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Brazil Facts and Figures
Brazil Facts and FiguresfromEncarta
Basic Facts
Official nameFederative Republic of Brazil
Area8,547,404 sq km
3,300,171 sq mi
Brazil: Flag and Anthem
Brazil: Flag and Anthem
Population182,032,600 (2003 estimate)
Population growth
Population growth rate1.15 percent (2003 estimate)
Projected population in 2025217,825,222 (2025 estimate)
Projected population in 2050228,426,737 (2050 estimate)
Population density21 persons per sq km (2003 estimate)
55 persons per sq mi (2003 estimate)
Urban/rural distribution
Share urban82 percent (2001 estimate)
Share rural18 percent (2001 estimate)
Largest cities, with population
São Paulo10,434,252 (2000)
Rio de Janeiro5,857,904 (2000)
Salvador2,443,107 (2000)
Belo Horizonte2,238,526 (2000)
Fortaleza2,141,402 (2000)
Ethnic groups
Caucasian (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, and Polish)55 percent
Mixed Caucasian and African38 percent
African6 percent
Other (including Japanese and Arab) 1 percent
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Religious affiliations
Roman Catholic (nominal)90 percent
Spiritists and African Brazilian religions, such as Candombl*, Macumba, and Umbanda4 percent
Nonreligious2 percent
Other4 percent
Health and Education
Life expectancy
Total71.1 years (2003 estimate)
Female75.3 years (2003 estimate)
Male67.2 years (2003 estimate)
Infant mortality rate32 deaths per 1,000 live births (2003 estimate)
Population per physician824 people (1998)
Population per hospital bed321 people (1996)
Literacy rate
Total86.4 percent (2003 estimate)
Female86.6 percent (2003 estimate)
Male86.1 percent (2003 estimate)
Education expenditure as a share of gross national product (GNP)5.1 percent (1999-2000)
Number of years of compulsory schooling8 years (2000)
Number of students per teacher, primary school27 students per teacher (1999-2000)
Form of governmentFederal republic
Head of statePresident
Head of governmentPresident
LegislatureBicameral legislature
Chamber of Deputies: 513 deputies
Senate: 81 senators
Voting qualifications
Voluntary for ages 16, 17, over 70, and for illiterate population; compulsory for literate population between ages 18 and 69
Constitution5 October 1988
Highest courtSupreme Federal Tribunal
Armed forcesArmy, Navy, Air Force
Total number of military personnel287,600 (2001)
Military expenditures as a share of gross domestic product (GDP)2.1 percent (2001)
First-level political divisions26 states and 1 federal district
Gross domestic product (GDP, in U.S.$)$502.5 billion (2001)
GDP per capita (U.S.$)$2,920 (2001)
GDP by economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing9.3 percent (2001)
Industry33.9 percent (2001)
Services56.8 percent (2001)
Number of workers80,676,648 (2001)
Workforce share of economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing23 percent (1998)
Industry20 percent (1998)
Services57 percent (1998)
Unemployment rate9.6 percent (1999)
National budget (U.S.$)
Total revenue$195,768 million (1998)
Total expenditure$211,140 million (1998)
Monetary unit
1 real (R$), consisting of 100 centavos
Soybeans, coffee, tobacco, sugarcane, cacao beans, beef and poultry
Iron ore, tin, gold, oil, phosphates, platinum, bauxite, uranium, manganese, copper, coal
Machinery and transportation equipment, food products, textiles and clothing, chemicals
Major exports
Road vehicles and parts, coffee and coffee substitutes, metals, feeding-stuff for animals
Major imports
Petroleum, road vehicles and parts, electrical machinery, organic chemicals, industrial machinery and parts
Major trade partners for exports
United States, Argentina, Netherlands, Germany, and Japan
Major trade partners for imports
United States, Argentina, Germany, Japan, and Italy
Energy, Communications, and Transportation
Electricity production
Electricity from thermal sources8.28 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from hydroelectric sources82.65 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from nuclear sources4.44 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from geothermal, solar, and wind sources4.62 percent (2001 estimate)
Number of radios per 1,000 people434 (1997)
Number of telephones per 1,000 people218 (2001)
Number of televisions per 1,000 people343 (2000 estimate)
Number of Internet hosts per 10,000 people96 (2001)
Daily newspaper circulation per 1,000 people43 (1998)
Number of motor vehicles per 1,000 people79 (1997)
Paved road as a share of total roads6 percent (2000)
Basic Facts and People sections
Area data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Population, population growth rate, and population projections are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International Data Base (IDB) ( Urban and rural population data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), FAOSTAT database ( Largest cities population data and political divisions data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Ethnic divisions and religion data are largely from the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook and from various country censuses and reports. Language data are largely from the Ethnologue, Languages of the World, Summer Institute of Linguistics International (
Health and Education section
Life expectancy and infant mortality data are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International database (IDB) ( Population per physician and population per hospital bed data are from the World Health Organization (WHO) ( Education data are from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (
Government section
Government, independence, legislature, constitution, highest court, and voting qualifications data are largely from various government Web sites, the latest Europa World Yearbook, and the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook. The armed forces data is from Military Balance.
Economy section
Gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, GDP by economic sectors, employment, and national budget data are from the World Bank database ( Monetary unit, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, exports, imports, and major trade partner information is from the latest Europa World Yearbook and various International Monetary Fund (IMF) publications.
Energy, Communication, and Transportation section
Electricity information is from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) database ( Radio, telephone, television, and newspaper information is from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database ( Internet hosts, motor vehicles, and road data are from the World Bank database (
Figures may not total 100 percent due to rounding.
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