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  Hong Kong
(special administrative region of China)
 
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This page was last updated on 31 May, 2007


Map of Hong Kong



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Hong Kong Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
   Geography    Hong Kong Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 15 N, 114 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,092 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
water: 50 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 30 km
regional border: China 30 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
733 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.05%
permanent crops: 1.01%
other: 93.94% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional typhoons
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
more than 200 islands
   People    Hong Kong Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,980,412 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 13% (male 476,089/female 434,326)
15-64 years: 74% (male 2,515,518/female 2,652,660)
65 years and over: 12.9% (male 419,479/female 482,340) (2007 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 41.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.561% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.096 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.948 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.956 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 81.68 years
male: 78.99 years
female: 84.6 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.98 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chinese/Hong Konger
adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese 94.9%, Filipino 2.1%, other 3% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese (Cantonese) 89.2% (official), other Chinese dialects 6.4%, English 3.2% (official), other 1.2% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 93.5%
male: 96.9%
female: 89.6% (2002)
   Government    Hong Kong Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Hong Kong
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu
local short form: Xianggang
abbreviation: HK
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
special administrative region of China
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
limited democracy
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
Basic Law, approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress, is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 200,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
head of government: Chief Executive Donald TSANG (since 24 June 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of 14 official members and 15 non-official members
elections: chief executive elected for five-year term by 800-member electoral committee; last held on 25 March 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Donald TSANG elected chief executive receiving 84.1% of the vote; Alan LEONG received 15.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; in 2004 30 seats indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 30 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - pro-democracy 63%, pro-Beijing 37%; seats by party - (pro-Beijing 34) DAB 12, Liberal Party 10, FTU 1, independents 11; (pro-democracy 25) Democratic Party 9, CTU 2, ADPL 1, Frontier Party 1, NWSC 1, independents 11; non-voting LEGCO president 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Civic Party [KUAN Hsin-chi]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [MA Lik]; Democratic Party [Albert HO]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]
note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-China) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHAN, exco member]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, AsDB, BIS, ICC, IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITUC, UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCL, WCO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Consul General James B. CUNNINGHAM
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 1, FPO AP 96521-0006
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX: [852] 2845-1598
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
   Economy    Hong Kong Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong has a free market economy highly dependent on international trade. The territory has become more closely linked to mainland China over the past few years. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997, it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Hong Kong's service industry over the past decade has grown rapidly as its manufacturing industry has moved to the mainland. Hong Kong also has stepped up its efforts to gain approval to offer more mainland financial services in a bid to remain competitive with China's growing financial centers. Hong Kong's natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Gross imports and exports (including reexports to and from third countries) each exceed GDP in dollar value. Per capita GDP exceeds that of the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% from 1989 to 2006, but Hong Kong suffered two recessions in the past eight years because of the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 and the global downturn in 2001-02. Although the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 also battered Hong Kong's economy, a solid rise in exports, a boom in tourism from the mainland because of China's easing of travel restrictions, and a return of consumer confidence resulted in the resumption of strong growth from late 2003 through 2006. Moreover, several large initial public offerings of Chinese companies on the Hong Kong stock exchange since late 2005 have helped to boost Hong Kong's status as a financial hub and have contributed to the improved performance of the market in late 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$253.1 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$187.1 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$36,500 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 9%
services: 90.9% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.63 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
manufacturing 7.5%, construction 2.9%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 43.9%, financing, insurance, and real estate 19.6%, transport and communications 7.1%, community and social services 18.8%
note: above data exclude public sector (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
52.3 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $35.16 billion
expenditures: $33.02 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fresh vegetables; poultry, pork; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.45 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44.55 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
4.497 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10.39 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
285,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
273,000 bbl/day (2005)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.524 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$20.9 billion (2006 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$611.6 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electrical machinery and appliances, textiles, apparel, footwear, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones, printed material
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 45%, US 16.1%, Japan 5.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$329.8 billion (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
raw materials and semi-manufactures, consumer goods, capital goods, foodstuffs, fuel (most is re-exported)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 45%, Japan 11%, Taiwan 7.2%, Singapore 5.8%, US 5.1%, South Korea 4.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$132 billion (November 2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$472.9 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.7678 (2006), 7.7773 (2005), 7.788 (2004), 7.7868 (2003), 7.7989 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Hong Kong Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.795 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.693 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network
international: country code - 852; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 5, FM 9, shortwave 0 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
55 (2 TV networks, each broadcasting on 2 channels) (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.hk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
800,834 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.879 million (2005)
   Transportation    Hong Kong Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,955 km
paved: 1,955 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 924 ships (1000 GRT or over) 30,838,025 GRT/51,957,682 DWT
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 495, cargo 121, chemical tanker 44, container 133, liquefied gas 22, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 76, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 562 (Australia 1, Belgium 3, Canada 28, China 274, Denmark 6, Germany 6, Greece 27, Indonesia 4, Japan 67, South Korea 6, Norway 26, Philippines 16, Portugal 1, Singapore 24, Syria 1, Taiwan 6, UAE 2, UK 43, US 21)
registered in other countries: 417 (Bahamas 8, Belize 8, Bermuda 10, Cambodia 15, China 7, Cyprus 1, France 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Greece 1, Honduras 2, India 1, Liberia 37, Malaysia 14, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 7, Norway 55, Panama 169, Philippines 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, Singapore 50, Taiwan 3, Tuvalu 8, unknown 7) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong
   Military    Hong Kong Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes elements of Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,743,972
females age 18-49: 1,904,967 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,403,088
females age 18-49: 1,527,278 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 40,343
females age 18-49: 38,234 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of China
   Transnational Issues    Hong Kong Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
despite strenuous law enforcement efforts, faces difficult challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; modern banking system provides conduit for money laundering; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people

This page was last updated on 31 May, 2007


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