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The Bureau of the Census tabulates and publishes population and hous-
ing census data for several geographic entities that cover areas of Ameri-
can Indian and Alaska Native settlement, collectively termed 

American

Indian and Alaska Native areas (AIANAs)

. The major types of AIANAs 

are American Indian reservations and trust lands, tribal jurisdiction statis-
tical areas (TJSAs), Alaska Native Regional Corporations (ANRCs), Alaska
Native village statistical areas (ANVSAs), and tribal designated statistical 
areas (TDSAs). Table 5-1 lists the number and kind of AIANAs in each 
of the 36 States that include such entities. 

American Indian Reservations

American Indian reservations are areas with boundaries established by 
treaty, statute, and/or executive or court order. The reservations and 
their boundaries are identified for the Census Bureau by the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs (BIA), an agency in the U.S. Department of the Interior, 
or by State governments. Federal reservations may cross State bounda-
ries; both Federal and State reservations may cross the boundaries of
counties, county subdivisions, and places.

1

Where lands are claimed by 

two tribes or are administered jointly, the Census Bureau identifies them 
as separate geographic entities called 

joint use areas

; it treats joint use 

areas as distinct entities for data tabulation and presentation. The Cen-
sus Bureau first began to report data systematically for American Indian
reservations in conjunction with the 1970 census. For the 1990 census, 
the Census Bureau tabulated and published data for 310 reservations. 

Trust Lands

Trust lands are real property, held in trust by the Federal Government, 
that is associated with a specific American Indian reservation or tribe, 
or, in some cases, individual American Indians. Land held in trust for a 
tribe is referred to as 

tribal trust land

, and land held in trust for an indi-

vidual member of a tribe is called 

individual trust land

. Trust lands may 

be located within a reservation or outside of a reservation; however, the

American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-1

American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Chapter 5

Classification of Areas

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5-2   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data separately only for the inhab-
ited off-reservation trust lands; on-reservation trust lands are included as
part of the reservation. As with American Indian reservations, the trust
lands of a tribe or individual may cross State boundaries. Not all Federal
reservations have trust lands associated with them, and there are no trust
lands recognized for State reservations. The Census Bureau first reported
data for tribal trust lands in conjunction with the 1980 census and for indi-
vidual trust lands in conjunction with the 1990 census. The BIA provided
the Census Bureau with maps identifying the trust land boundaries.

Tribal Jurisdiction Statistical Areas

Tribal jurisdiction statistical areas (TJSAs) are delineated by those Federally
recognized tribes in Oklahoma that no longer have a reservation. The ter-
ritory covered by a TJSA contains the American Indian population over
which a tribal government has jurisdiction. In situations where two tribal
governments claim the same territory, the Census Bureau created a joint
use area to represent the geographic overlap, and treated it as a separate
TJSA for data presentation purposes. The TJSAs replace the 

Historic

Areas of Oklahoma

 used in conjunction with the 1980 census (see sub-

section, “The 1980 Census”).

Tribal Designated Statistical Areas

Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSAs) are geographic entities deline-
ated by Federally and State-recognized tribes without a land base, that is,
with no reservation or trust lands. In general, a TDSA consists of (1) terri-
tory that contains the American Indian population over which a Federally
recognized tribe has jurisdiction or (2) territory within which a State-
recognized tribe provides benefits and services to its members. TDSAs
must conform to Census Bureau criteria:  they cannot overlap onto reser-
vations or trust lands, they cannot cross State lines, and their boundaries
must follow established census block boundaries. There are no TDSAs in
Oklahoma, where tribal jurisdiction statistical areas (TJSAs) fulfill a similar
function as geographic entities for data tabulation and presentation. The
Census Bureau recognized TDSAs for the first time in conjunction with
the 1990 census.

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-3

Table 5-1.  

American Indian and Alaska Native Areas (AIANAs), by State,

in 1990

State

Type of 

AIANA

Number

Level

Alabama

American Indian reservation 

with trust lands

   1

Federal

Alaska

American Indian reservation

Alaska Native village statistical areas

 

(ANVSAs)

Alaska Native Regional Corporations

 

(ANRCs)

   1
217
  12

Federal
Federal
Federal

Arizona

American Indian reservations 

(four have associ-

ated trust lands;

 

five extend into other States)

  23

Federal

California

American Indian reservations 

(three have trust

lands; three extend into other States)

Entity

 consisting only of trust lands

  99

   1

Federal

Federal

Colorado

American Indian reservations 

(one extends

into two other States)

   2

Federal

Connecticut

American Indian reservations

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

   1, 3

   1

Federal, State
State

Florida

American Indian reservations

Entity

 consisting only of trust lands

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

   4
   1
   1

Federal
Federal
State

Georgia

American Indian reservation

   1

State

Idaho

American Indian reservations 

(two have trust

lands; one extends into another State)

   5

Federal

Iowa

American Indian reservations 

(one extends

into another State)

   2

Federal

Kansas

American Indian reservations

 (one has trust

lands; two extend into another State)

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

   4

   1

Federal

State

Louisiana

American Indian reservations

Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSAs)

   3
   4

Federal
State

Maine

American Indian reservations

 (one has associ-

ated trust lands)

Entity

 consisting only of trust lands

   3

   1

Federal

Federal

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5-4   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Table 5-1. (cont.)

State

Type of 

AIANA

Number

Level

Massachusetts

American Indian reservation

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

  (this

TDSA was a State-recognized reservation in the
1980 census, but is no longer recognized by the
State; it is now pending Federal recognition as
a reservation)

    1

    1

State

Federal

Michigan

American Indian reservations

 (five have associ-

ated trust lands)

    8, 1

Federal, State

Minnesota

American Indian reservations

Entity 

consisting only of trust lands

  14
    1

Federal
Federal

Mississippi

American Indian reservation

 (has associated

trust lands)

    1

Federal

Montana

American Indian reservations 

(four reserva-

tions have associated trust lands; one of these
reservations has trust lands that extend into
another State, but has no reservation lands in
that other State)

Additional entity  

consisting of lands identified

as belonging to two reservations

    7

    1

Federal

Federal

Nebraska

American Indian reservations

 (one reservation

has trust lands; three reservations extend into
another State, and one out-of-State reservation
has trust lands)

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

    5

    1

Federal

State

Nevada

American Indian reservations 

(two have associ-

ated trust lands; four extend into other States)

     22

Federal

New Jersey

American Indian reservation

Tribal designated statistical area (TDSA)

        1

        1

State

State

New Mexico

American Indian reservations

 (eight have associ-

ated trust lands; three extend into other States)

Additional entity  

consisting of lands identified

as belonging to two reservations

     26

       2

Federal

Federal

New York

American Indian reservations

    8, 2

Federal, State

North Carolina

American Indian reservation

Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSAs)

      1
      5

Federal
State

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-5

Table 5-1. (cont.)

State

Type of 

AIANA

Number

Level

North Dakota

American Indian reservations

 (two extend into

another State; one reservation has trust lands that
extend into another State, but has no reservation
lands in that other State)

       5

Federal

Oklahoma

American Indian reservation

Tribal jurisdiction statistical areas (TJSAs)

Additional TJSAs 

consisting of lands claimed by

two different tribes

       1

      15

       2

Federal
Federal
Federal

Oregon

American Indian reservations

 (two have trust

lands; one extends into another State)

Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSAs)

       8

       2

Federal

Federal

Rhode Island

American Indian reservation

       1

Federal

South Carolina

American Indian reservation

       1

State

South Dakota

American Indian reservations

 (two have associ-

ated trust lands; two extend into another State;
one has associated trust lands that extend into
another State, but has no reservation lands in
that State; there are trust lands associated with
two out-of-State reservations)

       9

Federal

Texas

American Indian reservations

       2

Federal

Utah

American Indian reservations

 (one has associ-

ated trust lands; three extend into other States)

       7

Federal

Virginia

American Indian reservations

Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSAs)

       2
       2

State
State

Washington

American Indian reservations

 (seven have

associated trust lands)

     27

Federal

Wisconsin

American Indian reservations

 (five have associ-

ated trust lands)

     11

Federal

Wyoming

American Indian reservation

       1

Federal

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5-6   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Alaska Native Regional Corporations

Alaska Native Regional Corporations (ANRCs) are corporate entities estab-
lished under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1972 (Pub-
lic Law 92-203, as amended by Public Law 94-204) to conduct the business
and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives. Alaska is divided into 12 ANRCs that
cover the entire State, except for the Annette Islands Reserve, which is an
lished by the Department of the Interior in cooperation with the Alaska
Natives. Each ANRC was designed to include, as far as practicable, Alaska
Natives with a common heritage and common interests. The ANRC bound-
aries were first identified in conjunction with the 1980 census, although
there were no data presentations for ANRCs as geographic entities.

Alaska Native Village Statistical Areas

Alaska Native Villages (ANVs) are tribes, bands, clans, groups, villages,
communities, or associations in Alaska that are recognized pursuant to the
ANCSA of 1972. The Census Bureau established Alaska Native village statis-
tical areas (ANVSAs) as geographic entities for data tabulation purposes.
For the 1990 census, the Census Bureau worked with officials of the non-
profit corporation within each ANRC, as well as with other knowledgeable
officials, to delineate boundaries for the settled portion of each ANV. The
ANVSAs are located within the ANRCs and do not cross ANRC boundaries.
The ANVSAs for the 1990 census replace the ANVs that the Census Bureau
recognized in conjunction with the 1980 census.

Background

Censuses Before 1970

The U.S. Government identified American Indian settlement areas as early
as the census of 1790. This identification, however, constituted a form of
reverse recognition, since the objective was to not include American Indian
settlement areas as part of the United States, but rather to exclude such areas
from the enumeration process. Enumerators identified such settlements as
non-enumeration areas because American Indians living in these settlements
(and, later, on American Indian reservations) were not taxed. It was not until

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-7

1860 that the Federal census enumerated the American Indian population
directly, counting only that portion of the population living outside of res-
ervations (in other words, only those American Indians who were taxable).
The American Indians enumerated were included in the general population,
without separate recognition as American Indians in the data tabulations
and publications.

The 1870 census was the first to include a separate category for 

Indians

on the census schedule. Since the 1870 census, the Census Bureau has
increased the types of data collected for American Indians, and instituted
special procedures to enumerate them more accurately. The enumeration
techniques and demographic classification methods applied to the Amer-
ican Indian and Alaska Native populations, and the recognition of differ-
ent types of AIANAs, have varied from census to census. In decennial
censuses before 1970, the Census Bureau used various enumeration tech-
niques.

3

  There were, however, no geographic programs or special geo-

graphic entities (apart from enumeration districts and an occasional CCD)
used to collect, tabulate, and publish data for American Indians, Eskimos,
and Aleuts and their settlements.

The 1970 Census

By 1970, government agencies, American Indians, and Alaska Natives
all were becoming interested in census data for indigenous population
groups. Tribes and native groups had assumed a more active role in self-
government, and the agencies responsible for the distribution of State
and Federal program monies began using census data to allocate funds.

For the 1970 census, the BIA identified 115 American Indian reservations
for which the Census Bureau tabulated and presented data. To identify
these entities, the Census Bureau used the reservation boundaries shown
on its enumeration maps. In many cases, these reservation boundaries
proved to be inaccurate and incomplete; also, map features often were
insufficiently detailed within many small reservations and Alaska Native
settlements. These shortcomings resulted in inaccurate data tabulations.

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5-8   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

The 1980 Census

The 1970 census had demonstrated the inaccuracy of many of the maps
and boundaries used to identify American Indian reservations, and for
the 1980 census, the Census Bureau worked to improve this information.
For the 1980 census, the Census Bureau also made other major geographic
improvements to support the collection and tabulation of data for the
AIANA populations. It worked with the BIA and State certifying officials
to identify the official names of all Federally and State-recognized reserva-
tions and to obtain maps of the reservation boundaries. The Census Bureau
also worked with officials in Alaska to determine boundaries for the Alaska
Native villages.

One other improvement for the 1980 census was the recognition of the
Historic Areas of Oklahoma. Oklahoma has a very high percentage of the
Nation’s American Indian population, but has only one reservation, the
Osage Reservation. Discussions with over 30 tribal governments and organ-
izations led the Census Bureau to delineate a single geographic entity that
included all lands associated with former reservations elsewhere in the
major cities.)

Geographic Programs for AIANAs in the 1990 Census

For the 1990 census, the Census Bureau expanded the geographic programs
for AIANAs. This resulted in an increase in the number of areas eligible to
participate in various geographic programs offered to other governmental
organizations, and more involvement in the geographic delineations by tri-
bal and Alaska Native officials. Also, for the 1990 census, the Census Bureau
designed and introduced the TIGER System, a digital geographic support
system and data base containing all the geographic information necessary
all other geographic entities included in the 1990 census.

A variety of organizations and sources were involved in building the TIGER
data base. In the early 1980s, the Census Bureau contacted tribal officials to

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-9

obtain up-to-date map feature information for some of the larger reserva-
tions. Such feature update information was solicited from many organiza-
tions at that time, and was a necessary basis for the polygon structure of
the TIGER data base. For a more detailed discussion, see Chapter 11,
“Census Blocks and Block Groups.”

Planning, Preparation, and Outreach

Throughout the 1980s, the Census Bureau consulted with an advisory com-
mittee on American Indian and Alaska Native issues—one of four minority
advisory committees formed to provide advice and counsel to the Census
Bureau on key issues for the decennial census. In addition, the Census
Bureau formed an American Indian and Alaska Native Task Force, made
up of staff members whose primary mission was to improve the enumer-
ation of, and to further outreach to, these populations. Both the advisory
committee and the task force were instrumental in bringing about one
of the major improvements that the Census Bureau made for the enumer-
ation of the AIANA populations in the 1990 census—the Tribal Liaison
Program. Although not a geographic program, per se, the Tribal Liaison
Program gave American Indian tribal liaisons the chance to review the
reservation and trust land boundaries that the Census Bureau intended to
recognize for the 1990 census. For Alaska, there was a comparable pro-
gram—the Alaska Native Village Liaison Program.

In 1985 and 1986, the Census Bureau sponsored 12 regional meetings for
the American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Participants included
staff from the BIA, the departments of Health and Human Services (HHS),
Education, Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and representatives
of local community-based organizations and tribal governments. The
purpose of the meetings was to solicit input for 1990 plans and receive
recommendations concerning three key decennial census issues affect-
ing the American Indian and Alaska Native community:  geographic area
identification, census outreach and promotion, and the 1990 census
questionnaire content.

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5-10   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Each regional meeting included a geographic presentation tailored to the
unique needs and geographic situation of the AIANA populations in that
part of the United States. As a result of holding these regional meetings,
Census Bureau staff became more aware of the importance of geographic
issues affecting American Indian and Alaska Natives. In addition, these
meetings led tribal and village officials to recognize their critical role in
helping the Census Bureau to identify and delineate geographic entities
for the 1990 census.

Boundary Review

The delineation of boundaries for American Indian and Alaska Native areas
poses unique challenges for the Census Bureau. This is particularly true of
legally or governmentally defined entities such as reservations and trust
lands, the most important geographic units for the tabulation and presen-
tation of decennial census data for the American Indian populations. The
Census Bureau obtains boundaries for Federally recognized reservations
and trust lands from the BIA, which certifies the accuracy of the bounda-
ries depicted for these entities. One recommendation for the 1990 census
was to have the tribes review the reservation/trust land boundaries. To
implement this suggestion, the Census Bureau and the BIA signed a mem-
orandum of understanding for the purpose of achieving a more inclusive
exchange of boundary information between the two agencies and the
tribal authorities. This agreement provided the framework for the Tribal
Review Program.

The Tribal Review Program for Reservations and Trust Lands

The Census Bureau inserted the 1980 census geographic information for
American Indian reservations and trust lands (geographic codes and bound-
aries) into the TIGER data base, and then made corrections, changes, and
additions using information provided by the Tribal Review Program. Under
the Tribal Review Program, the BIA delivered boundary information for
Federally recognized reservations and off-reservation trust lands (both indi-
vidual and tribal).

 The Census Bureau supplied copies of computer-plotted

maps to the BIA for each reservation and trust land area. These maps were

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-11

produced after the Census Bureau had conducted a boundary review in
two phases.

In the first phase of the Tribal Review Program, the Census Bureau obtained
maps of the new boundaries from the certifying agencies (the BIA and the
appropriate State authorities) or sought confirmation from these authori-
ties that the boundary locations had not changed since January 1, 1980. The
Census Bureau then sent these maps to the respective tribal governments.
The tribal officials reviewed the maps and contacted the BIA or the State
certifying official if they found problems with the boundaries. After work-
ing with tribal officials to resolve such problems, the certifying agency or
official then recertified the boundary and sent the corrected information
to the Census Bureau.

In the second phase of the Tribal Review Program, tribal officials identi-
fied any remaining concerns about the boundaries and submitted them
directly to the Census Bureau. The process continued until mid-1989 when
the Census Bureau produced the first set of computer-derived maps show-
ing the American Indian reservation and trust land boundaries. The Census
Bureau sent these maps, called the Tribal Review Maps, to the tribes for
approval and one more opportunity for correction. The Census Bureau
then took the responsibility for presenting that revision/correction to
the BIA or the State certifying official, and, upon certification, changing
the boundary in the TIGER data base.

The Tribal Review Program was very successful in improving the accuracy
of the reservation and trust land information used for the 1990 census. It
identified 310 reservations: 298 Federally recognized and 12 State-recog-
nized. Four of the Federally recognized reservations consisted of trust
land areas that had certified boundaries, thereby defining entities equiva-
lent to a reservation for decennial census purposes; 52 other Federally
recognized reservations had tribal and/or individual trust lands associated
with them.

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5-12   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

American Indian Areas in Oklahoma

The Historic Areas of Oklahoma delineated for the 1980 census resulted in
data tabulations for many tribes linked to one large geographic area. This
was an improvement over past censuses, but both the Oklahoma tribes
and the Census Bureau wanted to develop a better approach for the 1990
census, one that associated tribes with appropriate smaller geographic
areas. To meet this need, the Census Bureau developed the Tribal Juris-
diction Statistical Area (TJSA) Program. To implement this program, the
Census Bureau worked with individual tribes or groups of tribes (exclud-
ing the Osage Tribe, which has a reservation) to delineate boundaries
defining the area associated with their jurisdiction. There were 17 TJSAs
delineated for the 1990 census.

The TJSA boundaries had to follow the boundaries of census blocks; that
is, they had to conform either to physical features or to the boundaries of
other governmental or administrative entities. There were no minimum
population or housing requirements for an area to qualify as a TJSA. Terri-
tory in an urbanized area could be included in a TJSA. One geographic
constraint was that a TJSA could not extend outside the State. As a result,
some tribes in northeastern Oklahoma chose not to participate because
they wanted to include territory in neighboring States within their TJSA.
Territory claimed by two different tribes was identified separately as a
joint use area in the 1990 census data tabulations.

Statistical Areas for Tribes With No Land Base

Some Federally and State-recognized tribes do not have a legally estab-
lished land base. However, these tribes often have an area that has cus-
tomarily been associated with, or influenced by, their tribe. To identify
this area of tribal influence, the Census Bureau established a new geo-
graphic entity, the tribal designated statistical area (TDSA). Throughout
the Nation (except in Alaska and Oklahoma), the Census Bureau worked
directly with tribes not having a land base to establish boundaries for
19 TDSAs. The criteria for TDSAs are very similar to those for TJSAs: a
TDSA cannot extend onto a Federally or State-recognized reservation

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-13

or trust land, it cannot cross a State line, and its boundaries must follow
census block boundaries.

Alaska Native Areas

The Census Bureau also worked to improve the delineation of geographic
entities with concentrations of Alaska Native populations. The Bureau of
Land Management (BLM), another agency in the U.S. Department of the
Interior, is the Federal agency responsible for information regarding the
boundaries for areas resulting from the ANCSA of 1972; these include the
ANRCs and the Alaska Native village corporations known as Alaska Native
villages (ANVs). Because the ANRCs were established to conduct both the
business and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives, the corporations divided
their functions into two corporate entities: the business or 

profit

 corpo-

ration, and the 

nonprofit

 organization, whose purpose was to conduct

the sociocultural functions of the corporation. The ANRCs requested that
the Census Bureau work directly with the nonprofit corporations for all
1990 census geographic programs.

Using a BLM source map, the Census Bureau plotted the ANRC bound-
aries onto a set of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) 1:250,000-scale
maps, which it then used to improve and correct the 1980 ANRC bound-
aries in the TIGER data base. (In unpopulated areas, the ANRC boundaries
had been generalized during 1980 census mapping operations.) To verify
the accuracy of the ANRC boundaries in the TIGER data base, the Census
Bureau implemented a review process similar to the second phase of the
Tribal Review Program.

Alaska Native villages often include thousands of acres of land used by
Alaska Natives for hunting and fishing. The Census Bureau worked with
ANRC officials to delineate areas of concentrated settlement (where
people lived most of the year) for purposes of data tabulation and pre-
sentation. The boundaries had to follow physical features or nonvisible
boundaries of other governmental or administrative entities. Because
these boundaries usually do not represent the legal limits of the ANV

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5-14   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

set up by the ANCSA, the Census Bureau considers the ANVSAs to be
statistically defined entities.

There were 217 ANVSAs delineated for the 1990 census. There was no
minimum population size for an ANVSA. Moreover, the ANV bound-
aries were not constrained by other geographic entities in the census
hierarchy; an ANVSA could be located inside or outside of an incorpo-
rated place or census designated place (CDP), or it could straddle a place
boundary. Often, the ANVSAs had the same boundary as a CDP or city
of the same name. No ANVSA boundary crossed an ANRC boundary
and there were no ANVSAs on the Annette Islands Reserve, an Ameri-
can Indian reservation.

Other Geographic Programs

In addition to the initiatives discussed above, the Census Bureau sought to
make tribal officials aware of other 1990 census programs and solicited
their help in proposing and constructing small-area geographic entities
for the tabulation and presentation of 1990 census data by AIANA. These
other programs included the following:

Block numbering areas and block groups

  

The Block Numbering Area and

Block Group (BNA/BG) Program allowed local participation in the deline-
ation of small-area geographic entities. To be eligible to participate, a reser-
vation had to include at least 1,000 inhabitants or at least 500 dwelling units
(the minimum number needed to define two BGs), and these had to be
located on a single contiguous piece of territory. For reservations extend-
ing in more than one county, each county portion with at least 1,000 inhab-
itants or at least 500 dwelling units was eligible. These size criteria limited
the number of tribes that could participate.

Census tracts  

The Census Bureau also urged tribes in metropolitan and

more populous counties to participate in the Census Tract/BG Program.
(For details, see Chapter 10, “Census Tracts and Block Numbering Areas.”)
The tribal leaders could, if they so desired, become active members of
the Census Statistical Areas Committees, which are local data user groups
made up of planners, educators, local government officials, and others

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-15

interested in census tracts and other small-area geographic entities. (For
details, see Chapter 3, “Local Census Statistical Areas Committees and
Other Local Assistance.”)

Census blocks

  

The delineation of census blocks for the 1990 census

offered another program in which the tribes could become involved.
Within BNAs, census tracts, and BGs, the Census Bureau assigns a three-
digit census block number to each polygon formed by the intersection
of geographic features. (For details, see Chapter 11, “Census Blocks and
Block Groups.”) In preparation for the 1990 census, the Census Bureau
provided an opportunity for State governments to identify block bound-
aries as part of its preparations to meet the requirements of Public Law
94-171. (For details, see Chapter 14, “Voting Districts.”) At the same time,
the Census Bureau provided an opportunity for American Indian tribes
to suggest visible geographic features that they would like to have used as
census block boundaries, a process called the Block Definition Project
(BDP). Participants in both the P.L. 94-171 program and the BDP had to
identify, during a visit to one of the Census Bureau’s 12 regional offices,
the visible block boundaries they wanted held. In spite of this constraint,
for tribal officials who participated, the BDP provided an opportunity
to have input into the TIGER data base and to learn what geographic
features would appear on the 1990 census maps for their reservations.

Census designated places

  

Still another 1990 geographic program of

interest to American Indian and Alaska Native communities was the
Census Designated Place (CDP) Program. CDPs are population concen-
trations that function as a community, are locally recognized as such,
but are not legally incorporated. To recognize the significance of unin-
corporated communities located on American Indian reservations, the
Census Bureau lowered the minimum population size for such CDPs to
250 people for the 1990 census. This provision applied to reservations
in the coterminous 48 States.

7

In Alaska, communities often are very small, and several families some-
times constitute a settlement that functions economically and socially as
a community with a cohesiveness characterized by larger places in other

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5-16   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

States. To account for these conditions, the minimum population size for
CDPs in Alaska is 25 people.

1990 Census Data for AIANAs

The Census Bureau releases several series of printed reports that are
grouped under three broad titles:  1990 Census of Population and Hous-
ing (CPH), 1990 Census of Population (CP), and 1990 Census of Housing
(CH). The following publication series contain data for AIANAs:

CPH-1

Summary Population and Housing Characteristics

CPH-4

Population and Housing Characteristics for Congressional
Districts of the 103rd Congress

CPH-5

Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics

CP-1

General Population Characteristics

CP-1A

General Population Characteristics for American Indian and
Alaska Native Areas

CP-2

Social and Economic Characteristics

CP-2-1A Social and Economic Characteristics for American Indian and

Alaska Native Areas

CP-3

Population Subject Reports

CH-1

General Housing Characteristics

CH-1-1A General Housing Characteristics for American Indian and

Alaska Native Areas

CH-2

Detailed Housing Characteristics

CP-2-1A Detailed Housing Characteristics for American Indian and

Alaska Native Areas

Data items, geographic coverage, and presentation format vary with each
report series. For instance, the CPH-1 series, Summary Population and
Housing Characteristics, contains 100-percent data issued in a U.S. Sum-
mary report, and individual reports for each State and statistically equiva-
lent entity. Reports contain several important items of data for the AIANA
populations. Tables 17 and 18 of the individual reports provide selected
population and housing characteristics for AIANAs within the State, as
well as land area for each reservation and trust land in square kilometers

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American Indian and Alaska Native Areas   5-17

and square miles. Appendix G of each report consists of page-size maps
of the State showing counties, county subdivisions, AIANAs, and places.

Of particular interest are two publications in the Population Subject
Reports series, 

American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts in the United

States

, and 

Characteristics of American Indians by Tribe and Language

for Selected Areas

.  These reports provide cross-tabulations of selected

population and housing characteristics. The AIANA data also are available
on computer tape as part of the Summary Tape File (STF) series:  The
STF 1 files (STF 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D); the STF 2B and 2C; the STF 3A and
3C; and the STF 4B and 4C. Some of these STFs are available on compact
disc—read-only memory (CD-ROM). Another computer tape and CD-
ROM product that includes population data and housing unit counts for
AIANAs is the Public Law 94-171 (Redistricting) Data File.

For more detailed information about the data products listed above, the
reader should consult the following series of figures that appear in many
of the Census Bureau’s publications and users’ guides:

Figure 1. 1990 Census Content

Figure 2. 1990 Census Printed Reports

Figure 3. 1990 Census Summary Tape Files

Figure 4. Other 1990 Census Data Products

This set of figures appears in many of the Census Bureau’s 1990 census
publications. For instance, it constitutes Appendix F, “Data Products and
User Assistance,” in the CPH-1 series. It also appears in Chapter 5, “Data
Products,” in the 

1990 Census of Population and Housing Guide, Part A.

Text (CPH-R-1A)

 as well as in the 1990 Census of Population and Housing

brochure, 

Tabulation and Publication Program.

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5-18   American Indian and Alaska Native Areas

Notes and References

1

   Figure 2-1 in Chapter 2 of the 

Geographic Areas Reference Manual

 depicts the

 relationship of American Indian reservations to other census geographic entities.

2

  A thirteenth, 

nongeographic,

 ANRC was established for Alaska Natives who are not

 permanent residents of the State and who chose not to enroll in one of the 12 ANRCs;

 there are no decennial census data products for this ANRC.

3

   For instance, there were special enumeration procedures used in the 1910, 1930, and

 1950 censuses, but none in the 1920, 1940, and 1960 censuses. The interested reader

 can consult Frederick G. Bohme’s 

200 Years of U.S. Census Taking: Population and

 Housing Questions, 1790-1990

, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,

 Washington, DC, 1989.

4

   

Apart from the Osage Reservation, the tribal governments in the State have jurisdic-

 tion over their tribal members, but their associated reservations were dissolved by the

 Federal Government during the two- to three-year period preceding the statehood of

 Oklahoma in 1907.

5

  The TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) data

 base (often called the TIGER File) is the set of computer files at the heart of the TIGER

 System. This computer data base contains all the geographic information representing

 roads, boundaries, and other geographic features along with their attributes (names,

 address ranges, geographic codes, and other information). The TIGER System includes,

 in addition to the TIGER data base, the computer software, procedures, and control

 systems necessary to update and use the TIGER data base.

6

 

 The Tribal Review Program did not include ANVSAs, TDSAs, or TJSAs because these

 entities, defined solely for statistical purposes, were established during cooperative

 programs between the Census Bureau and tribal or village officials. These programs

 did not involve the authorities the Census Bureau relies on for certifying the accuracy

 of American Indian legal boundaries; that is, the BIA and State agencies.

7

  Various minimum population sizes for CDPs apply throughout the United States: 2,500

 people for CDPs in urbanized areas (except in Hawaii), 1,000 people for CDPs outside

 of urbanized areas (except in Hawaii and Alaska), and 300 people for CDPs in Hawaii

 (see Chapter 9, “Places”).


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