NEWSBOOKSAUTHORSPUBLISHERSBOOKSELLERS
  History page
Quick-Finder


Enter first few characters
 Vote for Top Ten 

 New & forthcoming 
 Books by subjects 
 Book search engine 
 Book search service 

 Book reviews 
 Recommended reading 

 Book forum 
 Latest book feedback 
 Catalog requests 
 Newsletter requests 
 Want lists 
 Sell your books 

 Armies 
 Nations at war 
 History 
 Trivia challenge 

 Book events 
 Military booksellers 
 WWII links

 About us 
 Site guide 
 Site index 

 

 On the Web since 1995 

    
Unless otherwise indicated, all material researched, written, and copyrighted by Bill Stone for publication in various venues online and elsewhere. Feel free to point links at these pages, but reproduction of this material, electronic or otherwise, is prohibited without prior permission in writing from Stone & Stone.

Operation Exporter: Invasion of the French Levant

Due largely to Vichy granting permission for German and Italian aircraft to refuel in the Levant en route to supporting the regime of Rashid Ali and the colonels of the "Golden Square" in Iraq in the spring of 1941 -- and also at de Gaulle's urging -- British forces in the Middle East under Wavell invaded Syria and Lebanon from Palestine and Transjordan on Sunday, 8 June 1941 (with columns arriving from Iraq later in the campaign) under the codename "Operation Exporter".

De Gaulle and the Allies anticipated a quick knockout followed by immediate rallying of Vichy forces to the Free French. It was not to be. Vichy forces were small and without sufficient reserves or supplies, but their ground forces were tough and well-trained, and their small air force actually maintained air superiority for much of the campaign.

Instead of a quick victory, the Australian, Indian, British, and Free French forces (two brigades of the latter, comprised mainly of Senegalese) slugged it out with the Vichy defenders (also containing a good percentage of Sengalese troops) and suffered several serious setbacks before the ceasefire on 12 July. By July most of the Free French forces (especially the Senegalese), having had enough of killing their countrymen, were of questionable value and regarded as unreliable by British headquarters.

The Allies sustained about 4700 casualties. The 1st Royal Fusiliers were cut off by a Vichy counterattack and the entire battalion was lost. The Aussies lost 1600 killed and wounded during the month of combat (as opposed to about 3000 killed and wounded during the much lengthier siege of Tobruk).

When the campaign ended, only some 5700 (out of about 26,000) Vichy troops elected to join de Gaulle. The remainder were evacuated by sea to French North Africa under Allied supervision.

Initial Allied OB

Australian 21st Infantry X
   2/14, 2/16, 2/27 bns

Australian 25th Infantry X
   2/25, 2/31, 2/33 bns

Free French 1st Infantry X
   1st Bataillon de Marche, 2nd Bataillon de Marche, 1st Bataillon de legion etrangere

Free French 2nd Infantry X
   3rd Bataillon de Marche, 4th Bataillon de Marche, 1st Bataillon d'infanterie de marine

Indian 5th Infantry X
   1st Royal Fusiliers, 4/6th Rajputana Rifles, 3/1st Punjab

Before the end of the operation, these forces were reinforced by Australian 17th Brigade; Habforce (returning from its jaunt to Habbaniya and Baghdad), including elements of the Arab Legion; British 14th, 16th, and 23rd Brigades; and elements of British 5th Cavalry Brigade.

Sources

Mockler, Anthony. OUR ENEMIES THE FRENCH. London: Leo Cooper, 1976. This is probably the best work on the subject.

Buckley, Christopher. FIVE VENTURES. London: HMSO, 1954, 1977. Also good, but only one of its five chapters is devoted to the Levant.

The British, Australian, and Indian official histories also provide good information. Not surprisingly, it is difficult to find much in French on the subject.

Copyright © 1998 by Bill Stone
May not be reproduced in any form without written permission of Stone & Stone

 

 

We don't buy, stock, publish, or sell books or anything else.
NEWS     BOOKS     AUTHORS     PUBLISHERS     SELF-PUBLISHERS     BOOKSELLERS.
 bstone@sonic.net Copyright © 1995-2003 Bill Stone