APPENDIX F. Data Products and User Assistance

CONTENTS

Data Products                       F-1 

Geographic Products                 F-3 

Other Census Bureau Resources       F-5 

Reference Materials                 F-4 

Sources of Assistance               F-4


The 1990 census data products, being released during 1991-93, are
available in a variety of new and traditional media. The Census Bureau
has increased the product options available to data users in an effort
to meet a variety of requirements and maximize the usefulness of the
data. For example, laser discs, called CD-ROM (compact disc--read-
only memory), are a new data delivery medium. 

  The Census Bureau also has expanded services and sources of assistance
available to data users. For example, the State Data Center Program has
been expanded to include over 1,400 organizations to provide data and
services to the public. 

  This appendix provides a detailed introduction to the 1990 census data
products and related materials, such as maps and reference
publications. It concludes by describing sources of assistance and
other Census Bureau data available to the public. 

DATA PRODUCTS 

Printed reports and computer tape files traditionally are the most
widely used products. The Census Bureau also offers data on microfiche,
on CD-ROM laser discs, and through its online service,
CENDATATM. These various products are described below. For
information about prices and how to order, write or call Customer
Services. (See the "Sources of Assistance" section for the
address and phone number.) 

  The data products present statistics about the subjects covered in the
1990 census questionnaires. These subjects are listed in figure 1, page
F-7. As the figure shows, there are 100-percent subjects (those
covered in questions asked of everyone or about every housing unit) and
sample subjects (those covered in questions asked at about one out of
every six housing units). Generally, a data product presents either
100-percent data prepared by tabulating the responses to the
100-percent questions from all questionnaires, or sample data prepared
by tabulating only the responses to the 100-percent and sample
questions from the "long-form" questionnaires. Two report series,
1990 CPH-3 and 1990 CPH-4 (see figure 2, page F-8), present both
100-percent and sample data. 

Printed Reports 

Printed reports are the most convenient and readily available source
of data for most census users. The Census Bureau releases the reports
in several series (see figure 2) that are grouped under three broad
titles: 1990 Census of Population and Housing (1990 CPH),
1990 Census of Population (1990 CP), and 1990 Census
of Housing (1990 CH). There also are reports, not reflected in
figure 2, for the outlying areas of the Pacific. The reports are sold
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.
(See the "Sources of Assistance" section for the address and
phone number.) 

  In several series, there are separate reports for each State. The
geographic coverage of the State reports is listed in figure 2. The
United States summaries for these report series contain, for the most
part, data for the United States, regions, divisions, States,
metropolitan areas (MA's), urbanized areas (UA's), counties, American
Indian and Alaska Native areas, places with 10,000 or more persons, and
other large substate areas (for example, county subdivisions, such as
towns and townships, with 10,000 or more persons in selected States). 

  Report series that present data for small areas, such as census tracts,
contain limited subject-matter detail (for example, counts of people by
age ranges--under 5 years, 5 to 9 years, etc.--rather than by single
years). Report series that include greater amounts of subject-matter
detail include less geographic detail. 

Computer Tape Files 

The Census Bureau provides more data on tape and other
machine-readable products than in printed reports. These products are
sold by the Census Bureau's Customer Services. There are several
general types of data files released on computer tape (available on
both reels and cartridges). They are introduced below, and more
information is presented in figures 3 and 4, pages F-11 through F-13.


Public Law 94-171 Data--This data file presents the
counts designed and formatted for use in legislative re-
districting. These counts also are available on CD-ROM and paper
listings. Excerpts are available on CENDATATM. The
counts, for areas as small as blocks, census tracts, and voting
districts, include totals for population, race groups, persons of
Hispanic origin, population 18 years and over, and housing units. (See
figure 4.) 

Summary Tape Files (STF's)-- These computer tape files
provide statistics with greater subject-matter detail than printed
reports. They also present statistics for some types of areas, such as
block groups and blocks, that are not included in the reports. (See
figure 3.)

Here are some important features of STF's: 

Each STF presents a particular set of data tables for specific types
of geographic areas. 

Each STF has three or more file types (indicated by a letter suffix
attached to the STF number) that differ in the geographic levels
reported, but contain the same data detail. 

     STF's 1 and 2 contain 100-percent data, and STF's 3 and 4 offer
     sample data. 

     STF's 1 and 3 report on smaller areas and offer less data detail
     than STF's 2 and 4. 

     STF's 1 through 4 offer greater data detail than the 1980 STF's 1
     through 4. 

Subject Summary Tape Files (SSTF's)--These files are the
source of the subject reports and provide greater subject-matter detail
than the STF's. They present data for the United States, regions, and
divisions, and, in some cases, also for States, counties, and large
cities. (See figure 4.) 

Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files--These computer
tape files (see figure 4) contain data from samples of long-form
housing-unit records ("microdata") for large geographic
areas. Each sample housing-
unit record includes essentially all the 1990 census data collected
about each person in a sample household and the characteristics of the
housing unit. Information that could be used to identify an individual
or a housing unit is not included in the file. 

  Microdata files enable users to prepare customized tabulations and
cross-tabulations of most items on the census questionnaire. There are
two PUMS files: 

A file presenting a 5-percent sample of housing units in which each
household record includes codes to let the user know in what area, such
as a group of counties, a single county, or a place, the household is
located. Each area identified must have a population of at least
100,000 and boundaries that do not cross State lines. 

A file presenting a 1-percent sample of housing units. Its household
records include codes associating them with MA's and other large areas,
the boundaries of which may cross State lines. (For the 1980 census,
there were two files with 1-percent samples. The 1-percent sample
showing data for selected urbanized areas and other large areas will
not be produced for the 1990 census.)

Other Special Computer Tape Files--Other files include
the Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File and the
County-to-County Migration File. (See figure 4.) The Census Bureau may
prepare additional special files. 

Microfiche 

Block statistics are available on microfiche as they were for the
1980 census. The microfiche present, in table format, a subset of the
tabulations for census blocks found in STF 1B (see figure 3). In the
1990 census, for the first time, the entire land area of the Nation and
its possessions was block-numbered. This increased the number of blocks
for which the Census Bureau provides data from 2.5 million in 1980 to 7
million for 1990. The cost and storage of block data of this magnitude
would be prohibitive if the data were published in printed reports. 

  STF's 1A and 3A are available on microfiche, as well. As noted in
figure 3, they provide data for a variety of geographic areas. Also,
all printed reports are offered on microfiche from Customer Services
soon after they are published. 

Compact Disc--Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

For the 1990 census, the Public Law (P.L.) 94-171 file; an extract
of STF 1B that presents selected statistics for blocks; and STF's 1A,
1C, 3A, 3B, and 3C are also available on CD-ROM. (One 4 3/4-inch
CD-ROM, a type of optical or laser disc, can hold the contents of
approximately 1,600 flexible diskettes, or three or four high-
density computer tapes.) 

Online Information Systems

The Census Bureau began CENDATATM, its online
information service, in 1984. CENDATATM is accessible
through two information vendors, CompuServe and DIALOG. A number of
Census Bureau reports, in whole or in part, are offered online. For
the 1990 census, CENDATATM provides up-to-date information
about the availability of data products and carries selections of
State, county, MA, and place data from the P.L. 94-171 tape file and
STF's 1 and 3. 

Custom Data Products 

These products are for users who require unique tabulations that are
not included in standard products; for example, information for locally
defined geographic areas. Users also can order special microdata files.

  The cost of preparing custom products must be paid by the users who
request them. Any data that the Census Bureau provides in these
products are subject to the same standards applied to other data to
ensure that confidential individual information is not revealed. 

User-Defined Areas Program (UDAP) Tabulations-- UDAP can
provide a set of predefined data tables for locally defined areas that
do not correspond to standard 1990 census geographic areas. Users
identify the geographic areas of interest to them by delineating
boundaries around groupings of census blocks on 1990 census County
Block Maps or by electronically submitting the geographic components of
their area of interest. (A contact for more information is given in the
"Sources of Assistance" section.) 

Special Tabulations--The Census Bureau can prepare
special data tabulations for any specific geographic or subject-matter
area. Users should rely on standard reports, tapes, microfiche, or
user-defined area tabulations whenever possible, since special
tabulations tend to be substantially more expensive and take time to
arrange and produce. (Contacts for more information are given in the
"Sources of Assistance" section.) 

GEOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS 

Maps 

Census Bureau maps are necessary for virtually all uses of
small-area 1990 census data. They are needed to locate the specific
geographic areas for which the census provides data and to study the
spatial relationship of the data for analytic purposes. The Census
Bureau prepares a variety of 1990 census maps. Among the most useful
are these four series: 

County Block Maps--These maps show census blocks and
their numbers; boundaries for statistical and governmental entities,
such as census tracts and places; and physical features. The P.L.
94-171 version of these maps also shows voting district boundaries in
those States that furnished them. The maps are prepared on
electrostatic plotters by county (or equivalent entity) with one or
more map sheets each, depending on the size and shape of the area and
the density of the block pattern. An average county requires 20 map
sheets. The maps may be purchased from Customer Services. 

County Subdivision Outline Maps--Maps in this State-
based series present the boundaries of the counties, county
subdivisions, places, American Indian and Alaska Native areas
(including off-reservation trust lands), tribal designated statistical
areas, and tribal jurisdiction statistical areas. Electrostatic-plotter
copies are available for purchase from Customer Services. Also, they
appear on multiple page-size sheets in the State reports of these
series: 1990 CPH-1, 1990 CPH-2, 1990 CPH-5, 1990 CP-1, 1990 CP-2, 1990
CH-1, and 1990 CH-2. 

Census Tract/Block Numbering Area (BNA) Outline
Maps--Maps in this county-based series depict census tract or BNA
boundaries and numbers, and the features underlying the boundaries.
They also show governmental units in relation to the census
tracts/BNA's. Customer Services sells electrostatic-plotter copies, and
the Superintendent of Documents sells printed copies. 

Voting District Outline Maps--Maps in this county-based
series depict voting district boundaries (for those counties for which
States furnished boundary information) and the features underlying the
boundaries. They also show governmental unit boundaries in relation to
the voting districts. They are prepared on electrostatic plotters and
sold by Customer Services. 

Geographic Publications 

The Geographic Identification Code Scheme report in the
1990 CPH-R series shows the 1990 census geographic area codes and
Federal information processing standards (FIPS) codes, as appropriate,
for States, metropolitan areas, counties, county subdivisions, places,
American Indian and Alaska Native areas, and other entities, along with
some descriptive information about the codes. The code scheme also is
offered on computer tape. 

Machine-Readable Geographic Files 

All 1990 census summary tape files include 1990 census geographic
area codes, FIPS codes, certain area names, land and inland water area
in square kilometers, geographic coordinates for an internal point for
each entity, and other geographic information. 

  The Census Bureau developed an automated geographic data base, known as
the TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and
Referencing) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990
census. TIGER provides coordinate-based digital map information for the
entire United States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the
Pacific territories over which the United States has jurisdiction. 

  The TIGER System has significantly improved the utility of 1990 census
maps and geographic reference products. Extract files generated from
the TIGER System permit users, with appropriate software, to perform
such tasks as linking the statistical data in the P.L. 94-171 file or
the STF's and displaying selected characteristics on maps or a video
display screen at different scales and with whatever boundaries they
select for any geographic area of the country. For example, a map for a
particular county could show the distribution of the voting age
population by city block. 

  The first extract of selected geographic and cartographic information
intended for computer applications, such as plotting maps and building
geographic information systems, is called the TIGER/LineTM
files. TIGER/LineTM files contain attributes for the
segments of each boundary and feature (for example, roads, railroads,
and rivers), including 1990 census geographic codes for adjacent areas,
latitude/longitude coordinates of segment end points and the curvature
of segments, the name and type of the feature, and the relevant census
feature class code identifying the feature segment by category.
TIGER/LineTM files also furnish address ranges and
associated ZIP Codes for each side of street segments in major urban
areas; provide the names of landmarks, such as lakes and golf courses;
and include other information. 

  TIGER/LineTM files and other TIGER System extracts, such as
TIGER/BoundaryTM and TIGER/DataBaseTM, are
released on computer tape and, in some cases, CD-ROM. For information
on TIGER extract files, contact Customer Services. 

REFERENCE MATERIALS 

The Census Bureau issues several reference publications for data
users. Some are sold by the Superintendent of Documents; others are
distributed free by Customer Services. Addresses and phone numbers for
the Superintendent of Documents and Customer Services are given in the
following section. 

1990 Census of Population and Housing, Guide. This guide,
in the 1990 CPH-R report series, provides detailed information about
all aspects of the census and a comprehensive glossary of census terms.
Sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office. 

   1990 Census of Population and Housing Tabulation and
   Publication Program. A free report describing 1990 census
   products, comparing 1990 products with those of 1980, and more. Request
   from Customer Services. 

   Census '90 Basics. A free booklet covering how the 1990
   census data were collected and processed, the full range of data
   products, the maps and geographic files, and more, but with less detail
   than the Guide (above). Request from Customer Services. 

   Census ABC's--Applications in Business and Community. A
   free booklet that highlights key information about the 1990 census and
   illustrates a variety of ways the data can be used. Request from
   Customer Services. 

   Strength in Numbers. A free, tabloid-size booklet
   designed to assist people in using 1990 census data in redistricting.
   Among other features, it includes illustrations of maps and Public Law
   94-171 counts. Request from Customer Services. 

   TIGER: The Coast-to-Coast Digital Map Data Base. A free
   booklet describing the structure and uses of the Census Bureau's TIGER
   System. Request from Customer Services.

   Census and You. The Census Bureau's monthly newsletter
   for data users. It reports on the latest 1990 census developments,
   selected new publications and computer tape files, other censuses and
   surveys, developments in services to users, and upcoming conferences
   and training courses. Subscriptions are sold by the Superintendent of
   Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 

   Monthly Product Announcement. A free monthly listing of
   all new Census Bureau publications; microfiche; maps; data files on
   tape, diskettes, or CD-ROM; and technical documentation. To subscribe,
   contact Customer Services. 

   Census Catalog and Guide. A comprehensive annual
   description of data products, statistical programs, and services of the
   Census Bureau. It provides abstracts of the publications, data files,
   microfiche, maps, and items online. In addition, the Catalog/Guide
   offers such features as information about censuses and surveys and
   telephone contact lists of data specialists at the Census Bureau, the
   State Data Centers, and other data processing service centers. It is
   sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
   Office. 

Users also can get listings of new Census Bureau products, updated
daily, by subscribing to the Daily List. This information
and selected statistics are available online through
CENDATATM, the Census Bureau's online information service.
For more information, contact Customer Services. 

SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE 

U.S. Bureau of the Census 

The Census Bureau's Customer Services sells most of the
machine-readable data products, microfiche, and maps described earlier.
(The 1990 census printed reports are sold by the Superintendent of
Documents, as noted below.) Also, users may consult with specialists at
the Census Bureau's Washington headquarters and its 12 regional
offices. From time to time, the specialists also conduct workshops,
seminars, and training courses. 

Washington, DC, Contacts--To order products, for a
telephone contacts list of Census Bureau specialists, and for general
information: Customer Services, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Washington, DC 20233, telephone 301-
763-4100 (FAX number, 301-763-4794). 

  For User-Defined Areas Program (UDAP) information: UDAP Staff,
Decennial Planning Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC
20233, telephone 301-763-4282. 

  For special tabulation information: Population--Rosemarie Cowan,
Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233,
telephone 301-763-5476; Housing--William Downs, Housing and Household
Economic Statistics, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233,
telephone 301-763-8553. 

Regional Office Contacts--
 

Atlanta, GA         404-347-2274          
Boston, MA          617-565-7078          
Charlotte, NC       704-371-6144          
Chicago, IL         312-353-0980          
Dallas, TX          214-767-7105          
Denver, CO          303-969-7750          
Detroit, MI         313-354-4654          
Kansas City, KS     913-236-3711          
Los Angeles, CA     818-904-6339          
New York, NY        212-264-4730          
Philadelphia, PA    215-597-8313          
Seattle, WA         206-728-5314          

Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 

The Superintendent of Documents handles the sale of most of the
Federal Government's publications, including 1990 census reports. To
order reports and for information: Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, telephone
202-783-3238. 

Other Sources of Products and Services 

State Data Centers--The Census Bureau furnishes data
products, training in data access and use, technical assistance, and
consultation to all States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto
Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. State Data Centers, in turn, offer
publications for reference, printouts from computer tape, specially
prepared reports, maps, and other products and assistance to data
users. For a list of the State Data Centers, see the Census
Catalog and Guide or contact Customer Services. The list also
notes organizations in States participating in the Census Bureau's
Business/Industry Data Center (BIDC) Program. The BIDC's help business
people, economic development planners, and other data users obtain and
use data. 

National Services Program--The National Services Program
(NSP) provides data-related services for nationally based nonprofit
organizations that represent minorities or other segments of the
population who have been historically undercounted in decennial
censuses. The participants include social service, business,
professional, civil rights, educational, and religious groups. Through
a pilot project, the National Services Information Center (NSIC)
Initiative, three of these nonprofit groups now offer their clientele
reports, computer tape printouts, and other information from the Census
Bureau. To learn more about the NSP and the NSIC, write to the National
Services Program, Data User Services Division, Bureau of the Census,
Washington, DC 20233, or call 301-763-1384.

National Clearinghouse--The National Clearinghouse for
Census Data Services is a listing of private companies and other
organizations that offer assistance in obtaining and using data
released by the Census Bureau. For a list of participants in the
National Clearinghouse, see the Census Catalog and Guide or
contact Customer Services. 

Depository Libraries--There are 1,400 libraries that
receive (from the Government Printing Office) Federal publications that
they think their patrons will need. Often some of these publications
are Census Bureau reports. The Census Bureau provides free reports to
an additional 120 census depository libraries. Also, many libraries
purchase census reports and maps for their areas. The Census
Catalog and Guide includes a list of all depository libraries.

OTHER CENSUS BUREAU RESOURCES

The Census Bureau has more to offer than just the results of the
census of population and housing. Through other censuses, surveys, and
estimates programs, it compiles and issues (in reports, computer tape,
and other media) data on subjects as diverse as appliance sales,
neighborhood conditions, and exports to other countries. Here are
examples of the information published about--

   People: Age, race, sex, income, poverty, child care,
   child support, fertility, noncash benefits, education, commuting
   habits, pension coverage, unemployment, ancestry.

   Business and industry: Number of employees, total
   payroll, sales and receipts, products manufactured or sold.

   Housing and construction: Value of new construction,
   numbers of owners and renters, property value or rent paid, housing
   starts, fuels used, mortgage costs. 

   Farms: Number, acreage, livestock, crop sales.

   Governments: Revenues and expenditures, taxes, employment, pension 
   funds.

   Foreign trade: Exports and imports, origin and destination, units 
   shipped.

   Other nations: Population, birth rates, death rates, literacy, 
   fertility.

The other censuses, such as agriculture, retail trade, manufactures,
and governments, are collected for years ending in "2" and
"7." Surveys and estimates programs generate results as often as
every month.

  Many of the monthly "economic indicators" that measure how the
Nation is doing come directly or indirectly from the Census Bureau.
Examples: employment and unemployment; housing starts; wholesale and
retail trade; manufacturers' shipments, inventories, and orders;
export and import trade; and sales of single-family homes.

  The other statistical activities of the Census Bureau are described
below. Data users will find more information about them and
descriptions of their data products in the annual Census Catalog
and Guide. Also, special guides and brochures are prepared for
most of them. Contact the Census Bureau's Customer Services for more
information.

Current Demographic and Housing Programs

Two types of current programs complement the 10-year census:
population estimates and surveys. The total population of the United
States is estimated monthly; the population of States, counties, and
metropolitan areas is estimated annually; and the population of places
and other governmental units is estimated every 2 years. Projections of
future population are made at the national and State levels.

  The Census Bureau's many household surveys update population and
housing characteristics at the national level and sometimes for States
and metropolitan areas, as well. These surveys also obtain many
characteristics not included in the 10-year census. The Current
Population Survey is taken monthly; the American Housing Survey
national sample is taken biennially; the American Housing Survey
metropolitan sample is taken in 44 areas, 11 per year in a 4-year
cycle; most other surveys are annual or less frequent.

Economic Censuses and Surveys

The economic censuses provide statistics about business
establishments once every 5 years, covering years ending in "2"
and "7." The 1987 Economic Censuses include the censuses of
retail trade, wholesale trade, service industries, transportation,
manufactures, mineral industries, and construction industries. Also
included are related programs, such as statistics on minority- and
women-owned businesses, enterprise statistics, and censuses of economic
activity in Puerto Rico and some of the outlying areas under U.S.
jurisdiction.

  Several key statistics are tabulated for all industries covered in the
censuses. They are number of establishments, number of employees,
payroll, and measure of output (sales or receipts, and value of
shipments or of work done). Other items vary from sector to sector.

  The Census Bureau also has programs that provide current statistics on
such measures as total sales of particular kinds of businesses or
production of particular products. These programs include monthly,
quarterly, and annual surveys, the results of which appear in
publication series such as Current Business Reports and
Current Industrial Reports. The County Business Patterns
program offers annual statistics based on data compiled primarily from
administrative records.

Agriculture Census and Surveys

The agriculture census is conducted concurrently with the economic
censuses. It is the only source of uniform agriculture data at the
county level. It provides data on such subjects as the number and size
of farms; land use and ownership; livestock, poultry, and crops; and
value of products sold.

  Results of three surveys--the 1988 Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey,
1988 Census of Horticulture Specialties, and 1988 Agricultural
Economics and Land Ownership Survey--are published in conjunction with
the 1987 Census of Agriculture. Also, the Census Bureau regularly
issues reports from a survey on cotton ginnings.

Governments Census and Surveys

The census of governments, also for years ending in "2" and
"7," covers all types of governments: Federal, State, county,
municipal (place), township (county subdivision), school district, and
special district. It provides data on such subjects as number of public
employees, payrolls, revenue, and expenditures.

  Annual and quarterly surveys cover the same principal subjects but
generate data only for States and the largest local governments.

Foreign Trade Statistics

Monthly U.S. merchandise trade data compiled by the Census Bureau
summarize export and import transactions and are based on the official
documents filed by shippers and receivers. These figures reflect the
flow of merchandise but not intangibles like services and financial
commitments. The trade figures trace commodity movements out of and
into the U.S. Customs jurisdiction, which includes Puerto Rico and the
U.S. Virgin Islands as well as the 50 States and the District of
Columbia. Data are published separately on trade between the United
States and Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and other U.S.
possessions.

Other Statistical Activities

The Census Bureau also offers international data. It maintains an
international data base which is available to the public on computer
tape and is used to produce the biennial World Population
Profile report. It prepares studies dealing with the demographic
and economic characteristics of other countries and world regions.

  Statistical compendia are another important data product. These
publications (sometimes also offered in machine-
readable form) draw data from many sources and reorganize them for
convenient use. The most widely used compendia are the annual
Statistical Abstract of the United States, the County
and City Data Book (published every 5 years), and the State
and Metropolitan Area Data Book (published approximately every 4
years).

Figure 1.1990 Census Content


           100-PERCENT COMPONENT


  Population                    Housing
  Household relationship        Number of units in structure
  Sex                           Number of rooms in unit
  Race                          Tenure--owned or rented
  Age                           Value of home or monthly rent
  Marital status                Congregate housing (meals included in rent)
  Hispanic origin               Vacancy characteristics


             SAMPLE COMPONENT

  Population                                Housing
  Social characteristics:                   Year moved into residence
  Education--enrollment and attainment      Number of bedrooms
  Place of birth, citizenship, and year 
   of entry into U.S.                       Plumbing and kitchen facilities
  Ancestry                                  Telephone in unit
  Language spoken at home                   Vehicles available
  Migration (residence in 1985)             Heating fuel
  Disability                                Source of water and method of 
                                             sewage disposal
  Fertility                                 Year structure built
  Veteran status                            Condominium status
                                            Farm residence                          
  Economic characteristics:                 Shelter costs, including 
                                              utilities   
  Labor force
  Occupation, industry, and class of worker   
  Place of work and journey to work 
  Work experience in 1989 
  Income in 1989
  Year last worked 


NOTE: Questions dealing with the subjects covered in the
100-percent component were asked of all persons and housing units.
Those covered by the sample component were asked of a sample of the
population and housing units.


Figure 2.  1990 Census Printed Reports

            1990 CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1990 CPH)
                       100-Percent Data

Series:             1990 CPH-1
Title:              Summary Population and Housing Characteristics
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands      

Description         Population and housing unit counts, and 
                    summary statistics on age, sex, race, Hispanic 
                    origin, household relationship, units in structure,
                    value and rent, number of rooms, tenure, and 
                    vacancy characteristics

Geographic areas:   Local governmental units (i.e., counties, places, 
                    and towns and townships), other county subdivisions, 
                    and American Indian and Alaska Native areas 


Series:             1990 CPH-2
Title:              Population and Housing Unit Counts
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands

Description:        Total population and housing unit counts for 1990 
                    and previous censuses 

Geographic areas:   States, counties, county subdivisions, places, State 
                    component parts of metropolitan areas (MA's) and 
                    urbanized areas (UA's), and summary geographic areas 
                    (for example, urban and rural) 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       100-Percent and Sample Data

Series:             1990 CPH-3   
Title:              Population and Housing Characteristics for Census 
                    Tracts and Block Numbering Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        MA's, and the nonmetropolitan balance of each State, 
                    Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands   

Description:        Statistics on 100-percent and sample population and 
                    housing subjects   

Geographic areas:   In MA's: census tracts/block numbering areas (BNA's), 
                    places of 10,000 or more inhabitants, and counties. In 
                    the remainder of each State: census tracts/BNA's,
                    places of 10,000 or more, and counties


Series              1990 CPH-4
Title               Population and Housing Characteristics for
                    Congressional Districts of the 103rd Congress
Report(s)
 issued for:        States and DC   

Description:        Statistics on 100-percent and sample population
                    and housing subjects 

Geographic areas    Congressional districts (CD's) 
                    and, within CD's, counties, places of 10,000 or more 
                    inhabitants, county subdivisions of 10,000 or more
                    inhabitants in selected States, and American Indian and 
                    Alaska Native areas

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                        Sample Data

Series:             1990 CPH-5
Title:              Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands

Description:        Statistics generally on sample population and housing 
                    subjects   

Geographic areas:   Local governmental units (i.e., counties, places, and 
                    towns and townships), other county subdivisions, and 
                    American Indian and Alaska Native areas

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                      1990 CENSUS OF POPULATION (1990 CP)
                              100-Percent Data

Series:             1990 CP-1
Title:              General Population Characteristics
Report(s)
 issued for         U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands

Description:        Detailed statistics on age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, 
                    marital status, and household relationship 
                    characteristics 

Geographic areas:   States, counties, places of 1,000 or more inhabitants, 
                    county subdivisions of 1,000 or more inhabitants in 
                    selected States, State parts of American Indian areas, 
                    Alaska Native areas, and summary geographic areas such 
                    as urban and rural

Series:             1990 CP-1-1A
Title               General Population Characteristics for
                    American Indian and Alaska Native Areas
Report(s)
 issued for         U.S.   

Description:        Detailed statistics on age, sex, race, Hispanic origin,
                    marital status, and household relationship 
                    characteristics

Geographic areas:   American Indian and Alaska Native areas; i.e., American 
                    Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, 
                    tribal jurisdiction statistical areas (Oklahoma), 
                    tribal designated statistical areas, Alaska Native 
                    village statistical areas, and Alaska Native Regional
                    Corporations


Series:             1990 CP-1-1B
Title:              General Population Characteristics for Metropolitan 
                    Areas   
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.   

Description:        Detailed statistics on age, sex, race,
                    Hispanic origin, marital status, and household 
                    relationship characteristics

Geographic areas:   Individual MA's. For MA's split by State boundaries, 
                    summaries are provided both for the parts and for the 
                    whole MA


Series:             1990 CP-1-1C
Title:              General Population Characteristics for Urbanized Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Detailed statistics on age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, 
                    marital status, and household relationship 
                    characteristics

Geographic areas:   Individual UA's. For UA\`s split by State boundaries, 
                    summaries are provided both for the parts and for the 
                    whole UA

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                                Sample Data

Series:             1990 CP-2
Title:              Social and Economic Characteristics
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands

Description:        Statistics generally on sample population subjects

Geographic areas:   States (including summaries such as urban and rural), 
                    counties, places of 2,500 or more inhabitants, county 
                    subdivisions of 2,500 or more inhabitants in selected 
                    States, Alaska Native areas, and the State
                    portion of American Indian areas


Series:             1990 CP-2-1A
Title:              Social and Economic Characteristics for
                    American Indian and Alaska Native Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample population subjects

Geographic areas:   American Indian and Alaska Native areas, as for CP-1-1A


Series:             1990 CP-2-1B
Title:              Social and Economic Characteristics for Metropolitan 
                    Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample population subjects

Geographic areas:   Individual MA's, as for CP-1-1B


Series:             1990 CP-2-1C
Title:              Social and Economic Characteristics for Urbanized Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample population subjects

Geographic areas:   Individual UA's, as for CP-1-1C


Series:             1990 CP-3
Title:              Population Subject Reports

Report(s)
 issued for:        Selected subjects

Description:        Approximately 30 reports on population census subjects 
                    such as migration, education, income, the older 
                    population, and racial and ethnic groups

Geographic areas:   Generally limited to the U.S., regions, and divisions; 
                    for some reports, other highly populated areas such as 
                    States, MA's, counties, and large places

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                       1990 CENSUS OF HOUSING (1990 CH)
                             100-Percent Data

Series:             1990 CH-1
Title:              General Housing Characteristics

Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands   

Description:        Detailed statistics on units in structure, value and 
                    rent, number of rooms, tenure, and vacancy 
                    characteristics   

Geographic areas:   States, counties, places of 1,000 or more inhabitants, 
                    county subdivisions of 1,000 or more inhabitants in 
                    selected States, State parts of American Indian areas, 
                    Alaska Native areas, and summary geographic areas such 
                    as urban and rural


Series:             1990 CH-1-1A
Title:              General Housing Characteristics for American
                    Indian and Alaska Native Areas
Report(s)
 Issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Detailed statistics on units in structure, value and 
                    rent, number of rooms, tenure, and vacancy 
                    characteristics

Geographic areas:   American Indian and Alaska Native areas; i.e., American 
                    Indian reservations, trust lands, tribal jurisdiction 
                    statistical areas (Oklahoma), tribal designated 
                    statistical areas, Alaska Native village statistical 
                    areas, and Alaska Native Regional Corporations


Series:             1990 CH-1-1B
Title:              General Housing Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Detailed statistics on units in structure, value and 
                    rent, number of rooms, tenure, and vacancy 
                    characteristics

Geographic areas:   Individual MA's. For MA's split by State boundaries, 
                    summaries are provided both for the parts and for the 
                    whole MA


Series:             1990 CH-1-1C
Title:              General Housing Characteristics for Urbanized Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Detailed statistics on units in structure, value and 
                    rent, number of rooms, tenure, and vacancy 
                    characteristics

Geographic areas:   Individual UA's. For UA's split by State boundaries, 
                    summaries are provided both for the parts and for the 
                    whole UA

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                                  Sample Data

Series:             1990 CH-2
Title:              Detailed Housing Characteristics
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S., States, DC, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands

Description:        Statistics generally on sample housing subjects

Geographic areas:   States (including summaries such as urban and rural), 
                    counties, places of 2,500 or more inhabitants, county 
                    subdivisions of 2,500 or more inhabitants in selected 
                    States, Alaska Native areas, and State parts of 
                    American Indian areas 


Series:             1990 CH-2-1A
Title:              Detailed Housing Characteristics for American
                    Indian and Alaska Native Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample housing subjects
 
Geographic areas:   American Indian and Alaska Native areas, as in 1990
                    CH-1-1A


Series:             1990 CH-2-1B
Title:              Detailed Housing Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample housing subjects

Geographic areas:   Individual MA's, as in 1990  CH-1-1B


Series:             1990 CH-2-1C
Title:              Detailed Housing Characteristics for Urbanized Areas
Report(s)
 issued for:        U.S.

Description:        Statistics generally on sample housing subjects

Geographic areas:   Individual UA's, as in 1990 CH-1-1C


Series:             1990 CH-3
Title:              Housing Subject Reports
Report(s)
 issued for:        Selected subjects   

Description:        Approximately 10 reports on housing census
                    subjects such as structural characteristics and space 
                    utilization 

Geographic areas:   Generally limited to U.S., regions, and divisions; for 
                    some reports, other highly populated areas such as 
                    States, MA's, counties, and large places


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Figure 3.1990 Census Summary Tape Files
 
Summary Tape File
(STF 1A, 1B, etc.)
and data type
(100 percent or 
sample)(1)          Geographic areas                         Description

        A(2,3) States, counties, county subdivisions,
               places, census tracts/block numbering
               areas (BNA's), block groups (BG's). 
               Also Alaska Native areas and State 
               parts of American Indian areas
 
        B(2,3  States, counties, county subdivisions, 
               places, census tracts/BNA's, BG's, 
               blocks.  Also Alaska Native areas and 
               State parts of American Indian areas 

STF 1   C(3)   U.S., regions, divisions, States         Over 900 cells/
(100 percent)  (including summaries such as             items of 100-
               urban and rural), counties,              percent population
               places of 10,000 or more inhabitants,    and housing counts
               county subdivisions of 10,000 or         and characteristics
               or more inhabitants in selected          for each geographic
               States, metropolitan areas (MA's),       area
               urbanized areas (UA's), American         
               Indian and Alaska Native areas
 
        D      Congressional districts (CD's) of the 
               103rd Congress by State; and within each 
               CD: counties, places of 10,000 or more 
               inhabitants, county subdivisions of 
               10,000 or more inhabitants in selected 
               States, Alaska Native areas, and American 
               Indian areas

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        A      In MA's: counties, places of 10,000 
               or more inhabitants, and census
               tracts/BNA's. In the remainder of 
               each State: counties, places of
               10,000 or more inhabitants, and 
               census tracts/BNA's

STF 2   B      States (including summaries             Over 2,100 cells/
(100 percent)  such as urban and rural),               items of 100-percent 
               counties, places of 1,000               population and hous-
               or more inhabitants, county             ing counts and char-
               subdivisions, State parts               acteristics for each
               of American Indian areas,               geographic area. 
               and Alaska Native areas                 Each of the STF 2
                                                       files will include 
        C      U.S., regions, divisions,               a set of tabulations
               States (including summaries             for the total popu-
               such as urban and rural),               lation and separate 
               counties, places of 10,000 or           presentations of 
               more inhabitants, county                tabulations by race
               subdivisions of 10,000 or               and Hispanic origin 
               more inhabitants in selected 
               States, all county subdivisions 
               in New England MA's, American
               Indian and Alaska Native areas, 
               MA's, UA's


        A(2,3) States, counties, county 
               subdivisions, places, census 
               tracts/BNA's, BG's. Also Alaska 
               Native areas and State parts of 
               American Indian areas


        B(3)   Five-digit ZIP Codes within each        Over 3,300 cells/
               State                                   items of sample 
                                                       population and hous-
STF 3   C(3)   U.S., regions, divisions, States,       ing characteristics 
(Sample)       counties, places of 10,000 or more      for each geographic 
               inhabitants, county subdivisions        area
               of 10,000 or more inhabitants in        
               selected States, American Indian 
               and Alaska Native areas, MA's, UA's

        D      CD's of the 103rd Congress by State; 
               and within each CD: counties, places 
               of 10,000 or more inhabitants, county
               subdivisions of 10,000 or more 
               inhabitants in selected States

 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

         A     In MA's: counties, places of 10,000 
               or more inhabitants, and census
               tracts/BNA's. In the remainder of 
               each State: counties, places of
               10,000 or more inhabitants, and 
               census tracts/BNA's


STF 4   B      State (including summaries              Over 8,500 cells/
(Sample)       such as urban and rural),               items of sample
               counties, places of 2,500 or            population and hous-
               more inhabitants, county sub-           ing characteristics 
               divisions of 2,500 or more              for each geographic 
               inhabitants in selected States,         area.  Each of the
               all county subdivisions in New          STF 4 files will 
               England MA's, State parts of            include a set of 
               American Indian areas, and Alaska       tabulations for the 
               Native areas                            total population and
                                                       separate present-
        C      U.S., regions, divisions, States        ations of tabu-
               (including urban and rural and          lations by race and
               metropolitan and nonmetropolitan        Hispanic origin.
               components), counties, places of
               10,000 or more inhabitants, county 
               subdivisions of 10,000 or more
               inhabitants in selected States, all 
               county subdivisions in New England
               MA's, American Indian and Alaska 
               Native areas, MA's, UA's


(1)  Similar STF's will be prepared for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin 
     Islands.

(2)  Also available on microfiche. STF 1B microfiche provides
     only part of the data for blocks and other areas in the tape file.

(3)  Also available on laser disc (CD-ROM). STF 1B CD-ROM
     presents the same file extract as STF 1B microfiche.

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Figure 4. Other 1990 Census Data Products
 
Title:             Subject Summary
                   Tape Files
Description:       About 20 computer tape files used to produce the subject 
                   reports (1990 CP-3 and 1990 CH-3 series). On the
                   average, a file is the source of two subject reports

Geographic areas:  U.S., regions, divisions, States, metropolitan areas 
                   (MA's), and large counties and places

----------------------------------

Title:             Public Law 94-171
                   Data File (redistricting data)   

Description:       Counts by total, race, and Hispanic origin for the total 
                   population and population 18 years old and over,
                   and counts of housing units. Available on tape, CD-ROM, 
                   and paper listings   

Geographic areas:  States, counties, county subdivisions, places, census
                   tracts/block numbering areas (BNA's), block groups 
                   (BG's), and blocks; voting districts where States have 
                   identified them for the Census Bureau; and American 
                   Indian and Alaska Native areas

----------------------------------

Title:             Census/Equal Employment Opportunity
                   (EEO) Special File   

Description:       Sample tabulations showing detailed occupations
                   and educational attainment data by age; cross tabulated 
                   by sex, Hispanic origin, and race

Geographic areas:  Counties, MA's, places of 50,000 or more inhabitants

-----------------------------------

Title:             County-to-County Migration File

Description:       Summary statistics for all intra-state county-to-
                   county migration streams and significant interstate 
                   county-to-county migration streams. Each record will 
                   include codes for the geographic area of destination, 
                   and selected characteristics of the persons who
                   made up the migration stream

Geographic areas:  States, counties 

------------------------------------

Title:             Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files

Description:       Machine-readable files containing a sample of individual 
                   long-form census records showing most population and 
                   housing characteristics but with identifying information 
                   removed   

Title:             5 Percent--PUMS   Areas   

Geographic areas:  County groups, counties, county subdivisions, and places 
                   with 100,000 or more inhabitants 

Title:             1 Percent--Metropolitan Areas (1990)
   
Geographic areas:  MA's and other large areas with 100,000 or more 
                   inhabitants 

-----------------------------------

Title:             User-Defined Areas Tabulations

Description:       A set of standard tabulations provided on printouts, 
                   tapes, or other products with maps and narrative (if 
                   requested) 

Geographic areas:  User-defined areas created by aggregating census blocks

------------------------------------

Title:             Special Tabulations

Description:       User-defined tabulations for specified geographic areas 
                   provided on printouts, tapes, or other products

Geographic areas:  User-defined areas or standard areas