Recreation

1971-72

Proceedings of the Recreational Boating Seminar. Kathryn M. Delaune (comp.). January 1972. 80 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-72-103. NTIS-COM-72-10374.

The recreational boating seminar sponsored jointly by Texas A&M University's Industrial Economics Research Division and the Sea Grant Program was held December 17, 1971, in Galveston, Texas as part of the effort to provide technical information and assistance to marine-related industries and agencies involved in recreational activities. Included in the proceedings are the following presentations: "The Sea Grant Program," "Marine Insurance," "Marketing Trends and Dry Storage," "Maintenance, Repairs and Wet Storage," "Boating Safety" and "U.S. Coast Guard."

Proceedings of the Marina Management and Operation Seminar. Kathryn M. Delaune (comp.). May 1972. 78 pages. $3. TAMU-SG-72-105. NTIS-COM-73-10068.

Held on March 28, 1972, in Arlington, Texas, this conference is a part of the efforts to bring specialized and current information in the areas of management and operation of boat facilities to the marine operator. Marine insurance, facilities, sanitation, safety, anti-pollution laws and regulations were the subjects presented.

1973-74

Water-Related Recreational Complexes Seminar. Kathryn M. Delaune. February 1974. 2 pages. TAMU-SG-74-505.

This bulletin announces the April 23-24, 1974, seminar and outlines selected facts from a position paper on recreational boating and the fuel shortage, published by the National Association of Engine and Boat Manufacturers. Also, the dates of the March hearings for regulations proposed by Texas Water Quality Board on requiring toilets on large boats are listed.

1975-76

A Feasibility, Management and Economic Study of Marinas on the Texas Gulf Coast. L. Crompton and R.B. Ditton. 51 pages. $2. TAMU-SG-76-201. NTIS-PB-247-571/AS.

Four-month study to identify problems facing marinas on the Texas coast. Interviews were conducted with 29 marina operators in the Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Aransas, Galveston Bay and Port Arthur areas. Discussion includes effect of restricted supply of slips, profitability of a marina, real estate, interest and construction costs, storage/pricing strategies, labor/management constraints, role of public agencies and economic impact.

1976-77

Protection for Small Craft Marinas. John B. Herbich and Jack Y.K. Lou. May 1977. 4 pages. TAMU-SG-77-505.

The use of breakwaters for small marina application is briefly discussed in this advisory bulletin. Emphasis is on the physical factors surrounding the location of the breakwaters.

1978-79

Barrier Islands on the Texas Coast: Existing and Future Recreational Use and Development. R.B. Ditton, C.E. Alling, D.D. Beardsley, J.M. Falk, D.W. Pybas. August 1979. 129 pages. $5. TAMU-SG-79-203.

This report focuses on the recreational use and development of the five major barrier islands along the Texas coast: Galveston, Matagorda, St. Joseph, Mustang and Padre Islands. It is of interest to state and local planners, and to private investors. Because human actions frequently influence what takes place beyond natural boundaries of the islands, a regional approach is used. Regions are formed on the basis of prevailing social, economic, and institutional influences which are discussed extensively in this report. Six regions are identified: Galveston Island, Matagorda Island, St. Joseph Island, Mustang-North Padre Island, Padre Island National Seashore, and South Padre Island. Examination and analysis of current recreational use and development, along with the factors that enhanced or inhibited this use and development is undertaken for each of the identified regions. This is accomplished through an extensive literature search, personal interviews and on-site reconnaissance through 1977. Changes in the 1977-79 period are discussed in a section titled Update of Recent Developments. Summary statements are included for each region which categorize its relative intensity level of recreational use and development as high, medium or low based upon identified criteria. Lastly, a scenario for each region is given to examine possible recreational conditions in the future.

Fishing the Texas Surf. Tony Fedler. November 1978. 24 pages. (Limited number of copies left.) TAMU-SG-79-605.

This booklet provides a brief discussion of Texas surf fishing techniques, including sections on the selection of rods, reels and terminal tackle and natural and artificial baits. One section is devoted to text and illustrations of 20 of the common fish varieties caught by surf, wade or pier fishing techniques.

1979-80

Access to and Usage of Offshore Liberty Ship Reefs in Texas. R.B. Ditton, A.R. Graefe, A.J. Fedler and J.D. Swartz. In Marine Fisheries Review, September 1979, pp. 25-31. 3 photographs, 5 figures, 4 tables. TAMU-SG-80-803.

This study is to identify the extent to which Texas Liberty ship reefs are used by recreational fishermen. Two independent surveys were used to address the two principal means of gaining access to Liberty ship reefs. One study focused on the Texas charter and party boat fleet and the other on private boat fishermen residing in the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The Liberty ship reefs were found to attract a substantial number of private boat and charter/party boat fishermen, especially when the extent to use is compared with other site-specific artificial or natural offshore attractions. Nearly all use of the Liberty ship reefs originated from the closest access point. Use of a particular reef site appeared to be related to availability of alternative fishing grounds and ability to travel great distances offshore.

1980-81

Predicting Marine Recreational Fishing Patterns from Boat Characteristics and Equipment. Robert B. Ditton, Alan R. Graefe and Anthony J. Fedler. In Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109(1980). pp. 644-648, 1 figure, 4 tables. TAMU-SG-81-814. NTIS-PB-81-197-782.

An approach for predicting general marine fishing locations and distances traveled offshore for fishing is reported from boat equipment data. Discriminant analysis indicated that bay and offshore fishing boats could be distinguished with 80 percent classification accuracy from data on horsepower, fuel capacity and boat length. Multiple regression analyses verified that fuel capacity and presence of radios and long-range navigation (LORAN) were significant predictors of offshore fishing distances.

1982-83

A Statewide Survey of Boatowners in Texas and Their Saltwater Fishing Activity. R. Ditton and A. Fedler. June 1983. 65 pages, 15 tables, 3 figures, 4 appendices. $2. TAMU-SG-83-205. NTIS-PB-83-236-547.

Data on saltwater fishing patterns of Texas pleasure boat-owners were gathered through a survey of registered boat-owners in the state. Sample findings were extrapolated to the statewide population of boatowners. More than 60 percent of the registered boatowners in Texas used their boats for fishing during the study year. However, only 14 percent of all Texas boatowners (approximately 529,000) fished saltwater (bays or offshore). Approximately three percent (16,000) of Texas boatowners accounted for more than 120,000 fishing trips in the U.S. Territorial Sea and the Fishery Conservation Zone. The Galveston Bay area, with almost one-half of all bay boat fishing activity and more than one-third of all offshore fishing activity, was identified as the state's center of marine recreational boatfishing. Port Aransas was the second leading offshore recreational fishing port, with almost 25 percent of all offshore trips.

Keep That Bait Alive! William Younger and Russell Miget. July 1983. 12 panel brochure, 6 illustrations, 2 charts. TAMU-SG-83-506.

Coastal fishermen have found that keeping bait alive is one of the keys to successful saltwater bait fishing. This publication describes the physical needs of saltwater baits and explains conditions to avoid. The brochure opens into a poster depicting bait systems that can be purchased or constructed including flow-through buckets, sprayers, aerators and live bait wells. Advantages and disadvantages of each are listed. A brief guide to handling and hooking is included along with a chart of commonly used live saltwater baits.

1983-84

Information and Data Needs for Marine Recreational Fisheries Development in the Caribbean. Robert Ditton. In Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 35th Annual Session, November 1982. pp. 144-151, 2 figures. TAMU-SG-84-808.

This paper defines marine recreational fisheries development, discusses its objectives and enumerates data and information needs for achieving these objectives in a systematic fashion in the Caribbean. In addition to an integrated knowledge of technical information, a case is made for a catalyst or "middle man" to stimulate development activities. This catalyst should have a good understanding of how government works if information and data are to be used in support of public and private marine recreational fisheries development efforts.

1984-85

1983 Texas International Fishing Tournament: An Analysis of Participants' Characteristics, Attitudes and Expenditures. Robert B. Ditton and David K. Loomis. April 1985. 62 pages, 36 tables, 2 figures, 4 appendices. $3. TAMU-SG-85-202. NTIS-PB-85-220-259/AS.

This report represents the first economic impact study of a saltwater fishing tournament in Texas. It identifies the expenditures and economic impacts resulting from the 1983 Texas International Fishing Tournament (TIFT) and describes the socio-economic characteristics of tournament fishermen. The 45th TIFT, held August 3-7, at South Padre Island, Texas, attracted 446 competitors and produced significant impacts for the South Padre Island area and Cameron County.

1985-86

1984 Deep Sea Roundup: An Analysis of Participants' Characteristics, Attitudes and Expenditures. Robert B. Ditton and Lynn A. Arneson. January 1986. 107 pages, 3 figures, 75 tables. $5. TAMU-SG-86-203.

The 49th Annual Deep Sea Roundup was July 9-13, 1984, at Port Aransas, Texas, and attracted 451 fishermen. A mail survey was conducted following the tournament to assess the event's impact on the local economy. Results indicate that the tournament was economically successful in that it produced substantial impacts, primarily in Nueces County, but also, to a lesser degree, statewide. Non-residents spent more than $285,000, resulting in an economic impact of about $333,750. Additional impacts can be seen if one also considers that the majority of the $20,980 collected as registration fees was spent locally for entertainment, advertising and printing services.

12-Pound Test: One Dozen Checkpoints for Avoiding Snags in Your Fishing Tournament. Willie Younger. 2 pages. TAMU-SG-86-502.

Whether it is the club's annual fishing tournament, or one organized from scratch, proper planning and preparation on the director's part will make for a well-run event that provides hours of excitement and enjoyment for sponsors as well as participants. This checklist alerts tournament directors to critical areas of organization, and helps them avoid problems that could quickly ruin the tournament's reputation.

Keeping Fish "Tournament Fresh." Mel Russell. 2 pages. TAMU-SG-86-504.

A marine advisory bulletin primarily intended for tournament fishermen, this publication outlines the best ways to keep fish fresh aboard a boat when offshore for several days. Because many tournaments now require entry fish to be in a fresh, edible condition, this fact sheet includes compliance techniques and explains how freshness tests are administered. It also lists the properties of freshness typically sought by tournament judges.

Measuring the Impact of the Ixtoc I Oil Spill on Visitation at Three Texas Public Coastal Parks. Freeman, Hollin, Ditton. Coastal Zone Management Journal Vol. 13, No. 2: 177-201, 1985. TAMU-SG-86-810.

In August 1979, tar balls and oil slicks from the world's largest oil spill to date (Ixtoc I) washed ashore on the lower Texas coast. Data on public visitation to three beach parks (Padre Island National Seashore, Padre Balli County Park, and Port Aransas County Park) from 1977 to 1982 were examined using time series intervention analysis. For each of the three sites, three events (gas price, gas availability, and the Ixtoc I oil spill) were modeled, entered into the time series analysis, and tested for their effect. When the oil spill model was tested with the visitation data, no significant decrease in visitation was demonstrated at any of the three sites. No long-term (nine months) impact on visitation was evident either. Reduced gas availability was associated with a significant decrease in visitation at Padre Island and Padre Balli parks.

Framework for Understanding the Consumptive Orientation of Recreational Fishermen. Fedler, Ditton. Environmental Management, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 221-227, 1986. TAMU-SG-86-818.

Fishermen were aggregated into high-, mid-, and low-consumptive groups according to the importance they placed on catching fish. Analysis of variance indicated that each consumptive group was unique in the importance it placed on other fish-related variables. Low-consumptive fishermen rated most other aspects of the fishing experience, such as interacting with nature, relaxation, and escaping the daily routine, more important than did high-consumptive fishermen. Low-consumptive fishermen also fished more frequently and were generally more satisfied with their most recent fishing trip than were high-consumptive-oriented fishermen. The three groups can be viewed as different fishing constituencies. By understanding their characteristics, we can gain additional insights into the impacts of management decisions on recreational fishermen and their experiences.

1987-88

Sport Shrimp Trawling. Gary Graham. November 1987. 5 pages. TAMU-SG-88-503.

Sport shrimp trawling has long been an important recreational activity along the Texas Coast. Besides furnishing fresh shrimp for the table or lively bait, sport shrimping can provide numerous hours of recreation. For a fisherman who owns a boat, sport shrimping is not expensive. A shrimp trawl that meets legal specifications can be purchased at many net shops or commercial fishing supply house and at some sporting goods stores. The cost of the trawl, otter doors and tow lines ranges from $150 to $250, depending on the size of the trawl. This pamphlet offers advice on rigging, modifying and setting the trawl, adjusting the door, and repairing the net.

Tackling Tournaments: The Saltwater Tournament Director's Guide. Rhonda Snider and Mel Russell, co-editors. 1987. 162 pages. $15. TAMU-SG-88-603.

About 600 saltwater fishing tournaments are held annually; although not without detractors, they have become increasingly important to local economies. There is room for improvement in even the best-run existing tournaments, and lots to consider for those planning to start a tournament. This book should be of benefit in both situations. Individual chapters address setting objectives, types of tournaments, organization concerns, financing promotion, management, and follow-up evaluation.

Analysis of Motive and Participation Differences Between Saltwater Sport and Tournament Fishermen. D.K. Loomis and R.B. Ditton. 1987. In North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7: 482-487. TAMU-SG-88-810.

Numerous descriptive studies of fishermen have been conducted. Motives, attitudes, and behavior of fishermen have been examined. These studies have confirmed the nonexistence of the "average" fisherman. They disclosed, instead, considerable diversity between and among fishermen and their activities. Few studies, however, have focused on this diversity, despite an emerging literature indicating fisherman diversity to be an important concern for fishery managers in allocating resources among competing interests. We empirically tested for and examined differences in motivation between Texas saltwater sport anglers and saltwater tournament fishermen, particularly those differences in measures of catch-related and non-catch motivation. Tournament fishermen rated the importance of catch-related motives significantly higher than did sport fishermen. Both groups rated equally high the importance attached to non-catch motives as reasons for fishing. Tournament fishermen considered themselves more skilled, believed they caught more fish, put more of their effort into fishing for a particular species and fished more frequently than sport fishermen. This distinction between the two groups of fishermen has implications for fisheries managers because tournament fishermen and sport fishermen likely will respond differently to various policy changes, particularly those changes related to a reduction in permissible catch.

1990-91

Demographics, Participation, Attitudes, Expenditures, and Management Preferences of Texas Saltwater Anglers, 1986. R.B. Ditton, D.K. Loomis, A.D. Risenhoover, S. Choi, M.F. Osborn, J. Clark, R. Riechers, and G.C. Matlock. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Management Data Series, No. 18, 1990. TAMU-SG-91-807.

Anglers who purchased a Texas saltwater fishing stamp during its first year of issuance between January 1 and July 31, 1986, were sent a mail survey inquiring about their general demographics, attitudes toward management tools, fishing motivations, species preferences and annual expenditures. Two-thirds of Texas saltwater anglers responding were residents of Texas coastal counties. Nearly 45 percent have been fishing in saltwater for over 20 years. Most (44 percent) fished in saltwater 13 or fewer days the previous year. About 15 percent of anglers reported fishing outside of Texas. Anglers were supportive of stocking fish in saltwater and minimum size limits as management tools and were most opposed to "slot limits" and the prohibition of certain types of bait. "For relaxation," "To be outdoors," and "To get away from the regular routine" were ranked as the most important reasons for fishing; "Obtaining a trophy fish" and winning a trophy were ranked as least important. Anglers agreed with the phrases "I usually eat the fish I catch" and "I like to fish where there are several kinds of fish to catch" and disagreed most with "I want to keep all the fish I catch" and "I usually give away the fish I catch." Spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma or P. albiqutta) were the most sought fishes by Texas saltwater anglers. Most saltwater fishing items bought by respondents were purchased in Texas and used predominantly for saltwater fishing. On average, Texas anglers spent approximately $1,500/year in Texas for saltwater fishing gear and equipment.

1991-92

Homogeneity Across Mail Survey Waves: A Replicated Study. Seungdam Choi, Robert B. Ditton and Gary C. Matlock. 1992. Journal of Leisure Research 24(1): 79-85. TAMU-SG-92-815.

Degree of homogeneity within a target population has been suggested as one criterion for determining the need for follow-up efforts in a mail survey. Previous studies of respondent group differences are insufficient for making generalizations regarding population homogeneity. Each study deals with a different population, activity or set of variables. Replicated data from three mail surveys of anglers were used to investigate the homogeneity of that population and to provide further support for generalizations. Significant differences were found across three respondent groups on most of the 11 variables studied. These included angler motivations, attitudes, information sources, management preferences, years of fishing experience, fishing frequency, perceived fishing ability, annual expenditure for tackle and age. Angler survey respondent groups were generally homogeneous with respect to gender and income. In addition to providing support for using follow-up procedures in statewide surveys of recreation fishing participants, results provide some empirical clues to understanding the conditions under which population homogeneity exists.

1992-93

Fishing Trip Satisfaction: A Typology of Anglers. Stephen M. Holland and Robert B. Ditton. 1992. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12: 28-33. TAMU-SG-93-802.

Fishing trip satisfaction was defined as the fulfillment of various expected psychological outcomes. A policy-capturing technique was used to determine how anglers rated various dimensions of fishing trip satisfaction identified in previous studies and whether subgroups focused on certain trip dimensions. Dimensions studied were a sense of freedom, excitement, catching a fish, relaxation, enjoying the natural setting and thinking about past fishing experiences. Scenarios that represented various combinations of these dimensions were completed by a sample of 166 members of a sportfishing association in Texas. Enjoying a quality environment and feeling a sense of freedom were the two most important dimensions of satisfaction for most respondents. There was no dominant policy that most people followed. Cluster analysis revealed seven groups of anglers with different policies of fishing trip evaluation. Group sizes ranged from 4 to 21% of the sample. For some clusters, fishing satisfaction had more to do with complex feelings associated with leisure than with the excitement of catching a fish. Only one group (6%) rated catch more important to trip satisfaction than other aspects studied. Managers can use this technique to differentiate products or types of fishing and to meet the supply-and-demand requirements of various angler segments in the population more effectively.

1993-94

Don't Pollute. A "Potti-Training" Manual for Boats. September 1993. 6 panels, map. TAMU-SG-94-501.

Six boat pumpout stations have been established in Galveston Bay as a prelude to the Bay's being declared a no-discharge area for recreational boats. This brochure explains the reasoning behind the no-discharge regulation, the applicable federal laws and Coast Guard regulations. It also includes names, addresses and operating hours for the pumpout facilities.

Get a Grip on Ocean Motion. 1994. TAMU-SG-94-503.

Seasickness affects nearly 90% of the population. Get a Grip on Ocean Motion provides tips for dealing with seasickness, including what medicines are available, what to avoid drinking (alcohol) and ways to deal with how you are feeling.