniew
Szalajda says that progressive normalization in Poland
has created conditions for the lifting of martial law.
He adds, however, that it is advisable for government
prerogatives to be maintained to ensure conditions
effectively to carry out the economic reform, thus
hinting that new legislation to cover the	
post-martial law period, is being prepared.

Speaking in London on the British Independent
Television Hews (ITV), the military authorities
spokesman, Major Wieslaw Gornicki, says that the Polish
government will release about 1,000 interned Solidarity
supporters after martial law is lifted, possibly
on December 13. "The only legal grounds for their
detention is martial law. Once martial law is lifted,
or whatever formula is found, legal grounds for their
detention disappears," he explains. Gornicki declines,
however, to comment on whether the other detainees
will be given an amnesty. "I cannot say anything
about an amnesty, because it is not up to the
government to speak about this," Gornicki says. "This
might be either a parliamentary decision, in the form
of an amnesty bill, or a court decision in individual
cases."

NOVEMBER 26	Radio Warsaw reports that the Polish Sejm will hold
a one-day session on December 3 and will again meet
for a two-day session on December 13 and 14. The
first session will discuss economic and financial
policies. The second will discuss martial law and
social matters. According to the Deputy Speaker
Piotr Stefanski, the Sejm will have a political
discussion on martial law in connection with the
appeal by the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth
(PRON) two days earlier (see entry for November 24).

[page 171]

NOVEMBER 29	PAP; the official Polish news agency, publishes
a laconic announcement about "the reorganization
of Warsaw's artistic institutions." This involves
the creation of a new state enterprise with
headquarters in Warsaw which is to administer a new
theater, the Teatr Rzeczpospolitej (Theater of the
Republic), in place of the Teatr Dramatyczny
(Dramatic Theater), and the subordination of three
other important Warsaw theaters -- the National,
the Grand, and the National Philharmonic -- to
the direct control of the Minister of Culture and
the Arts. The Director of the Teatr Muzyczny
(Music Theater) in Gdynia, Andrzej Cybulski, is
appointed the minister's plenipotentiary for the
organization of the new theater. At the same time
it is announced that Adam Hanuszkiewicz, Director
of the National Theater, will be relieved of his duties as
of 1 January 1983 and replaced by Jerzy Krasowski
by decision of the Mayor of Warsaw, who has
jurisdiction over the theaters at present. Note: There can
be little doubt that these changes are linked to
the refusal of an overwhelming majority of stage
and screen actors to appear on television or stage,
lest this in any way be construed as support for
the martial law regime or its policies. The authorities,
initially tried a soft approach by ignoring the
action, cajoling the actors, and refraining from
seeking recourse to repressive measures in the
hope that with time those "staging a boycott," as
it was described, would miss the footlights and
the publicity and become reconciled to reality.
This approach, however, proved ineffective. Of more
than 4,000 actors, only some 60 to 70 -- who were
labeled "collaborators" by both their colleagues
and the public -- broke the spontaneous solidarity
front. The situation became even more complicated
with an appeal to artists from the Primate of Poland,
Archbishop Jozef Glemp, to end their protest.
Preaching to representatives of Poland's artistic
and intellectual community at the end of a "Church
cultural week" organized by the Warsaw diocese, the
Primate asked that they return to their work in the
theaters and in television in particular. The
effect of his words was somewhat mitigated by his
assurance that he was not advocating collaboration
with the state authorities, nor acting against one's
conscience. He justified his appeal by stressing the
importance of culture to the nation and reminding
his listeners that Poland's cultural achievements
are so great that the country's culture could
overcome obstacles placed in its path.

Seventeen miners are killed and ten injured in an
explosion in the Dymitrow Coal Mine in Bytom, near
Katowice. Note: This is the fourth fatal accident

[page 172]

NOVEMBER 29 (Cont.)	in Dymitrow Mine this year. The others took place
on June 18, July 8, and October 6. Other reported
accidents during the martial law period were at
the Zabrze Mine on 18 December 1981 and the Victoria
Mine in Walbrzych on April 3 and June 5.

Polish authorities announce the release of 327
people interned under martial law, about a third of all
the remaining political detainees. PAP says the
decision to free them was based on "further progress
in the stabilization of social life and the
improvement in the state of security and public order in
the country." Note: the last major release of
internees was on October 11 and involved 308 people.

The joint commission of the Polish government and
the episcopate meet in Warsaw to examine some
preliminary organizational issues connected with
next year's visit to Poland by Pope John Paul II.
Note: the second papal visit to Poland has been
set to start on 16 June 1983.

NOVEMBER 30	Lech Walesa leaves his home in Gdansk for Czestochowa
on what his spokesman described as a religious
pilgrimage. Note: the journey is Walesa's second
trip outside Gdansk since he returned home on
November 14 after his release from 11 months of
solitary internment.

The Polish authorities announce that four former
members of the state leadership who served under
disgraced party chief Edward Gierek have been
temporarily released from internment. PAP names
them as former Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz,
former Deputy Prime Ministers Tadeusz Pyka and
Tadeusz Wrzaszczyk, and the one-time leader of
the trade union movement, Jan Szydlak. The four
were interned when martial law was declared on
December 13 last year. Note. According to Minister
of Internal Affairs Czeslaw Kiszczak, the "temporary"
release is to make it possible for them to testify
before a special Sejm commission which is to
investigate their activities while in office.
DECEMBER 1 At the instructions of Minister of Culture and the
Arts Kazimierz Zygulski, Warsaw Mayor General Mieczyslaw
Debicki bans the Union of Polish Stage Artists
(ZASP). The ministry explains the decision by
referring to ZASP toleration of those actors who
throughout the current year have persistently
protested the imposition of martial law by staying
away from state-run radio and television, and its lack of
support for those actors who ignored the boycott.
Note: The actors' guild, known under its traditional
prewar name ZASP (Polish acronym for the Union of
Polish Stage Artists), was established in April 1981

[page 173]

DECEMBER 1 (Cont.)	when the Association of Theater and Movie Actors
(SPATiF) decided to return to the old name it
had had between 1919 and 1949, Suspended in
December of the same year, along with other
artistic associations, ZASP was revived in June
1982, to be now definitely banned.

General Jerzy Gruba, police commander in
industrial Katowice (southern Poland), orders
all working class and student internees under
his jurisdiction to be released. According to
Polish Television, the internees are being
released at the request of the Patriotic Movement
for National Rebirth (PRON). Note: The move
follows the release, two days earlier, of 327
internees from various camps throughout the country.
Authorities justified that release by citing
"progressive stabilization of life and the
improvement of public order and security," a
statement that is viewed as just another in a
series of official hints that martial law will
be lifted on or around the first anniversary of
its imposition, December 13.

Lech Walesa, leader of the banned Solidarity trade
union, leaves the Jasna Gora Monastery in Czestochowa
after vowing that he would help defend freedom and
human rights. Walesa went to Czestochowa yesterday
to pray to the Black Madonna icon of the Virgin
Mary there and to give thanks for his release on
November 13 after 11 months of internment. During a
Mass at the monastery last night he called for
divine guidance on how best to help defend freedom
and human rights and prayed that the hopes raised
by the labor revolt in August 1980 along the Baltic
coast would be realized in Poland.

Agriculture and the Food Industry Minister Jerzy
Wojtecki complains that Polish farmers' grain sales
to the state of 2,600,000 tons so far this year
represents only half the government target. However,
he adds, the shortfall will not force Poland to
increase its grain imports from the West. Instead
the structure of its purchases will change, to allow
more grain for human consumption and less fodder.

DECEMBER 2	Quoting the office of the Judge Advocate General,
PAP reports that last month Poland's judge advocates
lodged indictments against 177 civilians to be
tried in summary procedings. The news agency also
says that judge advocates in November instituted
summary investigations under the martial law decree
against 108 civilians. Among the offenses being
tried or investigated are the printing and
distributing of leaflets containing "false information

[page 174]

DECEMBER 2 (Cont.)	liable to cause public tension or disturbances,
the creation of an illegal organization whose
aim is to put up resistance against the
authorities, the painting of antistate slogans,
the misappropriation of funds, and an attempted
homicide."

The PUWP CC Youth Commission opens a two-day meeting
in the coastal city of Gdansk to discuss youth
problems. The meeting is presided over by Politburo
member Tadeusz Czechowicz and attended by Politburo
candidate member Stanislaw Bejger, Central Committee
Secretary Waldemar Swirgon, and Secretary Stanislaw
Ornat of the Council of Ministers' Youth Committee.
According to Radio Warsaw, representatives of youth
organizations, of educational institutions, of the
party, and of the Patriotic Movement of National
Rebirth are also attending. The meeting is an
indication of the need to involve young people in
the party's program and to motivate them to participate
on a broader scale in the work of unions, workers'
self-management bodies, and the patriotic movement.

DECEMBER 3	The Polish Episcopate issues a communiqué in the
wake of the 189th plenary meeting of the Polish
Episcopate's conference, held on December 1 and 2
in Warsaw, The main part of the communiqué, devoted
to social and economic problems, reiterates the bishops
stand that the Church shares responsibility for
determining the nation's fate. It also appears to
indicate that the Catholic Church has abandoned its
once acclaimed role as a mediator in Poland's
politics and has reverted to its traditional position
of serving as a guardian of the nation's moral and
spiritual values (see also entry under December 7).
Note: The importance of the document became even more
apparent when Pope John Paul II publicly endorsed the
view of the Polish bishops. Speaking to his weekly
audience on December 15 at the Vatican, the pontiff
quoted extensively from the communiqué, emphasizing
the passages relating to the Church's coresponsibility
for the nation's destiny and calling the outlawing
of Solidarity "painful" for Poles.

Opening a Sejm session devoted to Poland's economic
situation, Deputy Prime Minister Janusz Obodowski
blames the country's economic troubles on the
strikes last year led by the independent Solidarity
trade union, saying "the implementation of martial
law halted the development of these pathological
phenomena. Elementary order has returned to the
economy."

Turning to economics proper, Obodowski tells the
Sejm that one of the majox problems in Poland is
market imbalance. That imbalance is due to the

[page 175]

DECEMBER 3 (Cont.)	fact that, despite price increases last February,
there has been a strong tendency for wages and
social benefits to rise. The only way to tackle
the problem of pent-up inflation is, according
to Obodowski, to bring incomes into line with
increased productivity and market supply.
Obodowski says this is the policy the government
intends to pursue by allowing moderate price
increases and controlling incomes. Note: Martial
law leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski did not
attend the Sejm session, going instead to the
Dymitrow Mine in southern Poland, where 17 men
died in an underground explosion on November 29.

Finance Minister Stanislaw Nieckarz and National
Bank President Stanislaw Majewski submit the
government's plans to straighten out the country's
budget and restore financial balance. Nieckarz
tells the Sejm that the budget deficit this year
amounts to 240,000 million zloty. He says 60%
of enterprise profits this year have gone into
the state coffers. The rest is being spent mostly
on wage increases rather than on expanding assets.
Nieckarz says the budget deficit is expected to
reach 176,000 million zloty next year. However,
he says, the enormous social pressure to increase
social spending impedes attempts to achieve a
financial balance. On taxes, Nieckerz says the government
is trying to create a system that will promote the
expansion of small industry and prevent people from
making fortunes unjustifiably. Majewski says people's
incomes will have outstripped market supply by about
500,000 million zloty by the end of the year and that
the market has achieved a certain balance only so
far as rationed goods go. According to the government's
financial and budget plans, Majewski says, wages will
be increased by 16% next year, while retail prices will
go up by 15%. This, he says, may be difficult to put
into effect if one considers that wages and
compensation have risen by an estimated 40% this year, far
more than projected in the plan. Social pressure
on wages will continue to be strong because of the
planned retail price increases. Majewski says banks
will not give credits to enterprises manufacturing
poor quality goods or items not in demand. At the
same time, producers who get high profits by
putting up the prices of their goods will receive
smaller credits. As for centrally planned capital
investments, Majewski says the government will
continue to complete investments of major social
importance and those at an advanced stage of work.
He says capital investments for enterprises will
rise by only about 40,000 million zloty. Credits
for private home building will rise by twice that
much.

[page 176]

DECEMBER 3 (Cont.)	Addressing a miners' meeting at Jastrzebie-Zdroj
near Katowice, General Wojciech Jaruzelski attacks
the US for the various sanctions it has imposed,
saying that the present US government seems blinded
by an anti-Polish obsession and not a day passes
without some representative of the US
administration making new demands. He says that if the US
continues what he calls its bitter anti-Polish
campaign, the Polish government will have to restrict
the area of cooperation with it and impose sanctions
of its own. On the domestic front, Jaruzelski
says the authorities will retain special powers over
industrial enterprises for some time after martial
law is lifted. Note: A meeting of the Sejm on
these matters is scheduled for December 13, the
first anniversary of the imposition of martial
law. Polish officials have hinted the meeting
could lift or suspend martial law.

Radio Warsaw broadcasts a report from the government
press office that says a total of 609 officials were
punished from July 1 to November 15. The
report says the punishment was applied to "badly
working personnel." It gives no other reason for
the punishment. It says 20 directors and deputy
directors of department offices in ministries and
central agencies were reprimanded. Three of these
department directors were released -- one in the
Ministry of Domestic Trade and Services, one in the
Ministry of Culture and the Arts, and another in the
Office of Maritime Economy. Punishment was also
meted out to 63 directors in voivodship offices, but
16 of them were released. A total of 328 directors
and deputy directors of enterprises and 198
administrators in towns and communes have been punished.

At a press conference arranged during a break in
the Sejm's debate, government spokesman Jerzy
Urban takes strong exception to alleged remarks
made by US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger:
"In his appearance on the American ABC Television
Network, US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger
suggested that the termination of martial law in
Poland would not satisfy America's political ambitions
in Eastern Europe. I confirm the accuracy of those
suppositions. After a possible suspension of
martial law, Poland will not return to political
relations of a type that would satisfy the Washington
administration's hopes of dismembering the socialist
community. During his digressions Weinberger called
General Jaruzelski a Russian general wearing a
Polish uniform. He also said that the Polish leader
is pursuing an un-Polish policy. In connection with
this style of conducting polemics, I express the
indignation of the Polish government. Such
unprecedented personal attacks based on absurd invention
[shows to what level] customs in American politics
[have sunk]. We demand that the American government,
which maintains diplomatic relations with Poland,

[page 177]

DECEMBER 3 (Cont.)	define its attitude about Weinberger's outburst."
Note: Urban's statement follows upon a very
virulent anti-American campaign conducted in the
Polish media since the revocation by President
Ronald Reagan of Poland's most-favored-nation
status on October 27, in retaliation for the
delegalization of Solidarity.

The prominent Polish film director Andrzej Wajda
is quoted as saying that the authorities have
asked him to step down as Chairman of the Association
of Polish Filmmakers in exchange for lifting the
suspension of the association. Reuter quotes a
letter Wajda wrote to all members of the association
telling them that he has rejected the proposal. Reuter
says it received a copy today of the letter, dated
November 21. It quotes Wajda, whose films include Man
of Marble, Man of Iron, and Danton. as saying that
the authorities made it clear in early summer that
the suspension of the association could only be
lifted if he and four other board members were removed.
Reuter quotes Wajda as saying that, after consultations
with other board members, who all protested against
the suggestion, he rejected the proposal. He is
further quoted as saying that he proposed that the
authorities allow a new congress to elect new officers
and pledged that he would not stand for election
himself, but there has been no response. Note:
The issue was raised during the Sejm session today
when an independent member of the Sejm, Karol
Malcuzynski, asked Minister of Culture and the Arts
Kazimierz Zygulski what the government's intentions
were toward the Filmmakers' Association and the
Writers' Union. Malcuzynski asked whether the
government intended to close "all organizations with
which dialogue is difficult and whose democratically
elected officers are frowned upon?" Zygulski is
reported to have replied that the government would
take whatever decisions necessary to protect national
culture. Most associations and unions, including
the Solidarity trade union, were suspended when
martial law was declared last December. Since then
some have been dissolved, including Solidarity
(October 8), the Journalists' Association (March 20),
the Independent Students' Union (January 5), and
the Actors' Union (December 1).

DECEMBER 5	A Radio Warsaw specialist on agriculture, Stanislaw
Staszewski, warns that Polish meat rations will be
even smaller next year. Staszewski says that in
1980 Poles could obtain an average 74 kilograms of
meat per capita. In 1982 the amount went down to
58 kilograms, and next year it will be only 55
kilograms.

[page 178]

DECEMBER 6 Radio Warsaw announces that the agenda of the
next session of the Polish Sejm, December 13
and 14, will include "proposals concerning martial
law legislation." The agenda also includes a
number of Sejm committee reports on government
draft bills, including one on pensions, social
security for private farmers, and the protection
of state secrets. The Sejm will also elect
members of the Economic Council.

DECEMBER 7	US Embassy sources in Warsaw report a new spate
of anti-American incidents reflecting the soured
relations between the two countries. The acts
include threatening notes to two embassy staff
members telling the United States to "change
your relations toward Poland." The sources also
suspect a Polish employee was beaten because he
works for the embassy. Note: The incidents seem
to be a reaction to US Defense Secretary Casper
Weinberger's accusation that Jaruzelski is merely 1
a Russian general in a Polish uniform (see entry
under December 3). Similar attacks occurred in
October, forcing the US Embassy in Warsaw to
increase its security and to ask the Polish
authorities on October 22 for extra protection.

Radio Warsaw reports that internees in the city
and voivodship of Warsaw and in the southwest
Polish Voivodship of Walbrzych have been released.
Orders have been issued to release all remaining
internees in more voivodships -- Warsaw, Lodz in
central Poland, and Rzeszow in the southeast.
Note: As in previous cases a special point was made
that the releases were in response to appeals of
the state-backed Patriotic Movement of National
Rebirth (PRON), no doubt in order to increase its
prestige.

The Polish Supreme Court increases the prison
sentence imposed on Polish Catholic priest Sylwester
Zych from four to six years. Note: Father Zych was
sentenced to four years in prison in September in
a trial of several people for killing a policeman
last February. The Warsaw Judge Advocate, who had
asked for a 10-year sentence for Zych, later appealed
to the Warsaw Military Court to increase the 4-year
sentence (see entries for February 18, August 10,
August 23, and September 8).

The Primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, convenes a
meeting of some 300 parish priests to explain the
rationale behind his recent decisions and to attempt
to dispel their misgivings over the Church hierarchy's
policy vis-a-vis the military regime in the
post-Solidarity era. Note: This was the second meeting.

[page 179]

DECEMBER 7 The first reportedly took place on November 25,
when some 80 parish priests met with Glemp at
the Jesuit College in Warsaw's Mokotow district.
Though neither of these meetings was open to
the public or the press, some of the information
on the agitated and spirited discussions that
took place eventually reached Western press
correspondents in Warsaw, According to these
reports, there were three main problems that
aroused the strongest reservations among the
rank-and-file clergy: the Church's apparent
dissociation from the free unions' cause; the
primate's stand on ending the performers'
boycott of appearing on radio and television
programs; and his approach to the so-called Patriotic
Movement for National Rebirth (PRON). In some
clerics' view, the Church should continue its
long-standing involvement in Solidarity work,
even if that organization has been declared
illegal. The primate countered those arguments
by explaining that the Church is in no position
to revive Solidarity as such. What it is prepared
to offer instead is to help preserve the democratic
ideals Solidarity stood for in its heyday. He also
reiterated his long-time stand that the Church's
true mission lies in the spiritual and moral spheres
rather than the political. Other speakers then
referred to a sermon Glemp gave on November 29
in Warsaw in which he called on radio and television
actors to end their year-long boycott of the state
media, a protest considered the most successful of
its kind under martial law. Rebuffing his critics'
objections that the appeal to end the boycott was
untimely, since it was inconsistent with popular
feelings, Glemp replied that his action was prompted,
in fact, by the performers themselves, who approached
him with the request to help them find an honorable
way out of the protracted protest that apparently
could not be carried on indefinitely. The rationale
behind the request obviously was that many would
prefer to yield to the primate's exhortations rather
than to pressure from the authorities. In the primate's
view, no institution is bad per se, the implication
being that even the much detested Polish Television network
is only as bad or as good as the people who run. it.
The third, probably most controversial, issue was
the primate's appraisal of PRON, one that obviously
differed from that of his audience. According to
the reports, Glemp urged the clerics not to jump
to conclusions yet but rather to wait and see how
the organization develops. More specifically, he
defended the person of PRON leader Jan Dobraczynski,
a Catholic writer with a particularly long record
with Pax, who is considered an honest man and a good
Christian.

[page 180]

DECEMBER 8 Piotr Bednarz, a leader of the Solidarity
underground opposition, goes on trial in the southern
city of Wroclaw charged with organizing strikes
and demonstrations in violation of martial law.

PAP, the official news agency, says Bednarz (arrested
on November 7), is being tried under summary
proceedings on charges of continuing union activity
in defiance of martial law and organizing illegal
strikes and demonstrations. Note: After hearing a
medical opinion, the court grants Bednarz's request
to have the trial adjourned on health grounds.
The dates for new proceedings are set for December 14
and 15. Bednarz is the second member of the
underground's Interim Coordinating Commission to come to
trial. Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, the previous leader of
the Solidarity stronghold of Wroclaw, was imprisoned
for six years on November 24.

Western news agencies report the dismissal (not
reported by the Polish media until three days later)
of Radio and Television Committee Chairman
Wladyslaw Loranc and his two deputies, Andrzej Kurz
and Stanislaw Celichowski. The RTC Director
General Jerzy Bajdor, has been appointed First
Deputy Chairman responsible for day-to-day
management. The new deputy chairmen are Jan Grzelak
and Wladyslaw Korczak.

DECEMBER 9	Reporting to the Sejm's Internal Affairs and
Justice Commission, First Deputy Internal Affairs
Minister General Boguslaw Stachura says that during
the martial law period a total of 10,131 people
have been interned but never more than 5,300 at
any one time. As of December 8 only 317 persons
were still in internment. As for other relevant
facts and figures: the authorities instituted
proceedings in 2,822 cases involving 3,616 persons
accused of felonies committed for political reasons;
15 demonstrators were "mortally wounded," mostly
from ricocheting bullets, and 178 injured, as were
813 militiamen and soldiers, 26 of whom were
seriously hurt "as a result of the aggressive
behavior of crowds"; and 11 Solidarity radio stations
were said to have been eliminated as well as 677
illegal underground groups.

DECEMBER 10	The National Secretariat of the Communist Union
of Polish Youth meets in Warsaw together with the
organization's regional and municipal committees
and decides to dissolve the CUPY, "because it had
outlived its usefulness." Note: the COPY was officially
registered on 10 June 1981 in Lodz. Although some
of its founder-members claim to have engaged in
various activities as far back as July and August 1980,
[page 181]

DECEMBER 10 (Cont.)	it was only on 2 April 1981 that a founding
declaration was signed and a founding committee
constituted. It brought together various local
groups inspired by Marxist ideology, which had
apparently sprung up spontaneously -- not at the
initiative of the PUWP leadership, nor any of
its power groups -- in major centers throughout
Poland. At a 3 July 1981 meeting in Lodz another
organization, called the Union of Communist Youth,
joined with the CUPY; and a Rational Committee made
up of 51 members was established. At the head of
the 14-member presidium was First Secretary Pawel
Darczewski, of Warsaw. It then claimed to have some
1,000 members: young workers and school and
university students, mainly in Warsaw, Lodz, Cracow,
Katowice, Opole, Torun, Wroclaw, Gdansk, Bydgoszcz,
Wloclawek, and Lublin.

Radio Warsaw reports that Cracow Mayor Jozef
Gajewicz has issued an order dissolving the
Democratic Youth Union (ZMD -- Zwiazek Mlodziezy
Demokratycznej). The decision was taken, the broadcast
says, because the DYU did not meet the conditions
stipulated in adapting its statutes to conform to
the laws governing associations. Note: The Democratic
Youth Union came into being on 13 February 1981 when
representatives of groups of young people in major
Cities all over the country either connected with
the Democratic Party or simply interested in the
kind of ideology officially propagated by it came
together in Cracow. The desire to recreate an
organization of democratic youth became apparent soon after
the August Agreements were signed, and the first
groups were founded in Lublin at the Marie
Curie-Sklodowska University and in Cracow where an Academic
Democratic Club attached to the Local DP committee
was formed on 10 October 1980.

DECEMBER 11	The American Broadcasting Corporation issued
the text of a letter Solidarity's former chief, Lech
Walesa, sent to General Wojciech Jaruzelski, on
December 4:

General,

The forecasted lifting of martial law has
prompted me to address you once again. This
is certainly not the time to assess events
and questions of past years. It is, however,
a valuable occasion to look to the future
and evince true hope for a better life. The
people are in much need of this hope. The
deep and prolonged crisis can be overcome
primarily by the effort of society as a whole.
It is also indispensable to obtain foreign
aid, which is withheld at the moment for
political reasons.

[page 182]

DECEMBER 11 (Cont.)	The arousing of social efforts and the strengthening
of the position of Poland in the world is possible
only through rebuilding mutual trust between
society and the government. This goal
can be achieved only if the August 1980
agreements are used as a foundation.
Since the introduction of martial law, the
government and you, personally, have stated
repeatedly that there will be no return
to the pre-August 1980 state of affairs.

Meeting the expectations of the nation
is the only way to awaken hope and to
contribute to social stability. This will
require a general amnesty for those tried
during the martial law period for union
activity and protest actions. I assume,
of course, that this will be done in
accordance with the decrees that were
explained to me when I was released
[and that] all internees will automatically
be released with the lifting of martial law.

Secondly, those dismissed from work
during the martial law period for either
union activity or just for mere membership
in the union will [have to] be reinstated in their
jobs. This issue has very broad social
implications and arouses many painful feelings.
Thirdly, a breakthrough on the Labor union
impasse by returning to the principle of
plurality. The fact that the working class
has not accepted the solutions implemented
by the government is now clear to all those
who do not close their eyes to reality.
Without the acceptance of the government's
position by the working class, we will not
get far. These steps would open the way to
true social agreement. I am ready to take
part in work leading to this goal.

Neither of us is doing the other a favor and
neither of us has to ask for agreement on his
knees, because agreement is a necessity if
you care about the good of the country.
Each one of us who has the good will of the
country in mind has to be open to agreement.

Lech Walesa

[page 183]

DECEMBER 11 (Cont.)	In an article published in the government paper
Rzeczpospolita Deputy Defense Minister Baryla,
a general and a member of the ruling Military
Council of National Salvation, indicates that
the Sejm meeting on December 13 will consider
the "suspension," not lifting, of martial law
and is emphatic that the authorities will have
to be equipped for some time afterward with
special powers. Reviewing the record of the
martial law period, he says one of its most
important gains is that it has re-established
Poland's credibility in the socialist camp and
demonstrated that Poland will not be a Trojan
horse in the socialist community. At the same
time, General Baryla says it is clear that martial
law could not have led the country out of its
crisis. He says the "suspension" of martial
law, whenever it comes, will mark an important
stage in the difficult process of national
renaissance and the development of socialist
Poland. But, Baryla says, with the underground
still not willing to give up its struggle and
ready to exploit every opportunity, hopes that
things will improve following an announcement
that martial law is lifted are accompanied by
fears that there could foe a resurgence of the
tension and anarchy of the period preceding the
13 December 1981 declaration.

DECEMBER 12	On the eve of the first anniversary of the martial
law declaration General Wojciech Jaruzelski
announces in a television address, also
broadcast live on radio, that martial law will
be suspended before the end of the year but
with some restrictions remaining to shield the
economy and to protect the safety of individuals
and the state.

DECEMBER 13	Police in combat fatigues and bearing truncheons
block off access to the monument honoring the
Gdansk shipyard workers shot in the December
1970 riots. Note: the monument, put up in
December 1980, has been a monthly rallying point
since the imposition of martial law. Several
weeks ago underground Solidarity leaders called
for rallies or demonstrations for December 13
but later, instead, set aside December 16, the
anniversary of the riots in Gdansk in 1970 and
the death of miners in Wujek last year, for a
gathering outside the shipyard. Solidarity
leader Lech Walesa has requested permission to
address the crowds but has still not received
an answer.

In an interview with Philippe Legres broadcast
by France-International Radio Network, Bogdan
Lis, an active member of underground Solidarity,
says that the Polish authorities are only considering

[page 184]

DECEMBER 13 (Cont.)	changes to martial law as a means of ending Western
economic sanctions and getting new loans. He says
the authorities will retain such powers of control
that the changes will only be a show. With martial
law, he says, the authorities "got what they wanted --
they delegalized Solidarity." Lis also says that
Solidarity underground leaders will wait for some time
following the government's decision before defining
their own viewpoint. He says they need to know the
reaction of the Church and of Lech Walesa, but he is
not optimistic and describes the outlook for Poland as
"bleak."

At the Sejm session that started today State Council
Chairman Henryk Jablonski outlines proposals amounting
to a partial amnesty for people imprisoned under
martial law. He tells the session of the Sejm that a
draft bill proposed by the Council of State will end
the policy of internment and the process of summary
trials by military courts. He says it is also envisaged
that if the draft bill were passed, the Council of State
would issue a resolution establishing a framework for
the granting of pardons. This will enable requests
for release to be filed by prisoners, their relatives,
or by organizations. He says the prisoners will have
to give pledges not to resume political activity and
warns that the extent of official pardons will be limited
to those whose crimes, as he puts it, were not too
serious or whose degree of responsibility was minimal
and who also show repentance. The age, health, and
parental status of offenders will also be taken into
consideration.

Radio Warsaw reports that the debate on two draft
laws on suspension of martial law in Poland has ended
in the Sejm and the bills have been sent to the Sejm
Commission on Internal Affairs and Justice and to the
Legislative Commission.

Government spokesman Jerzy Urban announces that martial
law will be formally suspended on 31 December 1982.
The move was signaled by General Wojciech Jaruzelski
in his speech to the nation on December 12 and was
confirmed in the Sejm address by State Council Chairman
Henryk Jablonski earlier today. Referring to
the letter Lech Walesa sent to Jaruzelski two days
earlier, Urban quotes the latter's speech in which he
warned those still hoping for a second stage in the
struggle against socialism." Note: The suspension
of martial law still formally remains dependent on
Sejm approval of additional legislation dealing with
certain transitional aspects of exercising power during
the period of suspension.

[page 185]

DECEMBER 14	Peter Sutcliffe, a spokesman for the International Labor
Organization, says that the planned suspension of most
martial law regulations in Poland "clearly" fails
to meet the organization's hope for an early end to
martial law rule. The spokesman refers to an ILO
report adopted last month which urged a lifting of
martial law in the very near future and other measures
to bring Polish legislation into line with the principles
of the freedom of association convention to which Poland
is a signatory.

The Sejm ends its two-day session after passing new items
of legislation. Radio Warsaw reports the Sejm has passed
a law on the employment of graduates. The law abolishes
a graduate's duty to pay the cost of his education
partially or fully in cash or by working for three years
in the enterprise from which he or she had received a
grant. The new law operates on the principle that a
graduate is free to work for an enterprise of his or
her own choice. Another law -- the state secrets act --
defines the difference between official and state secrets.
The Sejm also appoints new members to the Economic
Council. All the legislation is passed with only two
abstentions. One deputy abstains from voting on a law dealing
with social security for farmers, and there is one
abstention on the graduates' employment law.

At his trial, resumed in Wroclaw, Piotr Bednarz pleads
not guilty to charges of organizing and taking part in
what the authorities call illegal strikes and protest
actions. Note: Bednarz was arrested on November 7.
His trial, started on December 8, was postponed on
medical grounds.

A statement carried by PAP, the official news agency,
says the Polish government is cutting back on cultural
and scientific links with the United States in response
to what it calls US attacks on Polish interests and
sovereign rights. The statement also says no visas
will be granted to representatives or employees of the
US Information Agency, and all visa applications by
Americans will be specially scrutinized. The statement
condemns the fact that "The US special services have
repeatedly abused scientific and cultural cooperation
for the purpose of penetration and subversion." Note:
The move follows an increasingly acrimonious exchange
between the Polish and American governments, led by
General Wojciech Jaruzelski and President Ronald Reagan.
General Jaruzelski bitterly attacked Washington on
December 3, listing the economic and social sanctions
imposed on Poland owing to the imposition of martial
law and threatening retaliation. What has particularly
angered the Polish authorities is the revocation on
October 17 of Poland's most-favored-nation status and the

[page 186]

DECEMBER 14 (Cont.)	television remarks in November by Defense
Secretary Casper Weinberger that "Poland at the
moment is not free. Poland is a country that is
run by a Russian general wearing a Polish uniform,
the policies [of the two countries] are virtually
identical."

Francis Blanchard, Director of the International
Labor Organization, releases a letter from Lech
Walesa to the ILO, dated November 26, in which
Walesa told the ILO he will continue to base his
actions on the 1980 Gdansk worker-government agreements
creating the Solidarity union. Walesa also thanked
the organization for the pressure it has applied on
Poland over the past year to lift martial law and
release interned Solidarity members.

DECEMBER 15	On the eve of the memorial service commemorating
the 12th anniversary of the Baltic coast events,
Lech Walesa declares, in a speech whose text was
distributed in advance to Western correspondents,
that "we are hurt again; we have not achieved our
aims. That is why we have to say the workers'
cause is still an open one and ours will be the
victory." On the same day, Walesa is summoned to
report to the prosecutor's office in Gdansk but
refuses to go. A spokesman at this home says:
"Walesa was summoned to be in the prosecutor's office
at 1400 hours but regarded the summons as something
informal and did not go." Though there is no
explanation why Walesa is being called to the prosecutor's
office, it is speculated in Gdansk that local authorities
want to warn Walesa not to try to address shipyard
workers at the shipyard gates tomorrow.

General Wojciech Jaruzelski meets with the Warsaw
Pact Commander in Chief Soviet Marshal Viktor Kulikov.
According to Radio Warsaw, Kulikov's is a "working
visit" to discuss the military-political situation in
Europe and the world.

DECEMBER 16 Lech Walesa is detained by police at his home in
Gdansk just hours before he is to make his first
public speech since his release after 11 months of
internment. Western newsmen quote witnesses and
sources close to Walesa as saying that riot police, who
had surrounded his apartment block since early this
morning, entered his apartment and drove him away
in a black Mercedes sedan. It is not immediately
clear why Walesa, who was released from internment
just over a month ago, is being detained or where he is
being taken. Eventually it becomes clear that Walesa
is merely being taken for a long ride to prevent him
from appearing at the commemoration rally. He is,
at first, taken to a local finance office where
"attempts at conversation" are made and, after those
"attempts" fail, he is driven back and forth on the
road from Gdansk to Gdynia (c.20 km) for 8 hours.

[page 187]

DECEMBER 16 (Cont.)	Walesa returns home at 1925 hours. He is brought
back by the same people who took him away.

Radio Warsaw reports the arrest of Stanislaw
Zablocki, whom it describes as the former chairman
of the Solidarity works' commission in the Adolf
Warski Shipyard in Szczecin on the Baltic coast.
Zablocki had been in hiding in Koszalin Voivodship,
also on the coast, since the imposition of martial
law in December of last year. The broadcast says
2ablocki is suspected of organizing a strike at the
shipyard for three days following the December 13
imposition of martial law. He is also suspected of
underground activity in the regional strike committee
in Szczecin.

As the martial law authorities whisk Lech Walesa into
custody, security forces and riot police fire tear
gas to disperse crowds of demonstrators at two
locations in Gdansk. In the evening, Walesa's confessor
and adviser, Father Henryk Jankowski, says at a special
Mass, "I would like to express my deep regrets. Lech
wanted to be here today, but he could not, and he is
not. Let us say a prayer for him." After the service,
during which worshipers flash "V for Victory" signs --
the quiet symbol of popular dissent to martial law --
several hundred Poles walk toward the nearby monument
to fallen workers. They are cut off by police in
riot gear who subsequently fire at least three rounds
of tear gas. The crowd disperses while jeeringly
whistling and. tauntingly shouting "Gestapo."

In Warsaw riot police train water cannon on about
250 jeering protestors, many of them young people.
The demonstrators taunt the authorities with chants
of "Free Lech" and "Down with the junta." Several
dozen demonstrators take refuge in St. Ann's Catholic
Church, which is subsequently surrounded by
helmet-wearing, shield-bearing police, about three of whom
dart into the sanctuary and drag away one of the youths
closest to the door. The move evokes shouts of "Gestapo,
Gestapo."

PAP, the official news agency, says former Polish
Ambassador to Japan Zdzislaw Rurarz, found guilty of
high treason by a military court, has been sentenced
to death in absentia. Mote: Rurarz defected on
24 December 1981 in Tokyo in protest against the
declaration of martial law. He was granted political
asylum in the United States.

The trial of Piotr Bednarz, one of Solidarity's
national underground leaders up to his arrest on
November 7, is recessed on medical grounds and will
resume on December 22.

[page 188]

DECEMBER 16 (Cont.)	By a vote of 91 to 17 the European Parliament in
Brussels passes the following resolution:

The European Parliament,

Noting the first anniversary of [the declaration]
of martial law in Poland and concerned at the
continuing disregard of human rights by the
dictatorial regime of General Jaruzelski;
Conscious of the historic links between Poland
and the rest of Europe, which impose an
obligation on the peoples of Europe to act
in favor of the freedom and self-determination
of Poland;

Repeats in the most emphatic terms its
condemnation of the imposition of martial law
in Poland and considers that the supposed
relaxations of martial law recently introduced
do not restore in a satisfactory manner the rights
of the Polish people, since these "relaxations"
are provisional, incomplete, and, in many cases,
illusory;

Expresses its willingness to reconsider its
position to take account of real signs of
movement toward the restoration of workers' rights;

Urges the commission, the council, and the ministers
meeting in political cooperation not to allow
themselves to be deceived by words and slogans,
but to bring all appropriate pressure to bear
on the Polish and Soviet authorities in attempting
to persuade them to rescind martial law and
legalize the trade union genuinely representative
of Polish workers, "Solidarity";

Urges the commission, the council, and the
ministers meeting in political cooperation to
ensure that the views of the European Parliament
are conveyed to the rulers of Poland and the
Polish public;

Instructs its president to forward this
resolution to the commission, the council, and the
ministers meeting in political cooperation.

DECEMBER 17	The Interim National Council of the state-backed
Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth (PRON)
elects Jan Dobraczynski Chairman of the council.
Note: Dobraczynski, a Catholic writer associated with
the pro-regime Catholic organization Pax, has been
acting chairman of the Interim Council since its
inception three months ago (see entry under September 15).

[page 189]

DECEMBER 19	The Council of State formally decrees the suspension
of martial law in Poland. The decree goes into
effect on December 31. The action follows the
passage by the Sejm on December 18 of laws providing
the Council with the right to reimpose martial law if
conditions require it and legalizing certain
restrictions that had been introduced by "the state of war"
for the future. The Sejm approved them without any
opposition, although nine deputies abstained in the vote
on the extension of disciplinary restrictions. The
move was expected, having already been signaled during
a Sejm meeting on December 13 when the bills were
formally introduced for debate. Among the restrictions
that will be continued are the following:

a. Restrictions on changing jobs; workers
may not quit their jobs unless they have
approval from their factory management;
otherwise they can be dismissed and face a fine.
Workers can change jobs and be hired at a new
factory only with references from their previous
place of work. If a worker changes jobs he will
receive the lowest wage in his work category at
his new place of work.

b. Any participation in an unauthorized strike,
protest, or demonstration may lead to dismissal.
The same rule applies to students, whether
participating in action on or outside university
grounds.

c. Limitations on the use of foreign currency
accounts will continue.

d. Military tribunals will retain their
jurisdiction in "certain" cases related to the
security of the state.

e. The preparation, collection, keeping, carrying
or sending of any material deemed by the
authorities to be directed "against state interests" will
be punishable by a prison term of between six months
and five years.

f. Any activity aimed at "provoking public unrest"
makes one liable to a three-year prison term.

g. Censorship of mail will continue in all cases
ordered by the authorities.

h. Sentences imposed during martial law remain
valid.

[page 190]

DECEMBER 19 (Cont.)	These provisions are reinforced by a new law on "the
protection of state and official secrets." Adopted
by the Sejm on December 14, it says that:
A state secret consists of information the
revelation of which could harm the state's
defense, ability [to act], security, and
various other important matters. These other
"important matters" include "scientific and
research information.... the justifiable
interests of organized bodies (political parties,
for example), and also the justifiable interests
of citizens." (Trybuna Ludu, 15 December 1982)

The law stresses that "keeping a state secret is the
duty of every citizen and every employee.... A secret
must be kept during a person's employment and after
his employment is terminated." The bill supersedes
the pertinent provisions of the censorship law that
was passed in August 1981; the new law imposes much
greater control over publications than at any time
since 1945. There was no opposition in the Sejm to
the adoption of the bill.

DECEMBER 20	Party and government leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski
leaves for Moscow to attend celebrations marking the
60th anniversary of the creation of the USSR. Radio
Warsaw reports that Jaruzelski is heading a party and
state delegation which includes State Council Chairman
Henryk Jablonski, three Deputy Prime Ministers -- Roman
Malinowski, Edward Kowalczyk, and Zenon Komender --
and Jozef Czyrek, a party Politburo member and Central
Committee Secretary.

Polish authorities give their first detailed public
explanation for the detention of Lech Walesa on
December 16, saying he is under investigation for
fiscal "irregularities." The Polish communist party
daily Trybuna Ludu says in an unsigned report that
"Walesa refused to give explanations about serious
irregularities in managing the money of the Solidarity
regional union chapter he used to run." He also
declined to file a statement on his income, which all
people earning a lot of money are obliged to do."

Minister of Culture and the Arts Kazimierz Zygulski
announces, at the instruction of General Wojciech
Jaruzelski, the formation of the National Council
of Culture (NCC), with some 150 members, which is to
act as a watchdog over the government's interpretation
of cultural policies. Note: Under the law setting up
the council, more than 100 of its members were
appointed by Jaruzelski. The minister said some seats
in the council had been left unfilled, because "at
the present moment not all associations and unions
important for culture have resumed operations."

[page 191]

DECEMBER 21	Government spokesman Jerzy Urban tells a press
conference that Solidarity leader Lech Walesa is
under investigation for possible tax evasion and
mismanagement of union finances but will not
face criminal charges. Note: According to Urban
this is the reason why Walesa was taken to the
local finance office on December 16, the anniversary
of the 1970 Gdansk events.

While Jerzy Urban confirms that all internees should
be freed by Christinas, except for an
as-yet-unidenti-fied group of "several" to be formally charged with
criminal or political offenses, the Council of State
tells the Prosecutor General and Judge Advocate General
to work immediately toward the large-scale granting
of pardons to people who committed offenses against
public order and security under martial law. Radio
Warsaw says the State Council recommendation to the
civilian and military prosecutors came in connection
with the planned suspension of martial law on
December 31. The State Council instructs the Prosecutor
General and the Judge Advocate General to draw up
immediately pertinent procedures for granting pardons
for such offenses and to present a detailed elaboration
of these proposals to the State Council. A request
for pardon can be made directly by the person charged or
by proxy, by his or her family, by a working collective,
or by a social organization.

UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar names
a senior aide, Hugo Gobbi, to report to him on the
human rights situation in Poland. Gobbi, an Argentinian
diplomat, will act on "a part-time basis" for the
Secretary-General in r	esponse to a request from the
Human Rights Commission in Geneva. The commission
had expressed concern at reports of widespread human
rights violations in martial law Poland.

DECEMBER 22	The trial of Piotr Bednarz, former Deputy Chairman
of the Lower Silesia Regional Solidarity Board,
resumes in Wroclaw following an adjournment on
December 16 caused by the defendant's illness.

DECEMBER 23	Czeslaw Kiszczak, the Internal Affairs Minister, orders
the release of all political internees, with the
exception of seven prominent Solidarity leaders
against whom arrest warrants are issued by the Judge
Advocate General. The seven are Andrzej Gwiazda,
Seweryn Jaworski, Marian Jurczyk, Karol Modzelewski,
Grzegorz Palka, Andrzej Rozplochowski, and Jan
Rulewski.
[page 192]

DECEMBER 23	According to the Soviet news agency TASS Yurii Andropov,
the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee,
had a meeting in Moscow with visiting First Secretary
of the PUMP CC and Chairman of Council of Ministers
Wojciech Jaruzelski. During the conversation "major
problems of all-round cooperation between the CPSU
and the PUWP, the USSR and Poland, were discussed."
Jaruzelski invited Andropov to visit Poland; "the
invitation was received with gratitude."

Radio Warsaw says the Sejm Commission on Constitutional
Responsibility is studying charges raised against
former Premier Piotr Jaroszewicz and three former
Deputy Premiers -- Tadeusz Pyka, Jan Szydlak, and
Tadeusz Wrzaszczk. The commission will later report
to the Sejm and either make a proposal for the four
men to be formally charged or for legal procedures
against them to be discontinued.

DECEMBER 24	As a Christinas gesture and in response to the appeal
of the Polish primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, members
of the actors' Solidarity announce the ending of their
boycott of state-run radio and television which has been
the longest and most successful protest against martial
law. "Wanting to express our deep gratitude to Polish
society in its help and concern during our struggle,
we offer on Christmas Eve to the Polish public our work
in the Television and Radio Theater beginning 24 December
1982," says the statement, signed by "Theater and Film
Solidarity."

DECEMBER 27	Piotr Bednarz, a leader of underground Solidarity,
is sentenced in a summary procedure to a four-year
prison term with a three-year deprivation of all
civil rights.

The Polish Fiat automobile factory dissolves its rally
team, which once included the son of disgraced former
Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz. Note: FSO teams
had taken part in the world's major events, including
the Safari Rally and the Monte Carlo Rally but never
achieved any major victory. During the heyday of
the now defunct Solidarity union, Jaroszewicz, who
now runs a repair garage in Warsaw, was sharply
criticized for the privileges and extravagant life
style he enjoyed as the Prime Minister's son. He was
put in charge of a state automobile import firm which
sold luxury foreign models for convertible Western
currency.

The government Press Bureau announces the Council
of Ministers has adopted procedures for handing over
the assets of the former labor unions to those now
being founded and acquiring legal status based on the
trade union law of 18 October 1982.

[page 193]

DECEMBER 27	It is also announced that the government has repealed
some decrees and instructions issued for the duration
of martial law. The repealed measures include a
decree of 30 December 1981 suspending employee
self-management bodies in state enterprises, a decree on
common work duty under martial law, and a December 13
decree suspending labor union and "certain" social
organizations. Also included is a decree issued on
12 January 1982 on the work of foreign correspondents
and Polish journalists in Poland under martial law.

DECEMBER 28	According to Romuald Soroko, Director of the Justice
Ministry's Department of Judicial Supervision, as quoted
by the government paper Rzeczpospolita, about 700
people imprisoned for martial law violations may
be pardoned by Polish courts after the suspension of
martial law takes effect on December 31. Clemency
will apparently not apply to hundreds of Solidarity
activists convicted of continuing union activity during
martial law, including an unknown number sentenced to
between three and ten years imprisonment for organizing
strikes and demonstrations and printing and distributing
what the government calls "false information."

DECEMBER 30	Polish state radio broadcasts a series of tapes recorded
at secret meetings of the Solidarity underground in a
clear attempt to discredit the movement only hours
before martial law is due to be suspended. The
recordings, which include the voices of top underground
leaders Zbigniew Bujak and Bogdan Lis, were apparently
made at different meetings in the last six weeks and
reflect indecision and confusion among many of the
activists who spoke. Solidarity leader Lech Walesa,
contacted at his home in Gdansk, confirms two of the
voices played are those of Bujak and Lis but calls the
program "ridiculous." The program, which lasts about
50 minutes immediately after the main early evening
news bulletin, is introduced by theme music from a
James Bond movie. Activists are heard arguing about
the wisdom of coming out of hiding or continuing the
underground struggle; and divisions in the TKK, the
Interim Coordinating Commission of the underground,
are revealed. The tape recordings also indicate that
the underground's security arrangements have been
breached. The radio says they were made available by
the Interior Ministry. Bujak, the Solidarity leader
in Warsaw, is heard advocating greater political
activity by the underground, including creation of a
workers' party and a peasants' party which would
initially be illegal. Lis, who the radio commentator
says was speaking at a secret meeting in Gdansk, where
he is a senior Solidarity official, is in favor of a
truce with the authorities. He says people are tired
of strikes and demonstrations and new tactics are needed.
Reporting on a meeting of the TKK, he says: "We have
changed our stand on the issue of agreement with the

[page 194]

DECEMBER 30 (Cont.)	authorities -- that a ceasefire can be declared."
The TKK, in a statement issued last month, called
off all demonstrations in December and said it was
seeking a truce with the authorities.

Pope John Paul II is attacked in the Soviet magazine
Politicheskoe Samoobrazovanie (Political Self
Education) as a leader of antisocialist forces.
The December issue of the magazine criticizes the
Pope, the Vatican, and the Catholic Church in Poland
and elsewhere for "subversive activity." "Unlike
his predecessors, the present head of the Catholic
Church, John Paul II, the former Archbishop of Cracow,
Karol Cardinal Wojtyla, has taken a much more
conservative and rigid position vis-a-vis the socialist world,"
the journal says. "It goes without saying that today's
successor to St. Peter prefers in his statement of
political substance to use the language of Christian
prayer," the magazine says, "but the real thrust of
his statements is clear. The antisocialist activity
of the reactionary forces of the Catholic Church is
attested to by the developments of recent years in
People's Poland. The notorious antisocialist force,
Solidarity, which came to symbolize the crisis provoked
by the antisocialist forces on instructions from
overseas, was born not in the wave of disorders that swept
the country in the summer of 1980, but in the Catholic
Church." The magazine says religious propaganda is
used by anticommunist clerics to justify the inviolability
of the capitalist system. "Under the pretext of
protecting religious beliefs, the real position of
the church and of the believers in socialist countries
is viciously distorted," the magazine says,

Polish authorities have delayed approving work permits
for several dozen Polish employees of the US Embassy,
causing "concern" among embassy officials. An
embassy spokesman describes the delay as "a form of
harassment." The spokesman says US Ambassador Francis
Meehan took up the matter earlier this week with the
Chief of Protocol at the Polish Foreign Ministry. "We've
made known our concern," the spokesman says. Note:
Some 30 to 40 of the "scores" of Polish staff members
who work for the embassy have been affected. Each
year, the Poles must have their work permits, which
also serve as identification cards, renewed. With
Saturday the first day of the new year, the process
should have been over by now. Those people who do
not have their cards back by tomorrow are not authorized
to work.

Lech Walesa responds to attacks against him in the
state-run press based on a misquoted excerpt from
an interview he gave the West German weekly Bunte
on December 20; Walesa charges that "our government
continues to use whatever opportunity presents itself

[page 195]

DECEMBER 30 (Cont.)	to discredit me, but that will not be easy." He
says, "I won't give in easily." Note: Both
Rzeczpospolita and Trybuna Ludu attacked Walesa for
allegedly "equating the suffering of the Poles and
Germans during World War II," although all he said
was that "the Poles and the Germans know what suffering
means," intending this statement as acknowledgment of
the reasons behind present German generosity in
sending needed supplies.

Martial law leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski convenes
a meeting of regional governors and military commissars
to discuss their roles after suspension of "the state
of war" in Poland, which will end at midnight. At the
meeting Jaruzelski "sums up the results of the current
year's social and economic year," PAP the official
Polish news agency, reports. "Serious steps on the
road to normalization," Jaruzelski says, give "cause
for satisfaction and indicate the framework of the
most effective and suitable program of action in the
coming situation, the suspension of martial law." The
second speaker, Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw
Rakowski, says the authorities must be prepared for a
struggle lasting years against opposition forces,
including those people recently released from internment.
The communist leadership, he says, has good grounds to
be satisfied after fulfilling aims that appeared
nearly impossible to achieve one year ago, when the
military took power on 13 December 1981. Note: The
following is a summary of the key provisions of the
legislation that suspended martial law but gave tough
new law and order powers to the civilian government:

Internment without charge abolished.

All travel restrictions within Poland lifted.

Restrictions on telephone and telex use lifted;
direct dial telephone service to foreign countries
restored.

Strikes and protests may be carried out only
under the strict provisions of laws which
tightly limit their authorization.

"Most" factories are demilitarized. But any
unmilitarized factory can be remilitarized if it
produces basic consumer goods or required goods.

Workers may not quit jobs without the agreement
of their factory manager; otherwise they may be
fired and face a stiff fine. Workers can change
jobs and be hired at new factories only with
references from their former place of work. If
they change jobs they will get the lowest wage in
their respective work category.

[page 196]

DECEMBER 30 (Cont.)	Any participation in an unauthorized strike,
protest, or demonstration or instance of
"disturbing order in the factory" may
lead to dismissal. The same applies to students,
whether participating in action on or off campus.
Such dismissals may come only after "explanatory
procedures" and may be appealed.

Martial law limitations on foreign currency
bank accounts for Polish citizens remain unchanged.
A number of crimes will still be tried before
courts martial, including political crimes and crimes
against public order, state security, and defense.

The penal code is to be changed to make "preparing,
collecting, keeping, carrying, sending, or
distributing letters or printed leaflets, tapes, or films
against basic state interests" liable to a
six-month to five-year prison term. This makes civil
law tougher than the earlier martial law provisions

Those who undertake efforts to provoke public
unrest or rioting are liable to a three-year
prison term.

Censoring of mail and tapping telephones will no
longer be publicly or routinely done but can be
ordered in individual cases by the authorities.

Sentences carried out under martial law are binding,
with no general amnesty foreseen and only a
limited possibility of pardon.

In addition, the Military Council of National
Salvation, martial law's supreme body, will not
be disbanded but will serve in a "supervisory,"
rather than an "administrative," role. Moreover,
it may be convened to handle any crisis.

The Polish Ministry of Communications reports that
the following postal and telecommunications service
will be restored as of December 31:

International automatic telephone and telex services;

The operation of all telex terminals owned by legal
entities (companies) at their request;

The booking of telephone calls and the dispatch
of telegrams from post offices without identification
of the customer;

Acceptance of telegrams in all "official" languages
and in Esperanto;

The work of the mobile radio communications network
in the entire country for the units of state
administration and the socialized sector of the economy on the
basis of permits issued by the state radio authorities;

All postal services for the population and the national
economy.

APPEND ICES

Appendix I

MAJOR NAMES THAT APPEAR IN THE CHRONOLOGY

BAJDOR Jerzy	Radio and Television Committee Director; appointed Deputy Chairman in December 1982 

BALDYGA Len	Director of European Affairs at the US Information Agency 

BAKA Wladyslaw	Minister of Economic Reform

BARCIKOWSKI Kazimierz	CC secretary, Politburo member 

BARECKI Jozef	Editor-in-Chief of the government's daily Rzeczpospolita 

BAEYLA Jozef	General, Deputy Defense Minister, member of the Military Council of National Salvation 

BEDNARZ Piotr	One of the Solidarity underground leaders 

BEDNORZ Herbert	Bishop of Katowice 

BEITZ Berthold	Chairman of the West German Krupp concern 
	
BEJM Jozef	Police General 

BERUTOWICZ Wlodzimierz	Chief Judge of the Supreme Court; elected Chairman of the State Tribunal on 6 July 1982 

BIJAK Jan	Named Editor-in-Chief of Polityka in September 1982 

BLANCHARD Francis	Director-General of the International Labor Organization 

BOBROWSKI Czeslaw	Professor, Head of the Consultative Economic council 

BRATKOWSKI Stefan	Chairman of the suspended Polish Journalists' Union (dissolved in March 1982) 

BUJAK Zbigniew	Head of Solidarity's Mazowsze Chapter; Member of Underground Solidarity ICC 

CHEYSSON Claude	French Minister of External Relations

CHOCHOLAK Pawel	Director of the Office for Cooperation with Trade Unions 

CIOSEK Stanislaw	Minister without Portfolio in charge of labor union affairs 

ii

CYGAN Mieczyslaw 	General, Voivod of Gdansk 

CZYREK Jozef	Politburo member, Minister of Foreign Affairs until July 1982, 

CC Secretary in Charge of Foreign Affairs 

DABROWSKI Bronislaw	Archbishop, Secretary of the Polish Episcopate's Conference 

DEBICKI Mieczyslaw 	General; appointed Mayor of Warsaw on 18 February 1982 

DOBRACZYNSKI Jan 	Catholic writer; elected Chairman of the Interim National Council of the FRON in December 1982. 

DOMIN Czeslaw 	Suffragan Bishop of Katowice and Poland's Chief Coordinator for the Roman Catholic Aid Organization Caritas 

FRASYNIUK Wladyslaw	Head of Wroclaw Region's Solidarity underground 

GALLINER Peter	Director of the International Press Institute (based in London) 

GASPAR Sandor	Hungarian trade union leader and head of the World Federation of Trade Unions. 

GERTYCH Zbigniew	Chairman of the Sejm Economy, Budget, and Finance Committee 

GLEMP Jozef	Archbishop, primate of Poland 

GOMULKA Wladyslaw 	Former CC First Secretary (1943-1948 and 1956-1970); died on 1 September 19S2 

GOBBI Hugo 	Senior aide at the UN appointed by UN Secretary-General to report on the human rights situation in Poland 

Gorski Krzysztof 	Undersecretary of State at the Ministry of Labor, Wages, and social Affairs; government delegate to the ILO annual meeting 

GORNICKI Wieslaw 	Major; adviser to General Jaruzelski and spokesman for the military authorities 

GORYWODA Manfred 	Personal aide to General Jaruzelski; PUWP CC Secretary 

iii

GRUBA Jerzy	General; police commander of Katowice 

GUCWA Stanislaw	Speaker of the Sejm 

GULBINOWICZ Henryk	Archbishop of Wroclaw 

HARDEK Wladyslaw	Head of Cracow Region Solidarity underground 

H[O]FFNER Josef	Cardinal; West German Catholic leader 

HUSAK Gustav	Czechoslovak President and Secretary-General of the CPCS 

JABLONSKI Henryk	Professor; State Council Chairman; Head of a 20-member delegation to the Moscow celebrations for the 60th anniversary of the USSR 

JANDZISZAK Tadeusz	One of the leaders of the Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN) 

JANISZEWSKI Michal	General; head of the office of the Council of Ministers; a member of the Military Council of National Salvation 

JARUZELSKI Wojciech	General: Minister of Defense; Prime Minister; PUWP First Secretary 

JASINSKI Antoni	Deputy Chief of Staff of the Polish Army. 

JOHN PAUL II	Pope; former Archbishop of Cracow 

KADAR Janos	First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party 

KARAS Antoni	Deputy Minister of Finance 

KARCZ Zbigniew	Director of the Finance Ministry's Foreign Department 

KAZIMIERCZUK Mieczyslaw	Appointed acting head of the Ministry of Science, Higher 
Education, and Technology on 19 December 1981 

KISZCZAK Czeslaw	Minister of Internal Affairs; member of the MCNS 

KOHL Helmut	Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany 

KOLBE Maksymilian	Franciscan monk killed by Nazis in Auschwitz; canonized in October 1982 

iv

KOMENDER Zenon	Minister of Domestic Trade and Services; appointed Pax Chairman on 23 January 1982; appointed Deputy Prime Minister on 21 July 1982 

KRASINSKI Zdzislaw	State Price Commission Chairman 

KRZYZOGORSKI Klemens	Chairman of the Journalists' Association of the Polish People's Republic 

KUBERSKI Jerzy	Head of the government office for Religious Denominations until June 1982; then Polish representative at the Vatican 

KULAJ Jan	Leader of the suspended Rural Solidarity trade union 

KULIKOV Viktor G.	Soviet Marshal; Warsaw Pact Commander-in-Chief 
kuron Jacek	Leader of KSS "KOR"; adviser to Solidarity 

KURZ Andrzej	Deputy Chairman of the Radio and Television Committee 

LASSOTA Witold	Appointed Deputy Chairman of the State Tribunal in July 1982 

LIPSKI Jan Jozef	Author; literary critic; prominent Solidarity member 

LIS Bogdan	Head of the Gdansk region Solidarity underground and ICC member 

LITYNSKI Jan	Leader of KSS "KOR"; adviser to Solidarity 

LOPATKA Adam	Head of the Government Office for Religious Denominations 

MACHARSKI Franciszek	Cardinal; Archbishop of Cracow 

MADEJSKI Bronislaw	Gdansk Prosecutor General 

MAJEWSKI Stanislaw	President of the National Bank 

HALINA Zdzislaw	Colonel; Deputy Chief of the National Defense Committee's 
Secretariat 
MALINOWSKI Roman	Deputy Prime Minister; Peasant Party Chairman 

V

MARGUERITTE Bernard	Le Figaro's Warsaw correspondent 

MAZOWIECKI Tadeusz	Editor-in-Chief of Solidarnosc weekly 

MEEHAN Francis	US Ambassador to Poland 

MESSNER Zbigniew	Politburo member; Katowice Voivodship Party comittee First 
Secretary 

MIESZCZAK Czeslaw	Colonel; plenipotentiary of the Committee of National Defense 

MISKIEWICZ Benon	Minister of Science, Higher Education, and Technology 

MOCZAR Mieczyslaw	General; head of the ZBoWid veterans' organization; Chairman of the Supreme Chamber of Control 

MOCZULSKI Leszek	One of the leaders of the Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN) 

MOKRZYSZCZAK Wlodzimierz	Deputy member of the Politburo and CC Secretary for the party's internal organizational affairs 

NENCKI Boleslaw	Responsible for the activities of foreign journalists in Poland 

NESTOROWICZ Tadeusz	Foreign Trade Minister 

NIECKARZ Stanislaw	First Deputy President of the Polish National Bank; appointed Finance Minister in October 1982 

OBODOWSKI Janusz	Deputy Prime Minister 

OLSZOWSKI Stefan	Politburo member; CC Secretary; appointed Minister of Foreign 
Affairs on 21 July 1982 

ORZECHOWSKI Marian	CC Secretary for Ideology 

ORNAT Andrzej	Head of the Polish Scouts' Union since Kay 1980; appointed Chairman of the Youth Committee at the Council of ministers (ranks as a minister without portfolio) in July 1982 

OWCZAREK Janusz	Wroclaw Voivod 

OSDOWSKI Jerzy	Deputy Prime Minister from November 1980 till July 1982; Deputy Speaker of the Sejm from July 1982 

vi

PEREZ de CUELLAR Javier	UN Secretary-General 

PIETRZAK Jan	Composer of the song "Let Poland Be Poland" 

POGGI Luigi	Archbishop; the Vatican's envoy to Eastern Europe 

RADWANSKI Zbigniew	Head of Poznan University since February 1982 

RAJKIEWICZ Antoni	Minister of Labor, Wages, and Social Affairs until 9 October 1982 

RAKOWSKI Mieczyslaw	Deputy Prime Minister; Editor-in-Chief of Polityka until 10 September 1982 

REAGAN Ronald	President of the US 

RURARZ Zdzislaw	Polish Ambassador to Tokyo; Defected to the US in December 1981 

RUSAKOV Konstantin V.	Kremlin official responsible for relations with the communist parties of Moscow's socialist allies 

SADOWSKI Zdzislaw	Chairman of the Main Statistical Office and government plenipotentiary for economic reform 

STACHURA Boguslaw	General; First Deputy Minister of the Interior 

SAMSONOWICZ Henryk	Professor; Rector of the University of Warsaw until forced to resign in April 1982 

SIWAK Albin	Politburo member 

SIWICKI Florian	General; First Deputy Defense Minister; Member of the MCNS 

SPASOWSKI Romuald	Polish Ambassador to Washington until defecting to the US in December 1981 

STANISZEWSKI Stefan	Polish Ambassador to London 

STANSKI Tadeusz	One of the leaders of the Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN) 
STRZELECKI Ryszard	Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade 

SUROWIEC Zygmunt	A Sejm Deputy; head of the Sejm Commission on Justice 

SZABLIK Jerzy	Deputy Minister of Science, Higher Education, and Technology 

vii

SZALAJDA Zbigniew	Deputy Prime Minister, appointed on 9 October 1982 

SWIRGON Waldemar	CC Secretary, appointed 26 October 1982 

TEJCHMA Jozef	Minister of Culture and the Arts; resigned October 1982 

TOKARCZUK Ignacy	Bishop of Przemysl 

TIKHONOV Nikolai A.	Soviet Prime Minister 

TRENTIN Bruno	Italian communist labor leader; Secretary of the CGIL Trade Union Federation 

TREUMANN Andrzej	North American representative of Poland's Bank Handlowy until defection to the USA 

URBAN Jerzy	Government press spokesman 

URBANSKI Jerzy	Head of the party's Central Control Commission 

USTIKOV Dmitrii F.	Marshal; Soviet Defense Minister

VALTICOS Nicolas	Head of the ilo mission to Poland

WAJDA Andrzej	Film Director

WALESA Lech	Leader of Solidarity

WAZYK Adam	Poet, writer, translator; died 13 August 1982

WEHNER Herbert	Leader of the West German Social Democratic Party

WEINBERGER Casper	US Secretary of Defense

WIEJACZ Jozef	Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

WOJNA Ryszard	Journalist; member of the Sejm; Deputy Chairman of the CC's 
International Affairs Commission

WOJTECKI Jerzy	Minister of Agriculture and the Food Industry

WOLOSZYN Jan	First Deputy President of the Bank Handlowy

WOSINSKI Ryszard	Chief of the Scout's Union's Supreme Council from 18 August 1982 

viii

WYSZYNSKI Stefan	Cardinal, Primate of Poland; died 28 May 1981 

ZACZKOWSKI Stanislaw	Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs 

ZAGLADIN Vadim V.	First Deputy Head of the CPSU CC international Department 

ZAMYATIN Leonid M.	Senior Soviet official; head of the CPSU CC International Information Department 

ZAWADZKI Sylwester	Minister of Justice 

ZIMNIAK Janusz Edmund	Suffragan Bishop of Katowice 

EYGULSKI Kazimierz	Minister of Culture and the Arts from 9 October 1982 

- ix -

Appendix II

STRIKES: 13 DECEMBER 1981-10 NOVEMBER 1982

DECEMBER 14	Strikes in the major plants in Lodz, Cracow, Warsaw, Wroclaw, Swidnik, the Gdynia-Gdansk area, the Silesian coal mines, and Huta Katowice. 

DECEMBER 14,15	Security forces break up strikes in the Manifest Lipcowy and Jastrzebie Coal Mines (Silesia). 

DECEMBER 16	Armed pacification of the Lenin Foundry at Nowa Huta (near Cracow). 

	Seven miners killed by government forces at the Wujek Mine in Katowice. 

DECEMBER 17	Pacification of the Lublin Truck Factory, the Krasnik Ball Bearing Plant, the Wroclaw PAFAG, the polkowice Mine. 

DECEMBER 18	Pacification of the port of Gdansk and the refinery there. 

	Armed police invade Szczecin's striking Warski Shipyard from the sea. 

DECEMBER 19	Strikes continue in Wroclaw, the Katowice mines, Huta Katowice, and on the coast. 

DECEMBER 20	Miners holding the Piast Coal Mine in Tychy near Katowice. 

	Miners of the Ziemowit Coal Mine (near Katowice) on strike. 

DECEMBER 21	Steelworkers strike at Huta Katowice. 

DECEMBER 22	Strikes continue in the Huta Katowice Foundry, and at the Ziemowit, 
Piast, and Anna Coal Mines. 

DECEMBER 26	Strike at the Piast Mine continues. 

DECEMBER 28	Strike in the Gdansk Repair Shipyard. 

APRIL 15	Warsaw University students and teachers go on a 15-minute strike to protest the forced resignation of the university rector, Professor Henryk Samsonowicz. 

APRIL 30	A 15-minute protest strike at the Gdansk Lenin Shipyard. 

MAY 13	Short strikes in scattered factories in a protest marking five 
months of martial law. 

MAY 24	A 15-minute strike at the Marie Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin. 

x

JUNE 16	Symbolic protest strikes in the tricity (Gdynia-Gdansk-Sopot) industrial and transportation enterprises. 

	A 15-minute protest strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk. 

JULY 2	Strike in the Gdansk Repair Shipyard. 

OCTOBER 11	Shipyard workers in the Baltic area strike; protest strikes against the delegalization of solidarity in many industrial plants. 

OCTOBER 12	Militarization of the Lenin Shipyard. 

OCTOBER 13	Spontaneous strikes (to protest the banning of Solidarity) in Gdynia, Elblag, Poznan, Wroclaw, Warsaw, Cracow, and Nowa Huta. 

NOVEMBER 10	Sporadic strikes, symbolic in nature, take place for a very short period of time in Czestochowa, Gdansk, Cracow, Lodz, Poznan, Torun, Warsaw, and many other places. 

xi

Appendix III

DEMONSTRATIONS: 13 DECEMBER 1981-15 DECEMBER 1982

19 DECEMBER 1981 -	Gdansk, 11th anniversary of the December 1970
30 JANUARY 1982	events; bloody demonstrations and street skirmishes.

FEBRUARY 13	Poznan, demonstration in Mickiewicz Square.

APRIL 16	Warsaw, demonstration in Central Square to mark the death of 12 martial law victims.

MAY 1	Warsaw, demonstrations at the unofficial May Day Parade.

MAY 3	Warsaw, violent riots. Gdansk, Elblag, Szczecin, Mielec, Swidnik, Rzeszow, and Lodz, violent antigovernment demonstrations.

MAY 9	Warsaw, quiet demonstration in Victory quare.

MAY 13	Cracow, violent demonstration in the old city center.

	Warsaw, protest demonstrations marking five months of martial law.

	Warsaw, Lodz, Cracow, protest demonstrations marking five months of martial law by students of Warsaw and Lodz Universities and of the Cracow Mining Academy.

MAY 14	Myslowice, demonstration in a town near Katowice, with an attempt to damage the Soviet Heroes' Memorial there.

MAY 28	Warsaw, demonstration in Victory Square to mark the anniversary of Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski's death.

JUNE 13	In Gdansk, Wroclaw, and Nowa Huta, street disorders.

JUNE 25	Warsaw, demonstration at the Ursus Tractor Factory to commemorate the 1976 incidents.

JUNE 27	Poznan, quiet demonstration at the monument to the bloody rioting in 1956 during the ceremony marking the 26th anniversary of that event.

xii

JUNE 28	Poznan, unauthorized workers' rally commemorating the 26th anniversary of tragic rioting, clashes with riot police.

JUNE 29	Wroclaw, a demonstration for Solidarity.

AUGUST 10	Szczecin, demonstration in support of suspended Solidarity.

AUGUST 13	Gdansk, a major demonstration in support of Solidarity. Warsaw, a demonstration on Victory Square. Cracow, a demonstration at Nowa Huta (the industrial area of Cracow) in support of Solidarity.

AUGUST 15	Kwidzyn, riots in the detention camp in this northern town.

AUGUST 17	Warsaw, youthful demonstrators march in support of Solidarity.

AUGUST 31	Second anniversary of the Gdansk Agreement, violent demonstrations in the major industrial centers, provincial cities, and small towns (100 seriously injured, 7 dead).

SEPTEMBER 1-2	Lubin, street riots.

OCTOBER 13, 14, 15	Cracow, violent demonstrations in Nowa Huta.

NOVEMBER 10	Warsaw, Wroclaw, and Nowa Huta, demonstrations to mark the second anniversary of Solidarity's official registration. Warsaw, Cracow, and Poznan, students protest at the universities.

NOVEMBER 11	Torun, students protest at the Copernicus University.

DECEMBER 13	Gdansk, demonstration at the Gdansk Monument honoring the workers killed in the 1970 disturbances.

DECEMBER 16	Gdansk, violent demonstrations at two locations. Warsaw, demonstration; riot police invade St. Ann's Church.

xiii

Appendix IV

SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT MARTIAL LAW INSTITUTIONS

THE AUTHORITIES

Military Council of	Wojskowa Rada Ocalenia Narodowego (WRON)
National Salvation	Its formation was announced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski on 13 December 1981 for the purpose of exercising the highest political authority during the martial law period. According to Jaruzelski, its main tasks are "to protect legal order in the state and to create operational guarantees that will make it possible to re-establish discipline and conformity with the law."

National Defense Committee	Komitet Obrony Kraju (KOK) Appointed by the Council of Ministers, the NDC is supposed to have overall administrative responsibility for the duration of the emergency, acting either directly or through the voivod-ships and other local NDC branches. It consists of the Prime Minister and other officials designated by the Council of Ministers.
The Military Commissars	Komisarze wojskowi (Pelnomocnicy) (with full power)	 Appointed by the NDC, their job is "to strengthen the country's management." Many commissars were recruited from among the commanders of the Military operational Task Groups that had been sent out to the countryside and in the urban areas in October and November 1981 to streamline the work of local and regional administrative bodies and to "improve production efficiency."

Motorized Detachments of	Zmotoryzowane Odwody Milicji
the Citizens' Militia	Obywatelskiej (ZOMO) ZOMO is a special branch of the police used in actions that "require the presence of large groups of [police] functionaries." Although the unit's history goes back more than 25 years -- it was created in 1957 -- ZOMO has only recently demonstrated its crucial

xiv

role in the country's security system
and has developed into the key
institution of martial law. The unit
has gained considerable publicity
as a result of its brutality in
quelling social protests and
demonstrations. Its numerical strength is
estimated to be between 25,000 and
30,000, or possibly even more. ZOMO
troops are stationed in cities and
towns throughout the country. In
contrast to regular police units,
which are largely regulated by the
local authorities, ZOMO is directly
subordinate to a central command and
is supervised by Minister of Internal
Affairs, General Czeslaw Kiszczak.

Citizens' Committees for	Obywatelskie Komltety Ocalenia
National Salvation	Narodowego (OKON)

Organized "spontaneously" soon after the declaration of martial law in response "to the deep need of the country and society." The committees have operated at voivodship, urban, and commune level and have also sponsored several other, hybrid bodies such as the MKPSs (Miejskie Komisje Porozumienia Spolecznego -Municipal Commissions for Social Conciliation -- or Kbmitety Ocalenia Narodowego Wspolpracy -- Committees for National Salvation and Cooperation).

Patriotic Movement of	Patriotyczny Ruch Odrodzenia Narodowego
National Rebirth	(PRON)

Based on OKONs -- the Citizens' Committees of National Rebirth (as they are often referred to now, instead of their initial title: Citizens' Committees for National Salvation). Its foundation was announced by the Sejm on July 20. Seen as an attempt to form a broad coalition of the three political parties (the PUWP, the United Peasant Party, and the Democratic Party) enlarged by the Catholic lay organizations: the Pax Association, the Christian-Social Association, and Polish Catholic Union -- presumably eventually to replace the now moribund National Unity Front. Local offshoots have also been organized,

XV

such as at the voivodship and lower
levels (Tymczasowe Rady
Programowo-Konsultacyjne -- Provisional
Program-Consultation Councils).
Institutionalized on 15 September 1982 at the
inaugural meeting of the Initiating
Commission of the Interim National
Council of PRON.

The Council of Ministers'	Komitet Spoleczno-Polityczny Rady
Sociopolitical Committee	Ministrow (KSPRM)

	Formed soon after martial law was declared "to guarantee efficiency in the state administration in the performance of the latter's sociopolitical tasks for the duration of the state of war." The committee is headed by Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski. 	

The Council of Ministers'	Komitet Ekonomiczny Rady Ministrow
Economic Committee	(KERM)

	Headed by Deputy Prime Minister Janusz Obodowski, the committee was formed soon after martial law was declared "to deal with problems related to economic policy and changes within the economic system."

Council of Ministers'	Komitet Rady Ministrow do Spraw Mlodziezy
Youth Committee	

	Its formation was announced by the Sejm on July 21. Its chairman is Andrzej Ornat. Accorded the status of a ministry as a sign that the authorities recognize the importance of the youth question (under the direction of Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski).

The State Tribunal	Trybunal Stanu

	Created on 26 March through a Sejm law, the tribunal is to monitor compliance with the constitution by top administrative officers and organizations in their work. Its chairman is Wlodzimierz Berutowicz, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The tribunal's work is to be further amplified by the establishment of a Trybunal Konstytucyjny (Constitutional Tribunal). The latter has not yet been created.

xvi

The Social and Economic	Bada Spoleczno-Ekonomiczna
Council	

	A body attached to the Sejm to provide it with expert advice on future legislation. Set up by the Sejm on July 6, on the basis of legislation passed on March 25 and 26. Its chairman is Jan Szczepanski.

Consultative Economic	Konsultacyjna Rada Gospodarcza
Council	

	Originally announced for January, it was formally created by the Council of Ministers only on April 1. The council's task is to supply expertise on key economic problems. Its chairman is Professor Czeslaw Bobrowski, formerly head of the government's Council of Economic Experts (Rada Ekspertow Gospodarczych). Lower level CECs are also to be created attached to the voivodship governments.

Social Consultative	SpolecEna Rada Konsultacyjna
Commission	

	Appointed by the Council of State to advise on labor union problems. Held its inaugural meeting on October 19. Headed by Professor Zbigniew Salwa of Warsaw University. Salwa was also a member of the Council of State working team commissioned to prepare draft legislation for the newly established labor unions.

	National Council of Culture	Set up on 20 December 1982 by decision
and Cultural Development	of Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski
Fund	Composed of some 160 appointed members, with others still to be named, the Council's purpose is to facilitate broader consultations between the authorities and the intellectual community on matters of cultural policy. 	 The relevant enabling legislation was passed by the Sejm on 4 May 1982.

Voivods' Convention	Konwent Wojewodow

	Set up in April 1981 (Council of Ministers' Instruction No. 19, 19 April 1981), was activated on 22 May 1982 at the personal initiative of General Wojciech Jaruzelski in his capacity as Prime Minister. It is composed of 12 members, each serving a 12-month

xvii

term, from among the voivods and
the mayors of major cities; and it acts
as a consultative body tp the Council
of Ministers, the government
economic agencies, and the individual
ministers. The Voivods' Convention
consists of:

Chairman: Janusz Owczarek, Voivod of Wroclaw.

Members: Lieutenant General Mieczyslaw Debicki, Mayor of Warsaw

Tadeusz Salwa, Mayor of Cracow

Jozef Niewiadomski, Major of Lodz

Alojzy Zielinski, Voivod of Chelm

Jerzy Wierzchowski, Voivod of Ciechanow

Major General Mieczyslaw Cygan, Voivod of Gdansk

Colonel Zdzislaw Mazurkiewicz, Voivod of Koszalin

Air Force Lieutenant General Roman Paszkowski, Voivod of Katowice

Tadeusz Wilk, Voivod of Lublin
Sergiusz Rubczewski, Voivod
of Olsztyn

Andrzej Wojciechowski, Voivod of Przemysl

Factory Social Commissions Zakladowe Komisje Socjalne

Created shortly after martial law was
declared to fill the vacuum caused
by the suspension of the labor unions.
Their main task is to help
management look after the social
interest or the workers. Though they
appear to be totally dominated by the
local party organizations, they may be
used as a cornerstone on which to build
future unions.

xviii

Journalists' Association	Stowarzyszenie Dziennikarzy Polskiej
of the Polish People's	Reczpospolitej Ludowej (SDPRL)
Republic.

Set up on 20 March 1982, the day
Stowarzyszenie Dziennikarzy Polskich (The Polish Journalists' Association), an organization presided over by Stefan Bratkowski, was formally dissolved. Official recognition of the SDPRL was
granted on March 24. Its chairman is Klemens Krzyzagorski.

Center for Public Opinion	Centrum Badania Opinii Spolecznej
Research

	Created on 4 September 1982 by a Council of Ministers' decision.

THE CHURCH

The Primate's Social	Prymasowska Rada Spoleczna
Council

	Set up on 12 December 1981, it consists of 28 lay Catholic activists, and its chairman is Stanislaw Stomma. Similar advisory bodies also operate at
The Primate's Committee	diocesan level.

The Primate's Committee	Prymasowski Komitet Pomocy Internowanym
To Aid Those Interned	i Aresztowanym
and Arrested.

	Set up soon after the martial law declaration to give moral and physical succor to all those interned and arrested and to their families. Similar committees were established at diocesan levee

SOCIETY IN OPPOSITION

National Resistance	Ogolno-Polski Komitet Oporu (OKO)
Committee

	Founded on 13 January 1982 by Eugeniusz Szumiejko (pseudonym Mieszko) to serve as a contact point rather than as a policy-making center for the suspended organizations, particularly for the labor bodies. 

Interim Coordinating	Tymczasowa Komisja Koordynacyjna (TKK)
Commission

	Formally constituted on 22 April 1982. Originally composed of representatives of the four strongest underground Solidarity centers: Zbigniew Bujak

xix

from Warsaw; Wladyslaw Frasyniuk from
Wroclaw; Bogdan Lis from Gdansk; and
Stanislaw Hardek from Cracow. Later,
Eugeniusz Szumiejko merged the OKO
with the TKK and became the fifth
member of the group. Upon the arrest
of Frasyniuk on 5 October 1982, his
place was taken by Piotr Bednarz, and
upon the latter's arrest on November 7,
by Jozef Pinior.

Social Resistance Committee	Komitet Oporu Spolecznego (KOS)

	Founded in March 1982 to maintain liaison, exchange information, and work for the coordination of activities by the suspended social organizations.
Radio Solidarity	Radio Solidarnosc First went on the air on Easter Monday, 12 April 1982, in Warsaw at 1900 hours. Organized and run by Zbigniew Romaszewski until his arrest on August 31. Similar broadcasting units have been reported to exist in other Polish cities.

xxi

Appendix V

MILITARIZED UNITS OP STATE ADMINISTRATION

AND THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

Ministry of Transportation

1.	Polish State Railways
2.	State Road Transportation
3. 	Central Board of Public Roads
4. 	Railway Repair Workshops
5. 	Association of Road and Bridge Construction Enterprises
6. 	Association of Railway Construction Enterprises
7. 	Association for Inland Navigation.
8. 	Central Board for Civil Aviation

Ministry of Communications

1. 	State Post Office, Telegraph, and Telephone Enterprise
2. 	Association of Radio and Television Stations
3. 	Association of Communications Construction Enterprises
4. 	Ministry of Communications Transport Fleet
5. 	Organization of Post Office Guards
6. 	State Radio Inspectorate

Chemical and Light Industry Ministry

1. 	CPN Petroleum Storage Enterprise (PEC)
2. 	Enterprise for the Exploitation of the Friendship
Oil Pipeline
3. 	Prostki Chemical Works No. 18
4. 	Plock Refinery and Petrochemical Works
5. 	Gdansk Refinery Enterprises
6. 	Petroleum Refineries in Czechowice-Dziedzice, Trzebinia,
Jaslo, Gorlice, and Jedlic.

7.	CPN Petroleum Depots in Sokolka, Walily, Narewko Mala,
Zamel Bierzglowski, Nowa Wies, Debogorze, Gdansk Nos.
l,2,3, and 4, Kielpinek, Boronow, Kedzierzyn-Kozle
(Blachownia), Skarzysko Koscielne, Barycz,
Cracow-Olszanica, Malaszewicze, Zawadowka, Koluszki, Zagan,
Gutkowo, Chrusciel, Rejowiec Poznanski, Zurawica,
Zlocieniec, Kolobrzeg, Jastrowie, Ugoszcz, Szczecin No. 2
Swinoujscie Nos. 2 and 6, Trzebiez, Warszawa Nos. 1 and 2,
Mosciska, Emilianow, Wroclaw, Kawice, Walbrzych,
Grabowno, and Wierun Stary.

8.	Petroleum Industry Center (CPN) in Warsaw and its branches
throughout the country.

9.	Special Production Departments in the following Enterprises:

1.	Nitron-ERG Synthetic Works in Krupski Mlyn
2.	ERG Synthetic Works in Tychy
3.	Gamrat-ERG Synthetic Works in Jaslo

xxii

Chemical and Light Industry Ministry (Cont.)

4.	Pronit Synthetics and Paint Works in Pionki
5.	Synthetics and Paint Works in Zloty Stok
6.	Boryszew-ERG Synthetic Works in Sochaczew
7.	Krywald-ERG Synthetic Works in Knurow
8.	Organika-Sarzyna Chemical Works in Nowa Sarzyna
9.	Organika-Zachem Chemical Works in Bydgoszcz
10.	Stomil Rubber Works in Wolbrom
11.	Stomil Rubber Works in Bydgoszcz
12.	Stomil Rubber Works in Grudziadz
13.	Stomil Tire Works in Poznan
14.	Metalchem Chemical Equipment Works in Koscian
15.	Metalchem Chemical Equipment Works in Torun
16.	Organika-Rokita Industries in Brzeg Dolny
17.	Kedzierzyn Nitrogen Works
18.	Poch Chemical Reagent Works in Gliwice
19.	Olsztyn Fishnet Works in Korsze.
20.	Legionow Technical and Tourist Equipment Works
21.	Polnam Industrial Textile Works in Czestochowa
22.	Modus Clothing Factory in Bydgoszcz
23.	Emfor Clothing Factory in Lodz
24.	Poldres Clothing Factory in Zyrardow
25.	Skogar Leather Works in Lodz and Leather Articles
Works in Tomaszow Mazowiecki

Ministry of Iron, Steel, and the Engineering Industry

Special Production Departments in the Following Enterprises:

1.	The Precision Equipment Works and the Sheet Metal
Factory of the H. Cegielski Metal Industry Plant
in Poznan

2.	Predom-Mesko Metal Works in Skarzysko-Kamienna
3.	Research and Development Center in Skarzysko-Kamienna
4.	The General Walter Predom-Lucznik Metal Works in Radom
5.	Polish Optical works in Warsaw
6.	Stalowa wola Foundry
7.	Belma Electrical Equipment Works in Bydgoszcz
8.	Unitra-Eltra Radio Works in Bydgoszcz
9.	Unitra-Dolam Scientific-Production and Assembly
Center for Electronic Equipment
10.	Techma-ASPA Welding Equipment Works, Wroclaw
11.	Predom-Wrozamat Heating Equipment Works, Wroclaw
12.	Predom-Termet Domestic Mechanized Equipment Works,
Swiebodzice
13.	Electric Coils Factory, Legnica
14.	Agromet-Dolzamet Agricultural Machinery Works, Chojnow
15.	Wifama Widzew Textile Machinery Works, Lodz
16.	Enamel Utensil Works, Olkusz

xxiii

Ministry of Iron, Steel, and the Engineering Industry (Cont.)

17.	Ponar-Tarnow Special Machine Tools Works, Tarnow
18.	Krasnik Ball Bearing Factory
19.	Baildon Foundry, Katowice
20.	HZWD Mikrohuta (Experimental Foundry), Dabrowa
Gornicza
21.	Jednosc Foundry, Siemianowice Slaskie
22.	Florian Foundry, Swietochlowice
23.	Trzebinia Metallurgical Works
24.	Locomotive and Construction Machinery Wbrks, Chrzanow
25.	Szopienice Nonferrous Metal Foundry, Katowice
26.	Bedzin Foundry, Bedzin
27.	M. Buczek Foundry, Sosnowiec
28.	E. Cedler Foundry, Sosnowiec
29.	Labedy Sheet Metal works, Gliwice-Labedy
30.	Rybnik Metal Works, and Silesia Foundry, Rybnik
31.	Predom-Prespol Domestic and Tourist Equipment Works,
Niewiadow
32.	The T. Dabala Predom-Dezamet Metal Works, Nowa Deba
33.	Krosno PZL Aviation Equipment works, Krosno
34.	Unimor Electronic Works, Gdansk
35.	Radmor Radio Works, Gdynia
36.	Ema-Elektron Electrochemical Works, Stargard
37.	Rawar Radio Works, Warsaw
38. Ostrow Mazowiecki Radiolocation Equipment Works
(including its Zawisza branch in Malkinia)

39.	Industrial Telecommunications Institute, Warsaw
(Poligonowa Street)
40.	Industrial Telecommunications Institute, Warsaw
(Ratuszowa Street)
41.	Industrial Telecommunications Institute, Gdansk
Branch
42.	Experimental Department attached to the Warsaw
Industrial Telecommunications Institute
43.	Tele - and Radiotechnical Institute, Warsaw
44.	Unitra-Unima Electronic Equipment Works, Warsaw
45.	ponar-Pruszkow Precision Machine Tools Works,
46.	Lamina Electronic Works, Piaseczno
47.	Radio Ceramics Works, Warsaw
46.	Experimental Ceramics Works, Warsaw
49.	Radio Ceramics Works, Kozienice
50.	Radio Assembly Works, Warsaw
51.	Semiconductor Works, Warsaw
52.	Institute of Electronic Technology, Warsaw
53.	Radio Assembly Factory, Warsaw
54.	Unitra-Polkolor Television Tube Manufacturers
and Television Equipment Manufacturer, Warsaw

xxiv

Ministry of Iron, Steel, and the Engineering Industry, (Cont.)

55.	Electric Lamp Manufacturers, Warsaw
56.	Polam Main Research and Development Center, Warsaw
57.	Lamp Equipment Works, Warsaw
58.	Ozarow Glass Foundry, Ozarow Mazowiecki (Warsaw)
59.	Magnetic Equipment Works, Warsaw
60.	Unitra-Telpod Scientific Research Center of
Hybrid Electronics and Resistors (attached to
the Cracow Electronic Enterprises)
61.	Cracow Cable and Cable Machinery Factory
62.	Mera-KFAP Measuring Apparatus Factory, Cracow
63.	Mera-KFAP Research and Development Center of
Measures and Regulation of Nonelectric Quantities, Cracow
64.	Labedy Mechanical Works, Gliwice
65.	Mechanical Equipment Research and Development
Center, Gliwice
66.	Bumar-Fablok Construction Machinery and Locomotive
Works, Chrzanow
67.	M. Nowotko PZL Mechanical Works, Warsaw
68.	M. Nowotko Foundry, Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski
69.	Malapanew Foundry, Ozimek near Opole
70.	Ema-Indukta Electric Machinery Works, Bielsko-Biala
71.	Ema-Apena Electric Apparatus Works, Bielsko Biala
72.	FMS Car Factory No. 1, Bielsko-Biala
73.	FMS Car Factory No. 5, Ustron
74.	Ema-Celma Electromachinery Works, Cieszyn
75.	Construction Machinery Works, Wadowice
76.	Folam-Kontakt Southern Enterprises for
Electro-technical Equipment, Czechowice
77.	Czechowice-Dziedzice Sheet Metal Works
78.	Light Metal Works, Katy
79.	Bumar Construction Machinery Factory, Mragowo
80.	Bumar Industrial Institute of Construction
Machinery, Biskupiec
81.	Miflex Radio Assembly Works
82.	Ema-Apator Coastal Enterprises for Electrical
Apparatuses
83.	Predom-Metron office Machinery Factory, Torun
84.	Truck Factory in Starachowice (including branches)
85.	Polmo-SHL Special Automotive Factory, Kielce
86.	Iskra Ball Bearing Factory, Kielce
87.	Jelcz Automobile Plant, Jelcz near Olawa
88.	Warel Electronic Works, Warsaw
89.	Kasprzak Radio Works, Warsaw
90.	M. Buczek Cable Factory, Ozarow near Warsaw
91.	Wamel Electric Machine Works, Warsaw
92.	Mera-Blonie Mechanical Precision Works, Blonie
93.	Electronic Equipment Works, Szydlowiec
94.	Tonsil Loudspeaker Works, Wrzesnia

xxv

Ministry of Iron, Steel, and the Engineering Industry, (Cont.)

95.	Fonica Radio Works, Lodz
96.	Ema-Elaster Electric Apparatus Works, Lodz
97.	Bydgoszcz Cable Factory
98.	Diora Radio Works, Dzierzoniow
99.	Mera-Elwro Computer, Automation and Measuring
Center, Wroclaw
100.	Centra Associated Electrochemical Enterprises
101.	PZL-Warszawa II Aviation Equipment Works,
Zlochowice near Klobuck
102.	May 1 Carbon Electrodes Works, Raciborz
103.	Bumar-Labedy Mechanical Equipment Combine and
Zawiercie Machine Factory, Zawiercie
104.	FZL-Warszawa II Aviation Equipment Works, Warsaw-Wola
105.	Agromet Agricultural Machinery Factory, Czarna
Bialostocka
106.	Northern Shipyard (Bohaterow Westerplatte), Gdansk
107.	Warsaw Foundry
108.	Batory Foundry, Chorzow
109.	Bierut Foundry, Czestochowa
110.	Zam Foundry Equipment Works, Katy
111.	Lenin's Foundry (Metallurgical Combine), Cracow
 and	Bochnia
112.	PZL-Mielec Aviation Equipment Works, including the
transportation Equipment Research and Development
Center
113.	PZL-Swidnik Aviation Equipment Works,
including the Transportation Equipment Research
and Development Center
114.	PZL-Rzeszow Aviation Equipment Works, including
the Rzeszow Airplane Propulsion Research and
Development Center
115.	PZL-Hydral Hydraulic Power plants Standard Elements
Works, Wroclaw
116.	PZL-Warszawa Okecie Light Planes Scientific
Production Center, Warsaw
117.	Aviation Institute, Warsaw Okecie
118.	PZL-Kalisz Aviation Equipment Works
119.	Coastal Casting and Enamel Works, Grudziadz
120.	Faol Lower Silesian Precision Apparatus Works,
Zabkowice Slaskie
121.	Pafal Precision Apparatus Works, swidnica
122.	Refa Electric Apparatus Works, Swiebodzice
123.	PZL-Cracow Aviation Equipment Works, Cracow
124.	PZL-Sedziszow Filters Works, Sedziszow Malopolski
125.	Scientific-Production Center for Computer and
Measuring Technology, Warsaw
126.	Lumen Lubusk Electric Apparatus Works, Zielona Gora
127.	ZZE Centra Poznan Electrochemical Works
128.	ZZG Centra Battery Works, Piastow near Warsaw
129.	PZL - Warszawa II Aviation Equipment Works,
Grochow-Warsaw

Office for the Maritime Economy

1.	The Gdansk Maritime Office
2.	The Szczecin Maritime Office
3.	The Slupsk Maritime Office
4.	The Gdansk-Gdynia Port Complex, including all subordinate
organizational units

xxvi

Office for the Maritime Economy (Cont.)

5.	The Szczecin-Swinoujscie Port Complex
6.	Polish Ship Salvage Enterprise
7.	Polish Ocean Lines Enterprise
8.	Polish Steam Ship Company, including all
subordinate organizational units
9.	Polish Baltic Steamship Company, including all
subordinate organizational units
10.	Pishing Industry Association, including all
subordinate organizational units

Foreign Trade Ministry

1.	Baltona Foreign Trade Enterprise, including all
subordinate organizational units
2.	The Main Customs Office, including all subordinate
customs units

Mining and Energy Ministry

1.	State Power Management Services including gas
management
2.	Transportation and Technical Personnel Services
for the Power Industry
3.	Hard and brown coal mines, including all
organizational units maintaining continuity of mining
4.	Odalanow Denitrification Works
5.	Famur Machine Factory, Piotrowice
6.	Wiromet Mechanical Power Works, Mikolow
7.	Emit Transformer and Electric Machinery Works,
Zychlin (Central Poland)
8.	Fase Miners' Lamps and Rescue Equipment Works,
Tarnowskie Gory
9.	Lower Silesia Electrical Machinery Works, Piechowi

Internal Affairs Ministry

1.	Fire Service Headquarters, including all units
organizationally directly subordinate to it
2.	Organizational Units of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs, Citizens' Militia Headquarters and their
voivodship branches (including security and
health services), and all other local government
units subordinate to the Ministry of Internal
Affairs

National Defense Ministry

All enterprises, institutions, and military
units, as well as regional and garrison technical
and maintenance workshops in which civilians are
employed

xxvii

Construction and Building Materials Ministry

Association of the Transbud Transportation
and Equipment enterprises, including all
subordinate organizational units

Domestic Trade and Services Ministry

Konsumy Commercial and Gastronomic Enterprise,
including all subordinate organizational units

Justice Ministry

The Prison Staff Service

Ministry of Agriculture and the Food Industry

Meteorological and Water Management Institute,
including all subordinate organizational units

Raw Material Management Ministry

All branches of the Main Board of State Reserves
(warehouses)

Ministry of Finance and Polish National Bank

1. State Office for the Printing of Bonds and
Paper Money
2. The State Mint in Warsaw
3. The bank guards

The Radio and Television Committee, "Polish Radio and Television"

1.	All responsible to the Chairman of the Radio
and Television Committee
2.	The radio program employees
3.	The television program employees
4.	The technicians
5.	General employees
6.	Regional stations
7.	Television centers
8.	Poltel Film Production Enterprise

Respective Ministers, Heads of Central Offices and State
Institutions, and Chairman of the Central Boards of the Cooperative Unions.

1.	Industrial road transportation enterprises and
transportation firms of the Mining and Energy
Ministry
2.	Enterprises of the Fire Service
3.	Organizational units of the Industrial Security
Service

xxviii

Voivods and City Mayors (of Voivodship status) Together with
Subordinate Local Government and Basic Level State Administration

1.	Communal transportation enterprises
2.	Voivodship and regional fire service headquarters,
together with their subordinate organizational units
3.	City water and sewage enterprises

Source: Trybuna Ludu, 14 December 1981

Notes: 1.	Associations and combines also embrace all
subordinate units, even if not explicitly mentioned

2.	Special production work or services indicate their
military application or use

xxix

Appendix VI

GLOSSARY

CSA	Christian Social Association (Chrzescijanskie
Stowarzyszenie Spoleczne)

CSCE	Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

CUPY	Communist Union of Polish Youth (Komunistyczny
Zwiazek Mlodziezy Polgkiej)

Dip	Experience and the Future (Doswiadczenie i Przyszlosc)

GUS	Main Statistical Office (Glowny Urzad Statystyczny)

HSWP	Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party

HSSS	Higher School of Social Sciences

ICC	Interim Coordinating Commission of Solidarity
(TKK -- Tymczasowa Komisja Koordynacyjna

ICFTU	International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ILO	International Labor Organization

IPF	International Poznan Fair

ISTU	Independent Solidarity Trade Union

ISU	Independent Students' Union

IRC	International Red Cross

JAPPR	Journalists' Association of the Polish People's
Republic

KERM	The Council of Ministers' Economic Committee
(Komitet Ekonomiczny Rady Ministrow)

KOK	National Defense Committee (Komitet Obrony Kraju)

KOS	Social Resistance Committee (Komitet Oporu
Spolecznego)

KPN	Confederation of Independent Poland (Konfederacja
Polski Niepodleglej)

KSPRM	The Council of Ministers' Sociopolitical Committee
(Komitet Spoleczno-Polityczny Rady Ministrow)

KSS	"KOR" Committee for Social Self-Defense -- Committee for
Workers' Defense (Komitet Samoobrony Spolecznej --
Komitet Obrony Robotnikow)

KZMP	Communist Union of Polish Youth (Komunistyczny
Zwiazek Mlodziezy Polskiej)

LOT	Polish Airlines

MKZ	Interfactory Founding Committee (Miedzyzakladowy
Komitet Zalozyclelski)

MCNS	Military Council of National Salvation.

OKO	National Resistance Committee (Oqolno-Polski
Komitet Oporu)

xxx

OKON	Citizens' Committee of National Salvation
(Obywatelski Komitet Ocalenia Narodowego)

PAP	Polish Press Agency (Polska Agencja Prasowa)
Pax Proregime Catholic Association

PCYU	Polish Communist Youth Union

PJA	Polish Journalists' Association

PUWP	Polish United Workers' Party

PLO	Palestine Liberation Organization

PMNR	Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth (Patriotyczny
Ruch Odrodzenia Narodowego -- PRON)

PSA	Polish Students Association

PZKS	Polish Catholic Social Union (Polski Zwiazek
Katolicko-Spoleczny)

RKW	The Regional Executive Commission of
Solidarity (Regionalna Komisja Wykonawcza)

RGPCO	Movement for the Defense of Human and Civil Rights
(Ruch Obrony Praw Czlovieka i Obywatela)

SDP	Association of Polish Journalists (Stowarzyszenie
Dziennikarzy Polskich)

SDPRL	Journalists' Association of the Polish People's
Republic (Stowarzyszenie Dziennikarzy Polskiej
Rzeczpospolitej Ludowej)

SPATIF	Association of Theater and Movie Actors (Stowarzyszenie
Polskich Artystow Teatru i Filmu)

SUPS	Socialist Onion of Polish Students

TASS	Soviet News Agency

TKK	Interim Coordinating Commission of Solidarity
(Tymczasowa Komisja Koordynacyjna)

UPP	United Peasant Party

WCL	World Confederation of Labor

WFTU	World Federation of Trade Unions

WRON	Military Council of National Salvation (Wojskowa
Rada Ocalenia Narodowego)

ZAKR	Union of Authors and Composers of Light Entertainment
(Zwiazek Autorow i Kompozytorov Rozrywkowych)

xxxi

ZASP	Union of Polish Stage Artists (Zwiazek Artystow
Scen Polskich)

ZMD	Democratic Youth Union (Zwiazek Mlodziezy
Demokratycznej)

ZOMO	Motorized Detachments of Citizens' Militia
(Zmotoryzowane Odwody Milicji Obywatelskiej

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