Mary Magdalene, preaching

Women Mystics and Preachers in Western Tradition

English 396A | Fall 2005

Prof. Roxanne Mountford

Updated November 6, 2005

ML 369 | Hours: Th 11:00-1:00 & by appt. | | 621-7402

Course Description | Required Materials | Course Requirements | Assignments | Class Blogs | Grading Policy | Daily Syllabus | References for Course Readings | Selected Bibliography | Helpful Links | Course Essays Online | Return to Homepage


Course Description

Throughout recorded history ordinary women have claimed a right to speak and write on behalf of the Divine. Even within their own religious traditions their stories are not well known, for as Max Weber noted long ago, religious movements in Western tradition tend to suppress the contributions of women prophets and preachers once those movements become established in mainstream culture. For example, Methodists are often shocked to learn that early Methodist women sometimes preached to thousands in the English countryside.

In this course we will focus on women mystics and preachers from several nations and religious traditions, both ordinary and notorious, from Mary Magdalene (a cult figure), to nineteenth-century African American preacher Jarena Lee, to current ordained women preachers. We will read histories, journals, spiritual autobiographies, sermons, novels about women preachers, and contemporary ethnographies. Our perspective will be unapologetically scholarly and feminist as we explore the historical/cultural contexts of these women and recuperate their rhetorical/literary contributions. You will have the opportunity to do original research, especially in the study of women preachers.

I will provide an environment in which you and your classmates will feel safe to learn. It will be your job to participate in discussions with good will and basic respect for others' views, stay motivated, and speak up when anything we do seems unclear to you. One of the objectives of this course is to develop your own research, writing, and critical thinking skills, development that will not occur without practice. So be prepared to work hard.


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Course Materials

Available at Antigone Books on 4th Avenue. Important: If you order your books from any other vendor, be sure to order the exact editions listed below. No other editions will be acceptable for this class.

Eliot, George. Adam Bede. Oxford's World Classics Series. Ed. Valentine Cunningham. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition. New York: Modern Language Association, 2003.

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe. Norton Critical Edition. Tr. Lynn Staley. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

Kienzle, Beverly Mayne and Pamela J. Walker, eds. Women Preachers and Prophets through Two Millenia of Christianity. Berkeley: U of California P, 1998.

Mountford, Roxanne. The Gendered Pulpit: Preaching in American Protestant Spaces. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2003.

Course essays, online in pdf to be read using Adobe Acrobat Reader. To download Adobe Acrobat Reader, click here.


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Course Requirements

Attendance and Participation.

Regular attendance and productive participation in class discussions are basic requirements of this seminar. If you have more than three absences in total for any reason, you may be dropped from the class. Depending on the time in the semester, being dropped from a course may result in an "E" for the semester. I will assume that you will be prepared for class, on time, and offer productive discussion of the daily readings. Only students who are prepared each day, participate productively in all discussions, come to class on time, and offer insightful reviews of their peers' papers will receive an "A" for their participation grade. I will lower your final participation grade to an "E" if lack of preparation becomes a problem. You will not be admitted into the classroom and will be marked absent if you are more than 10 minutes late without having cleared your lateness with me in advance. You will be expected to provide explication and even-handed critique of the texts we read in class. It is far more difficult to "read with" an author (that is, understand the author's purpose, audience, context for writing, basic assumptions and overall place in the tradition) than to "read against" him/her (which requires only that one maintain a single theoretical view against which to read all texts). Criticism involves both processes. The bottom line is that you will be rewarded if you show up and do the work with goodwill toward your classmates and me. If you do so, we shall all stretch ourselves as scholars.

Academic Integrity.

Plagiarism comes in two forms: borrowing the words of another writer without giving him or her credit and borrowing the ideas of another writer without giving him or her credit. "Credit" is given through academic citations, the format for which you can reference in the MLA Guide required for this class. Plagiarism is a serious form of academic misconduct that can result in your suspension from this university. Don't do it. If you have questions about how to attribute sources, if you find that you are falling behind in your work, or if you don't understand an assignment, come see me so I can help you. Cheating is never the answer. For further information, see UA's Code of Academic Integrity.

Course Conduct.

This course is built on the principle of engaged, active learning. You will be engaged in activity from the beginning to the end of each class. Here are a few tips to keep the class atmosphere open and interesting for all. Turn off all cell phones and pagers. Do not eat while in the classroom. Refrain from reading email or surfing the web for personal use while in the computer classroom once class has begun. If you find that discussion in your group is difficult to maintain, ask me to help energize it or think of an interesting question to move the conversation forward. Don't hesitate to ask your classmates direct questions; they may be waiting for someone to invite them into the conversation.

The University seeks to promote a safe environment where students and employees may participate in the educational process without compromising their health, safety or welfare. The Arizona Board of Regents’ Student Code of Conduct, ABOR Policy 5-308, prohibits threats of physical harm to any member of the University community, including to one’s self. Threatening behavior can harm and disrupt the University, its community and its families.

Responsibilities to Peers.

Participate as an editor and fellow scholar in the drafting process (substantive and timely comments will be assumed). An absence on Peer Review Day without an authorized excuse (e.g., from Dean of Students) will result in an automatic reduction of your participation grade. Even if you take your one two-day extension, you still must bring a rough draft of your paper (with a beginning, middle, and end) to your group for a Peer Review.

Major Assignments.

Your major work for the semester will be an original research study that you conduct throughout the semester (historical, theoretical, or empirical). The first assignment will be a seven-page double-spaced, typewritten paper that presents part of your research. The second assignment will be an annotated bibliography for your project. The final project will be a 15-18 page double-spaced, typewritten paper that presents your research for the semester. The papers are designed to build on each other, so that the literature review will become a part of the final project, and the analysis you present in the first paper may become a subsection of the final paper. In preparing your bibliographies and in attributing sources you must follow the MLA Style Guide, 6th edition. Plagiarism is professional suicide both here at UA and "out there" in the publishing world. Please see me if you have questions about how to attribute ideas or words to others.

Short Response Papers You will be asked to write formal 300-word responses (approx. 1 1/2 pages, double-spaced) to your reading for the semester online through a blog, sometimes in response to a prompt. You may also be asked to post copies of your major assignments on the blog so that your fellow students can log on and provide you with feedback. I will log on periodically to grade your entries. You will write one entry for every reading assignment.

Class Blogs

Tracy Bird's Blog.

Sara Brancaccio's Blog.

Tiffany Brown's Blog.

Susan Collinet's Blog.

Cheryl Ellenwood's Blog.

Libby Huntley's Blog.

Mi Young Jun's Blog.

Ryan Ramsey's Blog.

Jaime Richardson's Blog.

Jamie Robinson's Blog.

Kaitie Roehrick's Blog.

Nikolan Spencer's Blog.

Erica Suskind's Blog.

Marta Stone's Blog.

Amanda Tosh's Blog.

Erin Treat's Blog.

Kate Witt's Blog.

Extensions. Major projects must be turned in at the beginning of class on the day they are due, even if you are ill. Send your paper to class with a classmate, or as an attachment to email. You may take advantage of one two-day extension sometime in the semester on any assignment except the draft of the final paper. However, you STILL must bring a rough draft to Peer Review for Paper #1 & #2. I give incomplete grades only to students with a family emergency or grave illness (documentation required). Missing even one deadline for written work in this course may result in a reduction of the final grade for the course.


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Major Assignments

Assignment #1: Position Paper

It has been my experience as a writer and graduate faculty member that earlier deadlines produce richer and more well-researched final seminar papers. In the quiet, early weeks of the semester there is time to find the books, read, and think. In addition, the process of writing an early paper can offer valuable insight into the project as a whole.

Therefore, your first assignment will be a position paper in which you identify and analyze a problem or issue central to your research for the semester. The paper must have a thesis and draw on outside sources. Your research for the semester must in some way address or be informed by the work we will examine this semester. The paper should be about seven pages in length (double-spaced, typewritten, 1" margins). Prepare the bibliography and citations using the 6th edition of the MLA Style Guide.

Assignment #2: Annotated Bibliography

Your second assignment for this class will be an annotated bibliography. The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to compile sources for and to (re)define your research question for your classmates and me. Prepare bibliographic entries using MLA Style (6th edition), and following each entry offer a critical summary of no more than four sentences. Your annotated bibliography should contain at least 10 sources. Introduce the bibliographic entries with a one-page (double-spaced) introduction in which you explain the relationship of these sources to the developing argument in your research paper. In the introduction, your goal will be to make a space in the field for your own research. For example, you may argue that your work extends the findings of other researchers. Or you may argue that there has been no work like yours, but that you are guided by similar work in another area (then explain the various ways you are guided by it). Or you might argue that your work refutes the work of others.

As you read published articles in refereed journals, you will notice that they all include a literature review. A literature review is provided at the beginning of any research report or proposal to explain what problem in the literature the researcher proposes to address and/or what methods he or she will use. The review links the researcher's work with the work of others in the field. At the heart of the literature review are two rhetorical functions: establishing that the author is joining an ongoing conversation in the field and establishing that the author is not repeating what has been done before. The sources that I am asking for in the working bibliography will form the substance of the literature review for your final project.

When I begin a new research study, the first task is to "read up" on my subject. I cast a wide net, looking for any published work that can help me. Generally I begin by looking at the bibliographies of articles I already know about. Then I work through the indexes of journals that tend to publish articles on my subject. When I have exhausted these avenues, I work through Dissertation Abstracts, the MLA Bibliography, and online databases like FirstSearch (an OCLC database) or ERIC. If all else fails, I post a query to a listserv group or ask another scholar. It is important to do your own research before asking others for help.

You must not wait until the first assignment is completed to start the work on the literature review. It can take a week or more to get a library book that is out on loan and up to two weeks to get an article mailed to you from another library.

Final Project: Original Research Project

Your final assignment for this class will be an essay on your research for the semester. The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to produce a potentially publishable essay reporting on research that you have conducted this semester. Look at Rhetoric Review, Rhetoric Society Quarterly, or Rhetorica for examples of how research is reported in scholarly journals. You will see that the parts of the articles vary depending on the expectations of the journals. You should follow a format from one of these journals or another that you propose to me for approval. The final paper should be at least 15 pages in length (double-spaced, typewritten, 1" margins, and documented using the 6th edition of the MLA Style Guide).

You will be assigned a date to present your findings and a draft of your paper for peer review and group discussion. The draft of this paper must include a recognizable beginning, middle, and end; be proofread carefully; and be at least 15 pages in length.


Grading Policy



Short Response Essays


Assignment #1


Assignment #2


Assignment #3




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Daily Syllabus

Note: This schedule is tentative. Some of the due dates and topics of discussion outlined here will change. I will post changes to the syllabus on this web site, so you are required to check here before every class. This class meets in EDUC 502 on Tuesdays and ML 412 (a computer classroom) on Thursdays (marked by an asterisk*).

WP=Women Preachers and Prophets

Aug. 23

Introduction to course.

Aug. 25*

The Case of Mary Magdalene
In class: Popular representations of Mary Magdalene.

Aug. 30

The Case of Mary Magdalene
Read: Authorized Gospel passages on Mary Magdalene.
In class: Discussion of Mary Magdalene & introduction to blogs.

Sept. 1*

Finding Sources
Read: MLA, Ch. 1
In class: Workshop on finding sources.

Sept. 6

The Case of Mary Magdalene
Read: The Gospel of Mary
In class: Discussion of reading.

Sept. 8*

Scholarship on Mary Magdalene
WP, pp. 1-18; 57-96 (Latin phrases in Jansen translated).
In class: Discuss contemporary research.

Sept. 13

Women Speakers in Biblical Tradition
Read: Pauline passages on women
Torjesen, "When the Church Goes Public"
In class: Discuss readings and paper topics.
Due: Paper topics for Paper #1.

Sept. 15*

Read: Ortner, "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?"
In class: Discussion of criticism.

Sept. 20

Read: Lerner, from The Creation of Patriarchy
In class: Oral reports on summary assignment (below); discussion of criticism.
Due: One-page summary (500 words) of a scholarly essay on the Gospel of Mary, posted on blog. Summary should offer an overview of the essay and its key argument(s).

Sept. 22*

Women Mystics: Julian of Norwich
Read: Jantzen, "Mystics, Martyrs and Honorary Males"
Julian of Norwich, Revelations of Divine Love, (Intro.-Ch. VII)
In class: Discussion of Janzten and Julian of Norwich.

Sept. 27

Women Mystics: Julian of Norwich
Read: Julian of Norwich, from Revelations of Divine Love (Ch. VIII-"The Motherhood of God")
In class: Discussion of Revelations.

Sept. 29*

Women Mystics: Margery Kempe
Read: Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe, Intro.-p. 90 (Book 1, Ch. 51)
In class: Discuss reading.

Oct. 4

Women Mystics: Margery Kempe
Read: Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe, pp. 90-184 (Book I, Ch. 51-70)
In class: Discuss reading.

Oct. 6*

Peer Review
Due: Draft of Assignment #1. Upload to your Blog. Bring one double-spaced copy for your instructor to class.

Oct. 11

Women Mystics: Margery Kempe
Read: Karma Lochrie, "From Utterance to Text" (pp. 243-56 in Criticism section of Book of Margery Kempe)
In class: Discuss reading.

Oct. 13*

Preparing the List of Works Cited
Read: MLA, Ch. 3
In class: review of citation format.

Oct. 18

Antinomian Controversy
Read: Winthrop, "A Short Story of the Rise, Reign and Ruine of the Antinomians"
Hutchinson, The Examination of Ann Hutchinson at the Court at Newtown
In class: Discuss readings.

Oct. 20*

Women Preachers: Quakers
Read: WP, Ch. 10, pp. 199-211, and Ch. 13, pp. 248-263.
In class: Discuss readings.

Oct. 25

Women Preachers: Fiction
Read: Eliot, Adam Bede, Ch. 1-10.
In class: Discuss reading.

Oct. 27

Women Preachers: Fiction
Read: Eliot, Adam Bede, Ch. 11-30.
In class: Discuss reading.
Due: Final draft of Assignment #1

Nov. 1

Women Preachers: Fiction
Read: Eliot, Adam Bede, Ch. 31-55.
In class: Discuss reading.

Nov. 3*

Women Preachers: African American Tradition
Read: WP Ch. 14 (267-287) & Ch. 16 (303-317)
In class: Discuss reading.

Nov. 8

Individual Conferences
Work on Assignment #2.

Nov. 10*

Individual Conferences
Due: Final draft of Assignment #2

Nov. 15

Preparing Citations
Read: MLA Handbook, Ch. 5 & 6

Nov. 17*

Women Preachers & Rhetorical Space
Read: Mountford, Intro.-Ch. 2

Nov. 22

Women Preachers & Rhetorical Space
Read: Mountford, Ch. 3 & 4
Due: Draft of Assignment #3

Nov. 24

Thanksgiving: No Class

Nov. 29

Peer Review
Due: Comments on drafts

Dec. 1

Women Preachers & Rhetorical Space
Read: Mountford, Ch. 5 & Epilogue

Dec. 6

Course evaluation, community celebration.
Due: Final draft of Assignment #3




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References for Course Readings

"Gospel of Mary." The Gnostic Gospels. New York : Vintage Books, 1989.

The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha. Ed. Bruce M Metzger and Roland E. Murphy. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.

Torjesen, Karen Jo. When Women Were Priests: Women's Leadership in the Early Church and the Scandal of their Subordination in the Rise of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1993.

Mountford, "On Gender and Rhetorical Space." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 31 (2001): 41-71.

Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1986.

Ortner, Sherry. "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?" Feminism, the Public, and the Private. Ed. Joan B. Landes. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 135-163.

Jantzen, Grace M. "Mystics, Martyrs and Honorary Males." Power, Gender and Christian Mysticism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Winthrop, John. "A short story of the rise, reign, and ruin of the Antinomians." Early English Books, 1641-1700: 906:7.

Collins, Vicki Tolar. "Women's Voices and Women's Silence in the Tradition of Early Methodism." Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women. Ed. Molly Meijer Wertheimer. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1997.

Lee, Jarena. "The Life and Religious Experience of Jarena Lee." Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Ed. By William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1986.

Wells, Ida B. "Lynch Law in All Its Phases." With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women. Ed. Shirley Wilson Logan. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1995.

Mountford, Roxanne. "Sermo Corporis." The Gendered Pulpit: Preaching, Rhetorical Space, and American Protestant Culture. Rhetorics and Feminisms Series. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2003.

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Selected Bibliography

Andrews, William J., ed. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington : Indiana UP, 1986. Autobiographies of revivalists Jarena Lee, Zilpha Elaw, and Julia A. Foote.

Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995.

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1998.

Campbell, George. Lectures on Systematic Theology and Pulpit Eloquence. Boston: W. Wells and T.B. Wait & Co., 1810. Early American Imprints, Second Series 19708.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. Man Cannot Speak for Her. 2 vols. New York: Greenwood, 1989.

Condit, Celeste Michelle and John Louis Lucaites. Crafting Equality: America's Anglo-African Word. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.

Connors, Robert, Lisa S. Ede, and Andrea A. Lunsford. Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Carbondale : Southern Illinois UP, 1984.

Cortazzi, M.  Narrative Analysis.  Bristol, PA: Falmer P, 1993.

Douglas, Ann. The Feminization of American Culture. New York: Noonday, 1998.

Foss, Sonja K. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration & Practice, 2d ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1996.

Foss, Sonja, Karen Foss, and Robert Trapp. Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1985.

Glenn, Cheryl. Rhetoric Retold: Regendering the Tradition from Antiquity Through the Renaissance. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1997.

Gluck, Sherna Berger and Daphne Patai, eds.  Women's Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History.  New York: Routledge, 1991.

Halloran, S. Michael and Gregory Clark, eds. Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

Hart, D. G. and R. Albert Mohler, Jr., eds, Theological Education in the Evangelical Tradition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996.

Hildegard of Bingen. Book of Divine Works, with Letters and Songs. Ed. Matthew Fox. Sante Fe: Bear, 1987.

Hobbs, Catherine, ed. Nineteenth Century Women Learn to Write. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Howard-Pitney, David. The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1990.

Howell, Wilbur Samuel. Eighteenth-Century British Logic and Rhetoric. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1971.

---. Logic and Rhetoric in England, 1500-1700. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1956.

Hume, David. The Natural History of Religion. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

Johnson, Nan. Nineteenth-Century Rhetoric in North America. Carbondale : Southern Illinois UP, 1991.

Joseph, Sister Miriam. Rhetoric in Shakespeare's Time: Literary Theory of Renaissance Europe. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962.

Kimball, Bruce . Orators and Philosophers: A History of the Idea of Liberal Education. New York: Teachers College, 1986.

Law, Jules David. The Rhetoric of Empiricism: Language and Perception from Locke to I. A. Richards. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1993.

Logan, Shirley Wilson. "We Are Coming": The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1999.

Mack, Peter, ed. Renaissance Rhetoric. New York: St. Martin's, 1994.

Martin, Emily. The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction. Boston: Beacon, 1992. Multimodal: includes both history and multi-sited ethnography.

Mattingly, Carol. Well-Tempered Women: Nineteenth-Century Temperence Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1998.

McMahan, Eva M. and Kim Lacy Rogers.  Interactive Oral History Interviewing.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 1994.

Miller, Keith D. Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Its Sources. New York: Free Press, 1992.

Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: From Colony to Province. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1962.

Miller, Thomas P, ed. The Selected Writings of John Witherspoon. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms: Social and Literary Manipulations of a Religious Myth. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1993.

Murphy, James Jerome. Renaissance Rhetoric: A Short-Title Catalogue of Works on Rhetorical Theory from the Beginning of Printing to A.D. 1700. New York: Garland, 1981.

---. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory from Saint Augustine to the Renaissance. Berkeley: U of California P, 1974.

Nelson, Dana D. National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1998.

Phelps, Austin. ---. "The Theory of Preaching: An Oration before the Porter Rhetorical Society of the Theological Seminary at Andover." Andover, MA: Warren F. Draper, 1857.

Potkay, Adam. The Fate of Eloquence in the Age of Hume. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1994.

Scott, Joan Wallach. Gender and the Politics of History. New York : Columbia UP, 1999.

Storrs, Richard S., Jr. "Character in the Preacher: A Discourse Delivered before the Porter Rhetorical Society of the Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass., Aug. 5th, 1856." Andover, MA: Warren F. Draper, 1857.

Sernett, Milton C., ed. African American Religious History: A Documentary Witness. C. Eric Lincoln Series on the Black Experience. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1999.

Taylor, Charles. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989.

Ulman, H. Lewis. Things, Thoughts, Words, and Actions: The Problem of Language in Late Eighteenth-Century British Rhetorical Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1994.

Warnick, Barbara. The Sixth Canon: Belletristic Rhetorical Theory and Its French Antecedents. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1993.

White, Hayden V. Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1978.

Woodward, William. Studies in Education during the Age of the Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1924.

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Helpful Links

Some of the following online databases are available only to the UA community via Sabio.

Perseus Digital Library. Offers digital access to classical and Renaissance, as well as early Americana. Especially strong cross-indexing.

Hymnals of the Stone-Campbell Movement. This interesting web exhibit, archived by Lincoln Christian College and Seminary, is based on Enos Dowling's lifetime collection of more than 2,000 rare hymnals, including nearly 200 that arose from the nineteenth century Stone-Campbell religious heritage on the American frontier.

Home Sweet Home: Life in Nineteenth Century Ohio: Religion. A Library of Congress Exhibit. Includes an exhibit on hymn writer Augustus Dameron Fillmore (1823-1870), as well as MP3 files of some of his hymns.

Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibit. Includes interpretation and many interesting images.

Images of African Americans from the Nineteenth Century. New York Public Library Digital Library Collection: Schomberg Collections. Includes an important digital archive of photographs of African Americans, including many religious leaders.

Women Writers Online. This is the gateway to Brown University's vast online archive of works by women writers and orators, primarily from the Renaissance period.

North American Women's Letters and Diaries: Colonial to 1950

British and Irish Women's Letters and Diaries

Gerritsen Collection: Women's History Online, 1543-1945

Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000

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