Aquaculture

1971-72


Effect of Fish Removal on the Growth and Condition of White Shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus), in Brackish Ponds. Jack C. Parker, Hoyt W. Holcomb, Jr., Wallace G. Klussman and James C. McNeill, IV. June 1972. 12 pages. $1. TAMU-SG-72-701. NTIS-COM-72-11134

The effect of fish removal on growth and condition of juvenile white shrimp was studied in two brackish ponds near West Galveston Bay, Texas. In the pond in which fish were removed prior to stocking with shrimp, the shrimp grew more rapidly and were in better condition. Survival of shrimp was also higher in the pond without fish.


1974-75


Growth and Mortality of Two Groups of Oysters, (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), Maintained in Cooling Water at an Estuarine Electric Power Generating Station. Gill H. Gilmore, Sammy M. Ray and David V. Aldrich. January 1975. 67 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-75-207. NTIS-COM-75-10722.

Growth and mortality of oysters with high and low levels of Labryinthomyxa marina infection were measured during 1972 in (1) 0.1 ha ponds receiving a continuous flow of heated water from an electric power plant, (2) the power plant intake canal, and (3) the power plant discharge canal. Pond oysters had less cumulative mortality than intake or discharge canal oysters, regardless of Labryinthomyxa infection, and had gained in biomass by the end of the study.


Salinity Preference of Postlarval Brown and White Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus and P. setiferus) in Gradient Tanks. Richard K. Keiser, Jr. and David V. Aldrich. May 1976. 260 pages. $5. TAMU-SG-75-208. NTIS-PB-259-697/AS.

Brown and white shrimp were studied in tanks containing salinity gradients that ranged from 0 to 50 ppt, 0 to 70 ppt, and in control tanks of uniform salinity. Factors investigated to determine their influence on salinity preferences include: season, time (temporal, day-night, tidal), age, acclimation salinity, illumination and interactions among the above. Over 100 figures and 29 tables.


1975-76


Thermal Resistance and Acclimation Rate in Young White and Brown Shrimp, Penaeus setiferus Linn. and Penaeus aztecus Ives. Larry M. Wiesepape. November 1975. 196 pages. $4. TAMU-SG-76-202. NTIS-PB-250-064/AS.

A study of the thermal tolerance, acclimation rate, and effects and salinity on thermal resistance in postlarval brown and white shrimp. Penaeus aztecus post-larvae acclimated at three temperatures (24, 29 and 34°C) were tested for thermal resistance at five lethal temperatures for each acclimation temperature (34-38°C; 35-39°C). Penaeus setiferus postlarvae acclimated at two temperatures (29 and 34°C) were tested for thermal resistance at six lethal temperatures for each acclimation temperature (35-40°C; 36-41°C). Temperatures which caused 50 percent mortality at 10,000 were determined.


1976-77


Crawfish and Freshwater Shrimp Diseases. S.K. Johnson. August 1977. 20 pages. TAMU-SG-77-605. NTIS-PB-275-958/AS.

This handbook is designed as an information source and field guide for crustacean culturists, commercial fishermen and others interested in parasites or abnormal conditions of freshwater crustaceans. Detailed descriptions, photographs and illustrations of the common parasites and commensals are given along with information on their life cycles and general biological characteristics. Several diseases of unknown cause are also described. A list giving definitions of terms is included.


1979-80


Bio-Engineering Economic Model for Shrimp Mariculture Systems. C.M. Adams, W.L. Griffin, J.P. Nichols and R.W. Brick. May 1980. 125 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables. $4. TAMU-SG-80-203. NTIS-PB-80-223-308.

A bio-engineering economic computer model was developed to produce average annual budgets, monthly and annual cash flows, and sensitivity analysis for a penaeid shrimp commercial grow-out system design located on the Texas Gulf Coast. Given the production data available, growth equations were simulated for various stocking densities. Sensitivity analyses also were performed on selected production variables and prices. A documentation of the program is presented in the Appendix along with a summary on how to run the program.


1980-81


Aquaculture in Texas: A Status Report and Development Plan. Robert R. Stickney and James T. Davis. August 1981. 103 pages, 2 tables, 6 figures. $8. TAMU-SG-81-119. NTIS-PB-82-148-321.

Texas has been a leader for aquaculture research and development because of its climate and extensive marine and freshwater resources. Overfishing and decreased environmental quality threaten the fisheries industry, and aquaculture offers economic opportunity and a new source of protein. This report is a guide for user and provider groups, state agencies and political bodies involved in aquaculture in Texas. Using groundwater, temperature, precipitation and soils data, it evaluates the state's potential for aquaculture. It discusses legal constraints on the development of the industry and recommends laws and regulations that would promote it. The report discusses marketing strategies for aquaculture products, inland sources of salt water and use of heated industrial effluent for temperature control of aquaculture facilities. It also recommends future research in disease prevention and control, diets and new species suitable for aquaculture. Status and research needs are presented for the channel catfish, crawfish, tilapia, largemouth bass, bait minnows, red drum, freshwater shrimp, penaeid shrimp, oysters and marine finfish.


Summary of Shrimp Mariculture Data at Texas A&M University, 1969-1978. M.A.Johns, H.W. Holcomb, D.L. Hutchins and W.L. Griffin. May 1981. 130 pages, 202 tables. $5. TAMU-SG-81-603.. NTIS-PB-81-243-974.

Since it began, shrimp mariculture research in Texas has been supported by the Texas A&M University System and the Texas A&M Sea Grant Program. This report summarizes the development and the research objectives of shrimp mariculture in Texas and the research objectives of shrimp culture facilities at Angleton and Corpus Christi, Texas. In addition, it presents weekly growth and water quality data from research at the facilities between 1969 and 1978.


Mixed Infection in Columnaris Disease in Fish. J.E. Marks, D.H. Lewis and G.S. Trevino. In Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 177, No. 9, November 1980. pp. 811-814, 1 table, 6 figures. TAMU-SG-81-811. NTIS-PB-81-199-861.

Flexibacter columnaris and Corynebacterium sp were recovered from lesions associated with columnaris disease in catfish. Catfish exposed to pure cultures of the Corynebacterium sp developed circumscribed lesions, which regressed without further adverse effects. Disease signs were not demonstrable in catfish exposed to pure cultures of F. columnaris; however, when catfish were exposed to mixed cultures of Corynebacterium sp and F. columnaris, signs of columnaris appeared and the fish died.


Ultrastructural Localization of Peroxidase Activity in Neutrophil Leukocytes of Ictalurus punctatus. M. Samuel Cannon, Hilton H. Mssollenhauer, Anita M. Cannon, Thomas E. Eurell and Donald H. Lewis. In Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 58, No. 6, 1980. pp. 1139-1143, 2 figures. TAMU-SG-81-812. NTIS-PB-81-182-628.

The cytoplasmic granules of the blood neutrophil leukocyte of the teleost, Ictalurus punctatus, have been shown to exhibit peroxidase activity at the light and electron microscopic levels when exposed to the 3.3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride peroxidase procedure. Erythrocytes also show activity. Addition of cyanide to the incubation medium has no apparent effect on peroxidase reactivity in neutrophils, but inhibits pseudoperoxidase reactivity in erythrocytes. The presence of peroxidase-positive granules in the neutrophil serve as a marker for identification of this cell and strongly indicate antibacterial and phagocytic functions for the neutrophil.


A Comparison of the Capabilities of Juvenile and Adult Penaeus setiferus and Penaeus stylirostris to Regulate the Osmotic, Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in the Hemolymph. Frank L. Castille, Jr. and Addison L. Lawrence. In Comparative Biochemical Physiology, Vol. 68A, 1981, pp. 677-680. TAMU-SG-81-818.

The capabilities of juvenile and mature adult Penaeus setiferus and P. stylirostris to regulate the osmotic, sodium and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph are compared. In P. setiferus and P. stylirostris acclimated to salinities of 9.8 and 10.8 ppt, respectively, juvenile shrimp are stronger hyperosmotic and hyperionic regulators than adults. However, the reduced regulatory capabilities of adult shrimp are not sufficient to require migration to offshore waters for survival. At 40.4 ppt juvenile P. setiferus are more effective hypoosmotic and hypoionic regulators than adults. However, there is no difference between the regulatory capabilities of juvenile and adult P. stylirostris at 36.2 ppt. Differences in hemolymph concentration between juvenile and adult P. setiferus at 23.5 ppt indicate that the isosmotic and isoionic crossover concentrations are elevated with maturation.


An Ultrastructural Study of the Leukocytes of the Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. M. Samuel Cannon, et. al. In Journal of Morphology, 161:1-23 (1980). TAMU-SG-81-820.

Ultrastructure studies of leukocytes of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, revealed heterophils (neutrophils), small lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes. Eosinophils and basophils were not seen. Thrombocytes and small lymphocytes were the most abundant types of leukocytes; monocytes were the least abundant. Monocytes and large lymphocytes were often indistinguishable. Cells that resembled macrophages or transitional forms between them and monocytes were seen occasionally. Glycogen, present in all leukocytes, was least abundant in monocytes and most abundant in heterophils. Monocytes and heterophils were similar in size and shape, but monocytes contained more rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), more free ribosomes and fewer granules than did heterophils. In heterophils, granules were oval or elongate and often contained a crystalline or striated structure. Small tubules, similar to smooth ER, and cristae that cross the long axes of mitochondria were often seen. Small lymphocytes possessed pseudopodia, many free ribosomes, many large mitochondria and dictyosomes (Golgi), and long profiles of rough ER. Dictyosomes were often associated with a large zone of exclusion. Bundles of microtubules were seen near the elongated ends of thrombocytes. Deep indentations seen in the plasmalemma of thrombocytes gave the appearance of vacuoles.


Winter Culture of Penaeus vannamei in Ponds Receiving Thermal Effluent at Different Rates. G.W. Chamberlain et al. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 11:30-43 (1980). TAMU-SG-81-822..

The marine shrimp Penaeus vannemei was cultured from 3 November 1978 to 10 April 1979 in eight 0.1-ha ponds whose water temperature could be increased with cooling water effluent from the adjacent electrical power plant near Corpus Christi, Texas. Four treatments were used, including different flow rates and feeding rates. The flow rates were: high (3,000 l/m), medium (1,500 l/m) and low (35 l/m). Feeding rates were three and four percent of body weight. Survival, growth and distribution of shrimp were monitored by cast-net sampling. In low-flow ponds, mortality was 94 percent after temperatures dropped to 5.2_C. Survival was much greater in ponds with higher flow rates. Maximum survival, 33.7-82.3 percent, was seen in the high-flow ponds. Low-temperature death occurred below 8_C regardless of acclimation and at temperatures as high as 12_C, depending on degree of acclimation. Growth rates among treatments ranged from -0.03 to 0.06 g/day. Highest growth rates occurred in high-flow ponds with a four percent feeding rate. The four percent feeding rate yielded greater survival, growth, food conversion efficiency, digestive gland index and spermatophore production than the three percent rate. At temperatures less than 21_C shrimp burrowed and cast-net catches declined. Shrimp inhabited deeper water during the day and were more evenly distributed at night.


Estimation of Shrimp Populations in Experimental Ponds Using Mark-Recapture and Stratified Random Sampling Methods. David L. Hutchins, George W. Chamberlain and Jack C. Parker. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 11:142-150 (1980). TAMU-SG-81-825.

Reliable estimates of populations of organisms in mariculture ponds are essential for efficient management of feeding programs and harvesting schedules. However, accurate estimates are seldom obtained in routine sampling programs because of the complexities of most sampling procedures. Two techniques for estimating Penaeus vannamei populations in ponds were investigated during Summer and Fall 1978. The Peterson mark-recapture procedure resulted in an estimate that was only 5.9 percent greater than the actual population. However, molting and mortality quickly reduced the number of marked animals, and estimates based on their recapture were not feasible. The second technique involved stratified random sampling by cast netting. A significant (r2 = 0.64) relationship was found between the mean catch per cast and the actual population at harvest in the 13 ponds tested. This relationship was then used to predict populations in seven ponds. The average deviation of the estimates was 11.6 percent greater than the actual populations.


1981-82


Sea Grant Aquaculture Plan 1983-1987. Feenan D. Jennings, Alfred M. Beeton, Jack R. Davidson, William S. Gaither and Malvern Gilmartin. July 1982. vii + 47 pages, 2 figures, 14 tables. $5. TAMU-SG-82-114.

The National Aquaculture Act of 1980 called for a coordinated national aquaculture program. The responsibility for aquacultural research and development on saltwater and Great Lakes species was later assumed by the Department of Commerce, primarily by the National Sea Grant College Program. This document presents Sea Grant's strategy for aquaculture research, education and advisory services for the next five years. Written by 21 working groups, the plan discusses its coordination with the national aquaculture plan, accomplishments of Sea Grant's aquacultural research, areas of effort for future research, and status and problems on a species basis. Areas of interest include aquacultural systems, genetics, nutrition, public policy, economics and marketing and advisory services. Species plans are given for 17 species or groups, including the most important molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, bait organisms and seaweeds.


Sea Grant Aquaculture Plan 1983-1987 - Executive Summary. July 1982. 4 pages, 2 figures, 1 table. TAMU-SG-82-115.

This is a summary of the above-listed publication, which describes Sea Grant's policy, goals and objectives as they relate to aquacultural development in the United States. It discusses the economic importance of aquaculture, assesses present aquacultural technology and projects funding for the next five years based on research needs and changing emphasis. Finally, it places the Sea Grant aquacultural effort in the context of the national effort.


Aquaculture: Public Health, Regulatory and Management Aspects - Proceedings of the 6th U.S. Food and Drug Administration Science Symposium on Aquaculture. July 1982. 226 pages, many tables and illustrations. $5. TAMU-SG-82-119. NTIS-PB-83-120-303.

The FDA's 6th Science Symposium on Aquaculture was held February 12-13, 1980 in New Orleans. This publication is the proceedings of that symposium and includes 81 of the papers that were presented. Topics include paralytic shellfish poisoning, immunology, environmental microbiology and virology, business and policy.


The Effect of Salinity on the Osmotic, Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in the Hemolymph of Euryhaline Shrimp of the Genus Penaeus. Frank L. Castille, Jr. and Addison L. Lawrence. In Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 68A:75-80 (1981). TAMU-SG-82-801.

The hemolymph is isosmotic to seawater at 745 mOs/kg in Penaeus aztecus, 768 mOs/kg in P. duorarum, 680 mOs/kg in P. setiferus, 699 mOs/kg in P. stylirostris, and 718 mOs/kg in P. vannamei. The hemolymph is hyperosmotic to seawater at salinities below the isosmotic concentrations and hypoosmotic to those above. With respect to sodium and chloride, the hemolymph is hyperionic to seawater at low salinities and hypoionic to seawater at high salinities. P. aztecus and P. duorarum are weaker osmotic and ionic regulators at low salinities than P. setiferus, P. stylirostris, and P. vannamei. There are no significant differences in the osmotic and ionic regulatory capabilities of all five species at high salinities.


The Effect of Salinity on the Osmotic, Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in the Hemolymph of the Freshwater Shrimps, Macrobrachium ohione Smith and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. Frank L. Castille, Jr. and Addison Lawrence. In Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 70A: 47-52 (1982). TAMU-SG-82-802.

Adult Macrobrachium ohione are capable of weak hypoosmotic regulation and hypoionic regulation with respect to sodium and chloride regulation at an external osmolality of 822 mOsm/kg, and very strong hyperosmotic and hyperionic regulation in fresh water. The isosmotic crossover osmolality is 643 mOsm/kg and the isoionic concentration is 236 mM/l for sodium and 224 mM/l for chloride. Juvenile M. rosenbergii are also strong hyperosmotic and hyperionic regulators in fresh water, but at high salinities they are slightly hyperosmotic to the media, isoionic with respect to sodium and hypoionic with respect to chloride. The isoionic crossover concentration for chloride is 189 mM/l. Although both species are able to maintain a relatively constant hemolymph concentration in tapwater diluted with deionized water, M. rosenbergii is a more effective hyperosmotic and hyperionic regulator than M. ohione at very dilute concentrations (<14 mOsm/kg). The percentage of the osmotic concentration due to sodium and chloride suggests that protein in the hemolymph may be osmotically significant.

A Comparison of the Osmotic, Sodium and Chloride Concentrations between the Urine and Hemolymph of Penaeus setiferus (L.) and Penaeus stylirostris (Stimpson). Frank L. Castille and Addison L. Lawrence. In Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 70A:525-528 (1981). TAMU-SG-82-803.

The osmotic, sodium and chloride concentrations in the urine and hemolymph are compared in Penaeus setiferus and P. stylirostris at salinities ranging from 10 to 40 ‰. Isosmoticity of the urine and hemolymph indicate that the antennal glands are not important in osmotic regulation. At all experimental salinities, the urine was hypoionic to the hemolymph with respect to sodium and isoionic to the hemolymph with respect to chloride.


Enhancement of Chill Tolerance in Larval Artemia salina: Cooling Regimens and Multiple Type Cryoprotectant Exposure. J.G. Baust and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of World Mariculture Society, 10:421-428 (1979). TAMU-SG-82-805.

The enhancement of chill tolerance of Artemia salina larvae to single-component (glycerol, glucose or sucrose) and double-component (glucose/sucrose) cryoprotectant solutions was determined. Larvae, aged 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, were immersed in -1_C cryoprotectant solutions for periods as long as 90 minutes. Survival of the different larval stages was compared between larvae exposed to instantaneous cooling from 28_C to -1_C and those exposed to a gradual (1_C/hr) cooling from 28_C to 18_C followed by instantaneous cooling to -1_C. In most cases, survival was enhanced to a greater extent when multiple-component cryoprotectants were used than in single component systems. Survival was two to five times greater than when no cryoprotectant was used. The significance of these results to the development of cryogenic larval banking is discussed.


Length-Weight Relations for Several Species of Penaeid Shrimp Cultured in Ponds near Corpus Christi, Texas. D.L. Hutchins, G.W. Chamberlain and J.C. Parker. In Proceedings of World Mariculture Society, 10:565-570 (1979). TAMU-SG-82-806.

Length of shrimp is more easily measured than weight, and length-weight relationships allow estimation of weight from length measurements. Using the model W = aLb, linear regressions were calculated from paired length and weight measurements of aquacultured Penaeus duorarum, P. occidentalis, P. setiferus, P. stylirostris and P. vannamei, measured during 1972-1979. Length frequency distributions and regression formulas for predicting weights from lengths are presented for each species.


Maturation of Penaeid Shrimp: Dietary Fatty Acids. B.S. Middleditch, S.R. Missler, D.G. Ward, J.B. McVey, A. Brown and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 10:472-476 (1979). TAMU-SG-82-807.

Comparisons were made between fatty acid profiles of gonad, digestive gland and tail muscle tissue samples from immature and mature male and female penaeid shrimp collected at sea. The major fatty acids of the lipids from mature ovaries were C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The polychaete Glycera dibranchiata, rich in lipids containing these acids, was used as a dietary supplement for shrimp grown in the laboratory, and spawning was achieved with Penaeus setiferus. The possible role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in ovarian maturation is discussed.


Fatty Acid Changes During Larval Development of Penaeus setiferus. D.G. Ward, B.S. Middleditch, S.R. Missler and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 10: 464-471 (1979). TAMU-SG-82-808.

Fatty acid compositions of the egg, nauplius, protozea, mysis and one-to-two-day postlarva of Penaeus setiferus were determined. Of 12 fatty acids identified, the four major ones in the egg were 16:1, 16:0, 18:1, 20:4. Those of the one-to-two-day postlarva were 16:0, 18:1, 20:4 and 22:6. Per unit weight, the 16:1, 16:0, 18:1 and 20:4 fatty acids decreased between the egg and the one-to-two-day postlarval stages by 83, 47, 44 and 18 percent, respectively. However, the 22:6 fatty acid increased by 66 percent per unit dry weight during that time. Per animal, the largest increases were obtained for the 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 20:4 and 22:6 fatty acids between the protozoeal and the one-to-two-day postlarval stages. The largest per-animal decreases were seen for the 16:1, 16:0, 18:1 and 18:0 fatty acids between the egg and nauplius stages. The significance of these results to understanding shrimp larval nutrition is discussed


Maturation of Penaeid Shrimp: Lipids in the Marine Food Web. B.S.Middleditch, S.R. Missler, H.L. Hines, E.S. Chang, J.P. McVey, A. Brown and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society 11:463-470 (1980). TAMU-SG-82-809.

Certain lipids are required in the diets of penaeid shrimp to promote ovarian maturation. To identify appropriate feedstock supplements that contain these lipids, several invertebrate species were examined from West Bay, Galveston, Texas, and from the Gulf of Mexico 50 kilometers off Galveston. With a few notable exceptions, the lipid profiles for the various species were very similar at each location. This implies that many lipids pass unaltered through the food web and that the suitability of a particular invertebrate food item for inducing ovarian maturation may depend on the diet of that invertebrate.


Maturation of White Shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) in Captivity. A. Brown, Jr., J. McVey, B.A. Middleditch and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 10:435-444, (1979). TAMU-SG-82-810.

Penaeus setiferus matured and spawned in captivity at ambient temperature with controlled photoperiod and diet. The experiments were performed at the lagoon and seawater laboratories of the National Marine Fisheries Service in Galveston, Texas. One-half of the animals at each site were unilaterally eyestalk-ablated. The photoperiod was initially set at 15 hours and was increased to 16 hours when spawning began. Temperature ranged from 22_C to 29_C, salinity was 22-30 ‰ and pH was 7.5-8.0. The diet consisted of worms, squid, oysters and mussels. Egg production varied between the sites: 534,000 were produced at the lagoon facility and 3.8 million at the seawater laboratory. Spermatophore transfer did not occur, possibly because of a bacterial infection (Vibrio sp.) of the terminal ampoules and the compound spermatophore.


Organ Indices and Biochemical Levels of Ova from Penaeid Shrimp Maintained in Captivity Versus Those Captured in the Wild. A.L. Lawrence, D. Ward, S.Missler, A. Brown, J. McVey and B.S. Middleditch. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society 10: 453-463 (1979). TAMU-SG-82-811.

This paper further characterizes reproduction of penaeid shrimp by reporting (1) gonad, hepatopancreas, tail and eyestalk indices for unablated and unilaterally eyestalk-ablated Penaeus setiferus maintained in captivity and captured in the wild; and (2) the biochemical content of spawned ova from P. setiferus, P. stylirostris and P. vannamei obtained from the wild and from P. setiferus that matured and spawned in captivity. The data indicate that (1) the dietary and environmental regime used in this study was not optimal for reproduction of P. setiferus in captivity; (2) the hepatopancreas is directly involved in penaeid reproduction, but the tail muscle is not; (3) the population of P. setiferus sampled on June 2 and July 22, 1978 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico was not at its reproductive peak; (4) the percentages of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in unhatched eggs of all three species are very similar; and (5) biochemical analysis of the unhatched eggs and determination of organ indices during reproduction are necessary for the evaluation of penaeid reproduction, both in the wild and in captivity.


The Maturation and Spawning of Penaeus stylirostris Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions. A. Brown, Jr., J.P. McVey, B.M. Scott, T.D. Williams, B.D. Middleditch and A.L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 11: 488-489 (1980). TAMU-SG-82-812.

About 35 female Penaeus stylirostris from Costa Rica and Mexico mated and spawned at least 247 times within 190 days, producing more than 98 million eggs. Each spawned 9-10 times, producing an average of 397,000 eggs. Hatching rates were 0-85 percent and averaged about 50 percent. Experiments were done at the National Marine Fisheries Service laboratory in Galveston, Texas. Females were unilaterally eyestalk-ablated and placed in 3-m-diameter tanks. The sex ratio was 1-1. Salinity was 20-30 ‰; water temperature was 29-30_C. The diet consisted of polychaetes, squid, and sometimes a pellet feed, at a 1-2-1 ratio. The photoperiod was 14h; only fluorescent light was used. Mating began at 1400-1500 h and continued until 2200-2230 h and later. Females with a spermatophore were placed in spawning tanks containing water treated with EDTA, Maracyn I and Maracyn II. Egg production and hatching rates were calculated for each tank. Nauplii were transferred to the hatchery, and viability was determined for selected spawns. Survival to postlarvae varied. More than 746,000 postlarvae were produced.


The Nutritional Response of Two Penaeid Species to Various Levels of Squid Meal in a Prepared Food. Jorge L. Fenucci, Zoula P. Zein-Eldin and Addison L. Lawrence. In Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 11: 403-409 (1980). TAMU-SG-82-813.

Several pellet feeds containing 30-35 percent protein were tested on Penaeus stylirostris and P. setiferus. Alginate-bound test diets varied in protein composition, but all diets contained about 30 percent sun-dried squid meal. Initial tests used diets containing as much as 13 percent squid meal. In later tests, squid meal content varied between 0 and 12.7 percent, and alpha-soy flour content varied between 0 and 12.4 percent. In one test diet, these components were replaced with 12.5 percent brewer's yeast. Conversion rates, survival and growth were determined during a three-week period for the two species and for two sizes of P. stylirostris. The presence of five to six percent squid meal is advantageous in feeds containing 30-35 percent protein.


The Effect of Salinity on the Osmotic, Sodium and Chloride Concentration in the Hemolymph of the Rock Shrimps, Sicyonia brevirostris and Sicyonia dorsalis. Frank L. Castille Jr. and Addison L. Lawrence. In Comparative Biochemical Physiology 70A: 519-523 (1981). TAMU-SG-82-814.

When S. brevirostris and S. dorsalis are exposed to diluted seawater, the osmotic, sodium and chloride concentrations of the hemolymph decrease with the concentration of seawater. The hemolymph of both species is slightly hyperosmotic and hyperionic with respect to sodium and chloride in diluted seawater. In undiluted seawater (37-38 ‰), the hemolymph is slightly hypoosmotic and hypoionic with respect to sodium and chloride. In their responses to dilution, S. brevirostris and S. dorsalis more closely resemble poikilosmotic crustaceans than euryhaline penaeidean shrimp.


Aggregation of Penaeid Shrimp Larvae Due to Microbial Epibonts. D.H. Lewis, J.K. Leong, and C. Mock. In Aquaculture 27:149-155 (1982). TAMU-SG-82-818.

Pseudomonas piscicida, Aeromonas formicans and Flavobacteria sp. were involved in aggregation of hatchery-reared larvae of Penaeus stylirostris. Aggregation was reproduced experimentally with pure cultures of these bacteria at densities of 104 cells per milliliter. Addition of at least 3 µg/ml gentamycin, 10 µg/ml nalidixic acid, 0.1 µg/ml acridine or Cutrine Plus into test suspensions prevented aggregation of the shrimp larvae.


1982-83


Bioeconomic Modeling with Stochastic Elements in Shrimp Culture. W.L. Griffin, J.S. Hanson, R.W. Brick and M.A. Johns. In Journal of the World Mariculture Society 12(1): 94-103 (1981). TAMU-SG-83-802.

This study incorporates water quality parameters and a growth function into a bioeconomic model of shrimp mariculture. Certain parameters, such as weather and low oxygen concentrations, are unpredictable, so randomization of such parameters is introduced into the model. The results consist of means and standard deviations of profits determined from 25 replications of the model. The baseline model indicates that a mean profit of $679/hectare would be achieved with only a five percent chance of loss. Sensitivity tests of profit in the model, consisting primarily of changes in biological and environmental parameters, illustrate the usefulness of the model in directing future research.


Mono- and Polyculture of Penaeus vannamei and P. stylirostris in Ponds. G.W. Chamberlain, D.L. Hutchins and A.L. Lawrence. In Journal of the World Mariculture Society 12 (1):251-270 (1981). TAMU-SG-83-803.

Fish polyculture is more productive than fish monoculture, but the effect of polyculture on shrimp production has received little attention. This study investigated production of Penaeus vannamei ("v") and P. stylirostris ("s") in monoculture and in polyculture at various species ratios (75v:25s, 50v:50s and 25v:75s), at a constant population density of 0.18 million shrimp per hectare, in 0.1-ha ponds. P. vannamei has a greater mean survival rate (73 vs. 22 percent), but a smaller mean growth rate (0.09 vs 0.14 g/day) than P. stylirostris. Survival rates did not differ significantly among treatments. Final weight decreased significantly for both species with increasing density of the same species, but it significantly increased with increasing density of the other species. Best growth for both species occurred in the 75v:25s treatment. Interspecific differences in distribution and diel activity may partially explain the compatibility of the species in polyculture. Production rates (590-2,180 kg/ha) and value ($2,720-$5,740/ha) generally increased with increasing percentage of P. vannamei, but no significant difference in mean value was detected between the 110v and the 75v:25s treatments. Performance of shrimp (25v:75s) in a single-phase pond system was compared to that in a three-phase (nursery, intermediate and grow-out) system. Survival, growth, production and value were similar in both systems.


Decreased Toxicity of Copper and Manganese Ions to Shrimp Nauplii (Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson) in the Presence of EDTA. A.L. Lawrence, J. Fox and F.L. Castille, Jr. In Journal of the World Mariculture Society 12(1): 271-280 (1981). TAMU-SG-83-804.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used routinely in intensive culture of penaeid shrimp larvae to increase hatching and larval survival rates. However, its mode of action is unknown. This study evaluated the effect of EDTA (10 mg/l) on the toxicities of Cu++ and Mn++, in terms of the percentage of Penaeus stylirostris nauplii surviving after 12 and 24 hours of exposure and in terms of percentage of nauplii metamorphosing into protozoea. In the absence of EDTA, Cu++ and Mn++ were toxic to nauplii. Cu++ caused 100 percent mortality at a much lower concentration (20 uM) than did Mn++ (20,000 uM). In the presence of EDTA survival of nauplii exposed to Cu++ increased, but survival of nauplii exposed to Mn++ did not change. At sublethal concentrations, Cu++ (0.2 uM) and Mn++ reduced the percentage of nauplii that metamorphosed to protozoea. In the presence of EDTA, the percentage of nauplii metamorphosing increased with exposure to both Cu++ and Mn++. The beneficial effects probably result from chelation of Cu++ and Mn++ by EDTA, which decreases the concentration of these ions, reducing their toxicities.


The Effects of Fatty Acid and Shrimp Meal Composition of Prepared Diets on Growth of Juvenile Shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris. J.L. Fenucci, A.L. Lawrence and Z.P. Zein-Eldin. In Journal of the World Mariculture Society 12(1): 315-324 (1981). TAMU-SG-83-806.

Pelleted diets, containing different amounts of sun-dried shrimp meal and brewer's yeast, were tested. A relationship was observed between the content of the shrimp meal and brewer's yeast in the diets and increased growth of juveniles. Data suggest that in feeds containing five percent squid meal, as much as one-half the shrimp meal can be replaced by brewer's yeast. These feeds should thus contain at least 15 percent shrimp meal and less than 15 percent brewer's yeast. A quadratic correlation was found between growth rate of juveniles and the percentage of linoleic acid in the diets. The best nutritional response should be obtained in rations containing 14.5 percent linoleic acid.


1983-84


Reproductive Activity and Biochemical Composition of Penaeus setiferus and Penaeus aztecus in the Gulf of Mexico. G.W. Chamberlain, A.L. Lawrence. October 1983. 35 pages, 26 figures, 8 tables. $7. TAMU-SG-84-203. NTIS-PB-84-121-078.

Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus compose the bulk of the Texas catch of shrimp, the most valuable fishery product in the state. This study compares the maturation and reproduction of P. setiferus and P. aztecus near an offshore brine diffuser (at a depth of 21 m) to that at two control locations. Seven 10-day collecting cruises were conducted between October 1979 and September 1980, and approximately 3,000 shrimp were dissected and analyzed. Descriptions and photographs of characteristic size and color of each stage of ovarian maturation are presented for each species.


Developing a Selected Breeding Program for Penaeid Shrimp Mariculture. L. James Lester. In Aquaculture 33: 41-50 (1983). TAMU-SG-84-804.

Five species of penaeid shrimp are being considered for mariculture production in the southern United States. Four of these, Penaeus aztecus, P. setiferus, P. stylirostris and P. vannamei, are the subject of an investigation of genetic differentiation among wild stocks using the electrophoretic technique. Preliminary results indicate a low level of genetic variation and little geographic differentiation within species. The implication of these findings for the creation of a foundation population for the selective breeding program is discussed. Many questions have resulted from the initial efforts to employ a quantitative criterion in the selection of future broodstock from pond-reared adults. One response has been morphometric studies to evaluate other possible selection criteria. Several morphological measures are identified as potential selection criteria and discussed with regard to the handling necessary to make each measurement and the correlation between these measurements and tail weight. An overview of the penaeid mariculture methodology used in Texas is presented as a justification for a program using mass selection rather than other methods to improve tail weight grow-out.


1984-85


Effect of Light Intensity and Male and Female Eyestalk Ablation on Reproduction of Penaeus stylirostris and P. vannamei. George W. Chamberlain and Addison L. Lawrence. In Journal of the World Mariculture Society, 12(2): 357-372 (1981). TAMU-SG-85-802.

This 97-day study, conducted during midwinter using a recirculating water system, was designed to evaluate the effect of light intensity and male and female eyestalk ablation on reproduction of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris. Four light intensities were established using various levels of fluorescent lighting (bright, 14.7uEm-2s-1; moderate, 4.4 uEm-2s-1; dim, 0.6uEm-2s-1; and dark, 0.0uEm-2s-1) and the fifth consisted of artificial lighting supplemented with natural light through a translucent skylight (skylight, 4.7-9.3 uEm-2s-1). Unilateral eyestalk ablation was performed on all male P. vannamei in one of each pair of tanks within a treatment. In addition, half of the females in each tank were unilaterally ablated. Ovarian maturation, spawning, molting rate and survival were monitored daily within each tank. Growth and gonad development were measured at termination. The optimum light intensity for P. stylirostris appeared to be lower than that for P. vannamei. P. stylirostris matured and spawned more frequently in the skylight and dim treatments than in the moderate, dark and bright treatments. P. vannamei matured and spawned more frequently in the skylight, bright and moderate treatments than in the dim and dark treatments. Natural light supplementation beneficially affected reproduction of both species. Male eyestalk ablation increased gonad size and doubled mating frequency of P. vannamei in comparison to unablated controls. This is the first documentation of increased penaeid shrimp reproduction by unilateral eyestalk ablation of males. Even more significant may be recognition that male gonadal development is a limiting factor in reproduction of shrimp in captivity.


Consumption of Frozen and Live Artemia by Protozoea of Penaeus setiferus. Joshua A. Wilkenfeld, Joe M. Fox and Addison L. Lawrence. In Journal of World Mariculture Society, 12(2): 250-259 (1981). TAMU-SG-85-804.

The role of an animal component in the diet of protozoeal penaeid shrimp larvae is not known. Short-term experiments were performed on the larvae of Penaeus setiferus (L.) to determine the ability of each protozoeal substage to consume frozen and live Artemia nauplii. Significant consumption of frozen Artemia took place during the protozoea 2 and 3 substages at rates of 1.0 and 1.6 Artemia nauplii/penaeid larva/hour respectively. Consumption of live Artemia occurred in the protozoea 3 substage, at a rate of 0.7 Artemia nauplii/penaeid larva/hour. Data suggesting that there is a beneficial role of an animal component in the diet of protozoeal penaeid shrimp larvae are discussed.


Nocturnal Activity of Birds on Shrimp Mariculture Ponds. Jeffrey L. Beynon, David L. Hutchins, Anthony J. Rubino, Addison L. Lawrence and Brian R. Chapman. In Journal of World Mariculture Society, 12(2):63-70 (1981). TAMU-SG-85-805.

Birds can reduce production of shrimp in mariculture grow-out ponds through predation and competition for feed. This study involved weekly nocturnal enumeration of bird populations and observation of nocturnal avian habits on a series of 0.1 ha experimental ponds at the Texas A&M University Shrimp Mariculture Facility at Corpus Christi, Texas. Observations were conducted hourly from sunset to sunrise during October through December 1980. The rate of predation was evaluated every three hours by comparing the number of feeding attempts to the number of successful prey captures over a known time period. Gulls (Family Laridae) acted primarily as competitors for feed. Active feeding by gulls was restricted to daylight hours, consequently feed loss decreased when the feed was distributed at or after dusk. Major predatory birds included herons and egrets (Family Ardeidae), migratory ducks (Family Anatidae), and, to a lesser extent, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and shorebirds (Order Charadriiformes). Bird predation decreased pond production by 75 percent in some ponds.


Comparison of Unilateral Eyestalk Ablation with Environmental Control of Ovarian Maturation of Penaeus stylirostris. George W. Chamberlain and Neil F. Gervais. In Journal of World Mariculture Society, 15:29-30 (1984). TAMU-SG-85-818.

Reproduction in captivity remains one of the largest obstacles impeding the growth of the penaeid shrimp farming industry. Temperature and photoperiod regimes have been used as an alternative to hormonal control of reproduction for a host of fishes and for some shrimp. The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of unilaterally ablated P. stylirostris with unablated animals from the same population exposed to an increasing temperature and photoperiod regime. Offspring of eyestalk-ablated P. stylirostris obtained from the Gulf of California, Mexico, were raised in ponds to a mean weight of 51 g. Temperature and photoperiod were adjusted from initial levels in step-wise increments. Photophase was simulated using an automatic timer with reversing dimmer. When water temperature reached 25_C, beginning ovarian maturation was observed in both ablated and unablated females. Daily spawning activity began when temperatures reached 26_C and continued for the remaining three months. Preliminary results indicate that environmental manipulation compares favorably with eyestalk-ablation in terms of survival, maturation rate, fecundity and hatching rate.


1985-86


Relationships Between Trawl Catch and Tow Duration for Penaid Shrimp. Chittenden, Carothers. Transaction of the American Fisheries Society 114: 851-856, 1985. TAMU-SG-86-804.

The relationship between catch and trawling effort was explored for Penaeus aztecus, P. setiferus, and P. duorarum. Tow durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min bottom time were examined, and data were analyzed with orthogonal polynomials in a randomized complete block design. We found a significant linear relationship between catch and tow duration, which is consistent with the assumption of a constant catchability coefficient. However, tow duration accounted for only a small proportion of the total variation in catch. This indicates that catch-per-unit-effort indices of abundance may be improved when analyzed in statistical designs that consider other sources of variation in catch in addition to fishing effort. Scaling of catch data when tow durations vary is briefly discussed.


Survival, Metamorphosis & Growth of Larvae From Four Penaeid Species Fed Six Food Combinations. Lawerence, Juban. Aquaculture, 47 (1985) 151-162. (Limited number of copies left.) TAMU-SG-86-806.

Survival, metamorphosis and growth of four larval shrimp species, Penaeus aztecus, P. setiferus, P. vannamei and P. stylirostris, were compared after feeding six food combinations.

Studies on the Use of Boiled Chicken Egg Yolk as a Feed For Rearing Penaeid Shrimp Larvae. Fuze, Wilkenfield, Lawrence. The Texas Journal of Science, Vol. XXXVII, No. 4, 1985. pp. 371-382. (Limited number of copies left.) TAMU-SG-86-813.

The effectiveness of hard-boiled chicken-egg yolk as a food source for larval penaeid shrimp was examined.


Uncertainty Consideration Resulting from Temperature Variation on Growth of Penaeus stylirostris in Ponds. Arye Sadeh, Christopher R. Pardy, Wade Griffin and Addison L. Lawrence. In The Texas Journal of Science 38(2):159-173 (1986). (Limited number of copies left.) TAMU-SG-86-825.

Consideration of temperature variations as stochastic factor in scheduling of stocking and harvesting of shrimp in a grow-out pond in Texas is treated.


1986-87


Effect of Eyestalk Ablation on Spermatophore & Sperm Quality in Penaeus vannamei. Leung-Trujillo and Lawrence. Journal of World Mariculture Society (1985), 16: 258-266. TAMU-SG-87-806.

The effects of eyestalk ablation on spermatophore and sperm quality in Penaeus vannamei were investigated in bilaterally, unilaterally, and unablated males stocked at a 1:1 ratio with unilaterally ablated females.

Effects of Diet & Size on Growth, Feed Digestibility & Digestive Enzyme Activities of the Marine ShrimpPenaeus setiferus Linnaeus. Lee, Lawrence. Journal of World Mariculture Society (1985), 16: 275-287. TAMU-SG-87-807.

Relationships between protein level, size, apparent feed digestibility, digestive enzyme activities and growth of Penaeus setiferus were investigated during a 30-day growth trial.


Growth, Feed Digestibility & Proximate Body Composition of Juvenile Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon Grown at Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels. Seidman, Lawrence. Journal of World Mariculture Society (1985), 16: 333-346. TAMU-SG-87-808.

Growth, feed digestibility (apparent total dry-matter digestibility), and proximate body composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon were evaluated at dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 1, 2, 3, and 4 ppm at a mean temperature of 28_C.


Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Temperature, Bacterial Inoculation & EDTA on Sperm Quality in Captive Penaeus setiferus. Bray, Laung-Trujillo, Robertson, Lawrence. Journal of World Mariculture Society. (1985), 16: 250-257. TAMU-SG-87-809.

A 60-day preliminary study was conducted to determine whether excessive temperature, bacterial infection, or heavy metals contamination contributed to spermatophore and sperm deterioration in laboratory-held Penaeus setiferus males.

1987-88


Laboratory Manual for the Culture of Penaeid Shrimp Larvae. Granvil D. Treece and Michael Yates. August 1988. 95 pages. $20. TAMU-SG-88-202. (Available ONLY through Granvil Treece, Sea Grant College Program, 1716 Briarcrest Suite 603, Bryan, TX 77802.)

This manual is designed as an aid to a short general introductory laboratory course in shrimp culture. In worldwide commercial shrimp aquaculture, penaeids primarily are cultured. Because Penaeus vannamei is the most popularly cultured species in the Western Hemisphere and is currently the most available, its culture is concentrated on here; however, for the most part, the techniques presented can be used in the cultivation of any penaeids. Where applicable, the differences between the specific taxa are mentioned. Exercises on the culture of algae and Artemia are included, along with technical sheets on sterilization andthe use of the hemacytometer, autoclave, and light microscope.


1989-90


Governmental Permitting and Regulatory Requirements Affecting Texas Coastal Aquaculture Operations. M. Hightower, C. Branton, G. Treece. 1990. 69 pages. $10.00. TAMU-SG-90-504.

A significant number of federal, state and local government agencies are involved in the regulation of an aquaculture operation. This involvement includes site selection, facility design and construction, operations, stock acquisition, production, processing, and marketing. In most cases, regulatory difficulties arise because of inadequate planning, lack of knowledge of the process by the applicant, and incomplete information concerning the agencies' respective requirements. In view of the need to provide prospective aquaculturists, as well as established operators who may wish to expand, with information and sources of contact regarding applicable government agencies, this manual lists each federal and state agency that has been determined to have authority over aquaculture operations. Under each agency heading are descriptions of the agency's role, responsibility and regulatory requirements.


Handbook of Shrimp Diseases. S.K. Johnson. 1989. 25 pages. $2. TAMU-SG-90-601.

This handbook is designed as an information source and field guide for shrimp culturists, commercial fishermen, and others interested in parasites or abnormal conditions of shrimp. In addition to descriptions and illustrations of the common parasites and commensals of commercial penaeid shrimp, the publication includes information on the life cycles and general biological characteristics of these disease-producing organisms that spend all or part of their life cycles with shrimp. Several conditions of unknown cause are also described.


Red Drum Aquaculture. Compiled by Dr. G.W. Chamberlain, Dr. R.J. Miget and M.G.Haby. 1990. 236 pages. $15. TAMU-SG-90-603.

This practical guide is a revised and updated manual based on presentations at the 1987 Red Drum Aquaculture Conference held in Corpus Christi, Texas. The introduction and overview features "The Life History of Red Drum," "Status of the Commercial and Recreational Fishery" and "Development of an Aquaculture Industry: The Catfish Industry." The book also included chapters on Spawning Technology; Fingerling Production Technology; Biological, Engineering and Regulatory Aspects; and Growout Technology. There is also an annotated bibliography of publications related to red drum and a summary listing of state and federal sources of information and assistance. Numerous charts, graphs, photos and drawings help the reader understand the complexities of raising red drum.


1990-91


Practical Manual for Semi-intensive Commercial Production of Marine Shrimp. Jose R. Villalon. 1991. 104 pages. $15. TAMU-SG-91-501.

Shrimp farming, the production of marine shrimp in impoundments or ponds, has developed rapidly in recent years. More than 40 countries around the world now raise shrimp in ponds, and shrimp farmers now produce 25 percent of the shrimp placed on world markets as compared with only 2 percent in 1980. This expansion has been characterized by development of improved technology, which has resulted in more efficient production operations. This manual defines the basic principles and most important steps in the pond culture of marine shrimp. Variations of these techniques and principles can be used at different locations with different species for both semi-intensive and, to some extent, intensive culture systems. The book, tailored specifically for the field operator, describes the methods used by a private company on a commercial scale to raise penaeid shrimp successfully in earthen ponds from the fry or postlarval stages to market size.


1992-93


Manual de Laboratorio Para el Cultivo de Larvas de Camaron Penedio. Granvil D. Treece y Michael E. Yates. (Spanish version of Laboratory Manual for the Culture of Penaeid Shrimp Larvae.) Julio 1993. 83 paginas. $30.00. TAMU-SG-93-504. (Available ONLY through Granvil Treece, Sea Grant College Program, 1716 Briarcrest Suite 603, Bryan, TX 77802.)

Disenada como suplemento al curso corto de Cultivo de Camaron de la Universidad Texas A&M. Este manual de 83 paginas, fue publicado por la Universidad Texas A&M en 1988 y actualizado en Enero de 1990 y otra vez en 1993. Esta cargado con valiosos cuadros, tablas y dibujos. El manual cubre los procedimeintos del laboratorio, cultivo de larvas, las fisiologia de camaron, ablacion del ojo, cultivo de microalga, cultivo de Artemia, enfermedades de larvas y el uso correcto del microscopio. Tareas guian a los principiantes tecnicos de laboratorio; una lista de referencias ofrecen fuentes de informacion adicional. Este manual esta disponible en Ingles o Espanol.


Design, Operation and Training Manual for an Intensive Culture Shrimp Hatchery. Granvil D. Treece and Joe M. Fox. 1993. 187 pp, 67 black and white illustrations, 14 black and white tables, 53 black and white figure illustrations. $20.00. TAMU-SG-93-505.

There is a perceived need for more written information on intensive shrimp hatchery management, especially with Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. The intent of this manual is to survey existing information about intensive penaeid shrimp hatcheries to develop the production procedures needed to maximize the efficiency of the hatchery and minimize the length of time that it takes to train personnel in these procedures. The manual is organized into three main parts (Design, Operation and Training) within nine chapters. The 8 1/2 x 11-inch booklet is complete with worksheets, graphs, tables and charts as well as complete photo illustrations of several hatcheries.


1993-94


Texas Aquaculture: History and Growth Potential for the 1990s. Granvil D. Treece. 1993. 44 pages. $5.00. GT-103.

This report describes some of the history and the status of aquaculture in Texas, giving shrimp production figures through the 1994 season. It includes an overview of general aspects of governmental regulation, natural resources and infrastructure in the state, and gives information about each species currently being grown, with recent developments that are considered pertinent.


1994-95


Manual Practico para la Produccion Comercial Semi-intensive de Camaron Marino. Jose R. Villalon. 1994. (Spanish translation of Practical Manual for Semi-intensive Commercial Production of Marine Shrimp.) 122 paginas. $30.00. TAMU-SG-95-501.

Esta manual es productor de ocho anos de experiencia gerencial en una empresa camaronera, verticalmente integrada, en Ecuador. Facil de leer, contiene una guia detallada del "como" manejar estanques de camaron en condiciones semi-intensivas. Eficientemente escrito, tiene 12 capitulos concisos en sus 122 paginas (216 x 279 mm), 83 fotos en blanco y negro (la mayoria 81 x 60 mm), 27 dibujos, 11 formularios para monitorear informacion y 15 cuandros. El manual cubre todos los aspectos de las produccion comercial en granjas incluyendo; las desinfeccion de estanques, las preparaciones de estanques, procedimientos especificos previa a la siembra, el transportacion de postlarva, aclimatacion, recepcion de postlarva, la siembra de precriaderos, transferencia de juveniles, siembras directa de estanques, y el manejo y cosecha de los estanques. Este manual esta disponible por un precio muy attractivo, cuesta US $30.00 (incluyendo flete).


1995-96


Texas Shrimp Farming Short Course Materials. $200.00 (including shipping). GT-100.

The course materials generally consist of 1,000 pages of shrimp farming information bound in spiral notebooks. These materials include notes and other handouts given by instructors; covers and tables of contents and ordering instructions of new publications; bibliographies; abstracts; lists of feed suppliers and feed mills, fish meal sources; pump and other equipment suppliers; feed formulation programs; shrimp pathologists; financing and marketing information; seafood processors list; shrimp brokers list; shrimp species of commercial importance; common products and packaging requirements; U.S. quality standards for frozen shrimp; list of aquaculture books of special interest with titles, authors, subject index; shrimp processing information and suppliers of processing equipment; shrimp prices and trends; new research; economic aspects of shrimp farming; reproduction of shrimp; hatchery technology; algae productions techniques; copies of current articles from periodicals concerning shrimp; aquaculture outlook information; other training courses in related areas; and many more topics.


A Guide to the Financial Analysis of Shrimp Farming (Spreadsheet for Micro Computers). 1996. Wade L. Griffin and Granvil D. Treece. $25.00. GT-106.

This computer program assists the user in conducting an economic feasibility analysis of a saltwater shrimp farm. A financial analysis is conducted for a hypothetical intensive shrimp farm on the Texas coast. The printout of the analysis accompanying the diskette shows the results of the analysis and a "read me" file explains how to use the model and how to customize it to suit the user's needs. The model includes seven tables: Unit Cost, Production and Financial Assumptions; Construction and Equipment Needs; Farm Production and Inputs Used; Capital Transactions and Various Financial Assumptions; Pro Forma Cash Flow Budget (Profit and Financial Return); Pro Forma Balance Sheet; and Pro Forma Income Statement (break-even analysis, sensitivity analysis). This model is developed in a fully integrated spreadsheet. If, for example, the user wants to change the stocking density, the model will automatically make all the changes to the cash flow, balance sheet, income statement and rate of return. The program is available on a 3 1/2-inch diskette for either Macintosh (Excel 3.0 or newer) or IBM/PC (Excel 3.0 or newer or Lotus 3.0 or newer). System type must be specified when ordering.


Intensive Algae Culture Techniques. Linda L. Smith, Joe M. Fox and Granvil D. Treece. In CRC Handbook of Mariculture, Crustacean Aquaculture, Second Edition, Vol. 1, 3-13 (1993). TAMU-SG-96-808.

Describes the process of raising algae as food for penaeid shrimp larvae using intensive culture techniques.


The Production of Live-Food Organisms for Fishes. Granvil D. Treece. In Production of Aquatic Animals: Fishes, 369-382 (1995). TAMU-SG-96-809.

This reprint describes the techniques used to produce live feed for marine finfishes. An area of major concern in fish hatcheries is the provision of a dependable, nutritionally complete, economical food source for the fish larvae. Culture techniques, critical parameters, recommended feeding techniques and economics are discussed for microalgae, zooplankton and Artemia.

Intensive Larviculture Techniques. Linda L. Smith, Joe M. Fox, Granvil D. Treece and James P. McVey. In CRC Handbook of Mariculture, Crustacean Aquaculture, Second Edition, Vol. 1, 153-172 (1993). TAMU-SG-96-810.

Describes the process of raising penaeid shrimp larvae using intensive culture techniques.