Solar System Exploration Home Page Solar System Exploration Home Page Solar System Exploration Home Page Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Saturn Neptune Pluto Sun Moon Asteroids Comets Meteorites Kuiper Belt Objects
Solar System Exploration Home Page
The Planets
Why Explore Our Solar System?
Science Goals
History Timeline
The People
Solar System Exploration Home Page Planets Home Search Feedback Sitemap Planets
Solar System Exploration Home Page

Smaller than Earth's moon, Pluto remains an unexplored celestial snowball 4 billion miles from the Sun.

Solar System Bodies: Pluto Profile:
Kid-Friendly Pluto Page -
See a kid-friendly version of this page.

Long considered to be the smallest, coldest, and most distant planet from the Sun, Pluto may also be the largest of a group of objects that orbit in a disk-like zone of beyond the orbit of Neptune called the Kuiper Belt. This distant region consists of thousands of miniature icy worlds with diameters of at least 1,000 km and is also believed to be the source of some comets.

Discovered by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh in 1930, Pluto takes 248 years to orbit the Sun. Plutoís most recent close approach to the Sun was in 1989. Between 1979 and 1999, Pluto's highly elliptical orbit brought it closer to the Sun than Neptune, providing rare opportunities to study this small, cold, distant world and its companion moon, Charon.

Distant image of Pluto and Charon
Pluto and Charon are tough to see even with the best telescopes.

Most of what we know about Pluto we have learned since the late 1970s from Earth-based observations, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), and the Hubble Space Telescope. Many of the key questions about Pluto, Charon, and the outer fringes of our solar system await close-up observations by a robotic space flight mission.

Pluto and Charon orbit the Sun in a region where there may be a population of hundreds or thousands of similar bodies that were formed early in solar system history. These objects are referred to interchangeably as trans-Neptunian objects, Edgeworth-Kuiper Disk objects or ice dwarves.

Pluto is about two-thirds the diameter of Earthís Moon and may have a rocky core surrounded by a mantle of water ice. Due to its lower density, its mass is about one-sixth that of the Moon. Pluto appears to have a bright layer of frozen methane, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide on its surface. While it is close to the Sun, these ices thaw, rise, and temporarily form a thin atmosphere, with a pressure one one-millionth that of Earthís atmosphere. Plutoís low gravity (about 6 percent of Earthís) causes the atmosphere to be much more extended in altitude than our planetís. Because Plutoís orbit is so elliptical, Pluto grows much colder during the part of each orbit when it is traveling away from the Sun. During this time, the bulk of the planetís atmosphere freezes.

In 1978, American astronomers James Christy and Robert Harrington discovered that Pluto has a satellite (moon), which they named Charon. Charon is almost half the size of Pluto and shares the same orbit. Pluto and Charon are thus essentially a double planet. Charonís surface is covered with dirty water ice and doesnít reflect as much light as Plutoís surface.

No spacecraft have visited Pluto. NASA is currently considering a mission called New Horizons that would explore both Pluto and the Kuiper Belt region. The earliest it would launch is 2006.

Because Pluto is so small and far away, it is difficult to observe from Earth. In the late 1980s, Pluto and Charon passed in front of each other repeatedly for several years. Observations of these rare events allowed astronomers to make crude maps of each body. From these maps it was learned that Pluto has polar caps, as well as large, dark spots nearer its equator.

Related Links

More on Pluto:

Education and Activities

Images, Movies and Animation

Read Press Releases about Pluto
View Images of Pluto

Discovered By:
Clyde Tombaugh

Date of Discovery:

Distance from the Sun:
(Semimajor axis of orbit)
5,906,376,200 km
39.48168677 A.U.

1,180 km
(0.180 of Earth's radius)

0.005 (Earth = 1)

0.013 x 1027 g

2.0 gm/cm3

Surface Gravity:
60 cm/s2

Escape Velocity:
1.2 km/sec

Sidereal Rotation Period:
-6.38718 (retrograde)

Sidereal Orbit Period:
247.92065 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity:
4.7490 km/s

Orbit Eccentricity:

Orbit Inclination:
17.14175 degrees

Equatorial Inclination:
119.61 degrees

Mean Surface Temperature:
40 K

(Note:Pluto's highly elliptical orbit around our Sun varies from 29.6 AU to 49.6 AU - averaging 39.6 AU.)

Natural Satellites:
1. Charon

Compare Pluto to other planets/moons

Sun | Mercury | Venus | Earth | Moon | Mars | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto
Asteroids | Comets | Meteoroids | Kuiper Belt Objects

NASA Headquarters
Responsible Office: Code S
NASA Privacy Statement
Search NASA

NASA Office of Space Science

Web Curator: Phil Davis
Webmaster: David Martin
Last Updated: 11-Nov-2002