Economics

1970-71

Work Plan for a Study of the Feasibility of an Offshore Port Terminal in the Texas Gulf Coast Region. Dan M. Bragg and James R. Bradley. June 1971. 30 pages. TAMU-SG-71-212. NTIS-COM-71-00876.

Recent trends in ship sizes threaten to make existing Texas ports obsolete, and there has developed a growing need for a port with water depth adequate to handle larger ships. A necessary prerequisite to constructing such a port is the study of its physical and economic feasibility. The work plan described here identifies individual studies required. Estimated cost of these studies is $460,000, and total time required should not exceed 18 months.

Port and Harbor Development System. Russell L. Stogsdill. November 1971. $4. TAMU-SG-71-216. NTIS-COM-72-10238.

Containerization, supersized vessels, ocean-going barges and new cargo handling techniques are but a few of the most recent developments to which ports must respond. Another, spawned by necessity and massive social pressure, is the need for preserving environmental balance. Clearly, ports and harbors of the future must be planned and designed to accommodate change. The purpose of this report is to aid those who are involved in and responsible for port and harbor planning and design. It is hoped that through the use of the guidelines presented herein, marine facilities may be developed which are more rational, flexible and thus more functional.

1971-72

The Economic Impact of Deepwater Terminal in Texas. Daniel M. Bragg and James R. Bradley. November 1982. 55 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-72-213. NTIS-COM-73-10514.

This report is the first known effort to assess the economic multiplier effect of an offshore, bulk-unloading ship terminal in the United States. The primary impact of a Texas deep-water liquid-bulk terminal will be reflected in growth of the oil refining and related industries in the state. Discussion considers not only what effects are expected to result from construction and operation of the facility, but also what may happen to the state's economy if the terminal is not built. A study area is defined, a methodology for economic impact determination is established, and the nature of the inputs into the Texas Input-Output Model are described.

1972-73

Economic Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry in Texas. Norman C. Whitehorn. May 1973. 78 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-73-203. NTIS-COM-73-11409.

Based on data collected from 74 Texas petrochemical firms for the year 1971, this study attempts to determine the petrochemical industry's total economic impact upon the economy of Texas by analyzing employment and payrolls, sales, value added to manufacture, capital expenditures and investments according to the multiplier concept. Major factors concerning raw materials, markets, transportation and the economic outlook for the petrochemical industry in the future are discussed.

Texas Waterborne Commerce Commodity Flow Statistics. Jack T. Lamkin, W.R. Lowery. June 1973. 115 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-73-207. NTIS-COM-74-10083.

Data developed and depicted in 17 figures and 88 tables provide information on the importance of waterborne commerce, especially that moving over the intracoastal and inland waterway system, to the Texas economy.

1973-74

Primary Economic Impact of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in Texas. John Miloy and Christian Phillips. March 1974. 203 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-74-211. NTIS-COM-74-11552/AS.

A study to identify and quantify marine-related activities of the Waterway that contribute directly to the economy of Texas is reported. In addition to analyses of current and future economic impact, particular emphasis was placed on history, land use, commodity flows, industrial users and technological innovations relating to the Waterway.

A Survey of the Economic and Environmental Aspects of an Onshore Deepwater Port at Galveston, Texas; Part I: Potential Economic Effects; Part II: Environmental Considerations. D. Bragg, R. Hann, Jr. and W. James. April 1974. Part 1 - 57 pages. $3. Part II - 45 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-74-213 and 214. NTIS-COM-74-11030/AS and COM-74-11031/AS.

Results of a brief, organized effort to assess the nature and magnitude of the two main factors that significantly affect decisions made concerning onshore deepwater port facilities are reported. In Part I economic effects are discussed, and in Part II, the environmental implications of this project are covered.

Indirect Economic Effect From Intracoastal Waterway Commerce in Texas. Christian Phillips. July 1974. 115 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-74-218. NTIS-COM-75-10065/AS.

This report evaluates effects of marine-related activities on non-basic sectors of the economy. Emphasis was placed on industrial development relating to numerous, inexpensive services provided by water transportation. Determination of indirect economic effects was based on an initial calculation of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway's contribution to the five coastal standard metropolitan statistical areas. Included are discussions of historical trends, population, employment, income, industrial growth, effects of World War II, indirect economic stimuli and transportation.

1974-75

Impact of Commercial Shrimp Landings on the Economy of Texas and Coastal Regions. Lonnie L. Jones, John W. Adams, Wade L. Griffin and Jeffrey Allen. December 1974. 18 pages. TAMU-SG-75-204.

Amount of economic activity generated by the shrimp industry for the state of Texas and for three coastal regions in Texas is estimated in this report. In 1971, the value of commercial shrimp landings in the state of Texas was $63.9 million. In the coastal regions of Brownsville-Aransas Pass, Port Lavaca-Galveston and Beaumont-Port Arthur, this value was $37.6, $23.6 and $2.7 million, respectively. Direct, indirect and induced impacts of commercial shrimp landings are estimated.

1975-76

Cost-Efficient Cargo Distribution Among Transportation Modes. Christian Phillips. March 1976. 78 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-76-206. NTIS-PB-253-969/AS.

Operational efficiency of transportation network connecting five selected locations that are accessible by rail, truck and barge modes is evaluated. Costs of moving the existing and anticipated flow of commodities on the Texas Intracoastal Waterway are determined. It is hypothesized that the present method of distributing chemicals, fuel, primary iron and steel products among specified locations is inefficient. A linear programming model is formulated to minimize total cost of distributing a given volume of commodities among specified locations.

1977-78

Economic and Production Aspects of the Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Fishery. John P. Nichols, Wade L. Griffin and Vito Blomo. June 1978. pp. 301-315. TAMU-SG-78-801. NTIS-PB-286-071/AS.

This originally appeared as a chapter in the book Drugs and Food From the Sea - Myth or Reality?, edited by P.N. Kaul and C.J. Snidermann and published by the University of Oklahoma Press. It includes a discussion of the U.S. shrimp industry since 1950 and the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery. Trends in fishing effort, landings catch per unit effort, and costs and returns are discussed for the period 1962 - 1974.

1978-79

Costs and Returns Data: Texas Shrimp Trawlers Gulf of Mexico, 1974-1975. Wade L. Griffin, John P. Nichols, Robert G. Anderson, James E. Buckner and Charles M. Adams. September 1978. 97 pages. $4. TAMU-SG-79-601. NTIS-PB-294-837/AS.

This report summarizes estimates of costs and returns for vessels of different characteristics that anchor in Texas and shrimp-trawl in the Gulf of Mexico. Data for 1974 and 1975 were obtained from vessel owners. Results are presented in self-explanatory tables. No attempt is made to draw inferences or discuss implications of trends, or relationships, which may be apparent in the data.

Costs and Returns Data: Florida-Based Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Trawlers, 1977. Vito J. Blomo and Wade L. Griffin. October 1978. 34 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-79-604. NTIS-PB-292-193/AS.

This report summarizes estimates of costs and returns for vessels of different characteristics that anchor in Florida and shrimp-trawl in the Gulf of Mexico. Data for the calender year 1977 were collected from vessel owners. Results are presented in self-explanatory tables. No attempt is made to draw inferences or discuss implications of trends, or relationships which may be apparent in this data.

1979-80

Economic Impacts of Recreational Boat Fishing in the Houston-Galveston Area of the Texas Coast. R.B. Ditton, A.R. Graefe and G. Lapotka. September 1980. 46 pages,16 tables. $2. TAMU-SG-80-206. NTIS-PB-81-140-980.

The saltwater fishing patterns and economic impacts generated by recreational boat fisherman in the Houston-Galveston area of the Texas coast were investigated. Data were obtained through a mail survey of registered boat owners residing in an 8-county area surrounding Galveston Bay. Saltwater boat fishermen spent more than $31 million for their fishing trips in 1978, with bay fishermen spending $26,460,000 and offshore fishermen spending $5,046,000. Non-local bay fishermen spent $7,439,000 in bayshore communities and non-local offshore fisherman spent $1,970,000 in coastal communities. The economic impact of saltwater boat fishing trips in the region was $79,751,000. Also discussed are other factors to be considered when assessing the values and benefits of saltwater boat fishing.

Costs and Returns Trends in the Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Industry, 1971-78. John P. Warren and Wade L. Griffin. In Marine Fisheries Review, February 1980. pp. 1-7. 4 figures, 5 tables. TAMU-SG-80-817.

The profitability for Gulf shrimp vessels in recent years has been highly variable, due largely to changes in input costs, shrimp prices, landings, and the cost, financing terms, and configuration of vessels. It has also been shown that based both on the results of very good years and on the results of a number of highly varied years, ownership of a Gulf shrimp vessel can be a satisfactory investment over an extended ownership period.

1982-83

A Generalized Budget Simulation - Installation Manual for Budget Simulation System. Wade L. Griffin, Charles M. Adams, Linda A. Jensen. October 1983. 92 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-83-201

This manual describes the installation and testing of either the Aquaculture Budget Simulation System or the Vessel Budget Simulation System. The basic designs of each system is similar enough that installation procedures are the same except for reference-to-file names specific to one system or the other. This manual is written in general terms; specific references to the individual systems are in the tables. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the specific operating manuals for aquaculture (TAMU-SG-83-202) or vessels (TAMU-SG-83-203).

A Generalized Budget Simulation Model for Aquaculture. Wade L. Griffin, Charles M. Adams, Linda A. Jensen. October 1983. 113 pages. $5. TAMU-SG-83-202. NTIS-PB-83-144-626.

The Aquaculture Budget Simulator System enables a user to build and operate a model of an aquaculture or mariculture facility. The primary use of this system will be to create budgetary information to aid potential investors in decision making and to provide a tool for economic research efforts concerning aquaculture. This system consists of two programs, a data management program in COBOL and a budget simulation program in FORTRAN. This manual describes the use of each. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the separate installation manual (TAMU-SG-83-201).

A Generalized Budget Simulation Model for Fishing Vessels. Wade L. Griffin, Linda A. Jensen, Charles M. Adams. January 1983. 120 pages. $5. TAMU-SG-83-203. NTIS-PB-83-171-771.

The Vessel Budget Simulator System enables a user to select and equip a vessel to be operated in any fishing ground normally frequented by U.S. owned vessels. The physical flow of inputs into the production process aboard a vessel is simulated to produce the information required for financial reports. The system consists of two programs, a data management program in COBOL and a budget simulation system in FORTRAN. This manual describes the use of each. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the separate installation manual (TAMU-SG-83-201).

User Guide for General Bioeconomic Fishery Simulation Model (GBFSM). Wade Griffin and William E. Grant. April 1983. 117 pages, 14 figures. $5. TAMU-SG-83-204. NTIS-PB-83-205-088.

This manual describes a General Bioeconomic Fisheries Simulation Model (GBFSM) designed for use in management programs of marine fish species that do not exhibit a significant relationship between the size of the parental population and the number of young recruited into the fishery. The purpose of GBFSM is to predict how alternate management policies will affect a fishery. GBFSM's design is versatile enough to be applicable to a wide range of fisheries.

1985-86

Implications of Investing Under Different Economic Conditions on the Profitability of Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Vessels Operating Out of Texas. Ernest Tettey, Christopher Pardy, Wade Griffin and A. Nelson Swartz. In Fishery Bulletin 82(2): 365-373 (1984). TAMU-SG-86-809.

Due to the inflationary trend in recent years coupled with fluctuating shrimp prices, the shrimp business has become a highly uncertain undertaking. The financial performance of a sample of the Gulf of Mexico shrimping fleet, operating out of the Texas coast, was examined over a 10-year period (1971-80). The results indicate that investments made in the early part of the 1970s performed better than those made in the latter part. Periods of low inflationary levels appeared to be more favorable to investments in the shrimp fishery than periods of high inflationary levels. In terms of economic profits, steel vessels generally did better than wooden ones. Medium-sized vessels were the most efficient vessels to operate in the Gulf of Mexico.

Implications of Tax Policy on Investment in a Common-Property Resource. Tettey, Griffin, Penson, Stoll. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6:100-104, 1986. TAMU-SG-86-834.

This study employs a financial model to examine the aggregate investment expenditures for Gulf of Mexico shrimp vessels. Specifically, the impacts of tax policies-investment tax credits and income taxes-on investment decisions in the Gulf shrimp fishery are evaluated. Contractionary tax policy is an effective tool in limiting entry to the shrimp fishery and, thereby, controlling the problem of overcapitalization. Decreases in the investment tax credit rate, increases in the income tax rate, or a combination of both policies will curtail investment activities in the fishing industry. Implementation of such tax schemes should raise total revenues of vessel owners, in the long run, from what they otherwise would have been.

Economics of Penaeid Culture in the Americas. Wade Griffin, Addison Lawrence and Michael Johns. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps. 1984. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. pp. 151-160. TAMU-SG-86-835.

Investment and production costs are examined for a semi-intensive farm that purchases postlarvae and operates in the southern United States. Total investment decreases as pond size increases for a given size facility. Investment per kilogram of annual average production ranges from just under US $20.00 for a 20-surface ha farm using 2-ha ponds to $80.00 for a 400-ha system using 20-ha ponds. Operation costs per kilogram decline as the size of the system and the size of the ponds increase. It costs $10.10 to produce one kilogram of shrimp on a 20-surface ha farm using 2-ha ponds compared to $5.50 on a 400-surface ha farm using 20-ha ponds. In comparing the operation of a semi-intensive 200-ha farm in Ecuador with a similar farm in the United States, costs of production were $3.12 and $5.83 per kilogram, respectively. The after-tax internal rate of return (IRR) was 59 percent in Ecuador and 21 percent in the United States. These IRRs were calculated under the assumption that production, costs and prices received are constant over the investment period (10 years) considered. When risk and timing of investment are considered, these IRRs are reduced.

1988-89

The Gulf Coast Intracoastal Waterway. W. Younger. 1989. 7 pages. Single copies free. TAMU-SG-89-103.

The GIWW is an integral part of the total inland transportation system of the United States. Stretching for more than 1,300 coastal miles of the Gulf of Mexico, this manmade, shallow-draft canal moves a large variety and great number of vessels and cargos, supplying both domestic and foreign markets with essential goods. The canal provides access to sport and commercial fishing by physically connecting the bay systems of the coast. It also has been used as a recreational outlet for boating, birding, water skiing and other leisure pursuits. Although direct users are well acquainted with the GIWW, many others are unaware of the impact it has on their lives. This brochure describes the GIWW system.

1992-93

The Importance of Seafood-linked Employment and Payroll in Texas. Michael G. Haby, Richard A. Edwards, E. Anthony Reisinger, Richard E. Tillman and William R. Younger. June 1993. 10 pp. TAMU-SG-93-503.

The economic importance of the Texas seafood industry cannot be measured solely by statistics from the commercial fishing industry. The seafood industry harvests a renewable resource, processes the catch into a wide mix of food products, and distributes them nationwide. Obviously, the scope of such business activity extends far beyond the harvest sector. This report quantifies the employment and payroll created by the seafood industry, beginning with those firms supplying commercial fishing enterprises and ending with retail interests. For every 1,000 Texas jobs, five are seafood-linked, and for each $1,000 paid to working Texans, $3 are seafood-linked. Among coastal counties, the seafood industry is often the largest taxpayer as well as the largest employer.