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January 1997

CONTENTS  	                                                 i

Editorial    	                                               iii

In Memoriam: V.A. Ambartsumian    	                        iv

 1.	GENERAL ASSEMBLIES    	                                 1

 1.1.	The XXIIIrd General Assembly, Kyoto, Japan    	         1
                                                       [1] to [25]

 1.1.1.	Invitation from the President    	               [1]
 1.1.2.	IMPORTANT Deadlines for the XXIIIrd General Assembly   [2]
 1.1.3.	Additional Deadlines for Adhering Organizations,       [2]
	Commissions and Divisions
 1.1.4.	Scientific Programme    	                       [3]
 1.1.5.	Call for poster papers    	                       [3]
 1.1.6.	New Contact Address (JD 15)    	                       [3]
 1.1.7.	IAU Local Organizing Committee Grants   	      [10]

 1.2.	XXIVth General Assembly    	                         3

 2.	EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE    	                                 4

 2.1.	68th Meeting of the IAU Executive Committee    	         4
 2.2.	Working Rules of the IAU (Issue of June 26, 1996)    	 4
 2.3.	The 69th and 70th Meetings of the IAU EC                11

 3.	DIVISIONS: World Wide Web    	                        12

 4.	COMMISSIONS & WORKING GROUPS    	                13

 4.1.	Commission 24    	                                13
 4.2.	Intercommission Working Group on Astronomical Standards 13

 5.	SCIENTIFIC & EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES    	                18

 5.1.	Commission 38: Exchange of Astronomers
	IAU Travel Grants:  Guidelines    	                18
 5.2.	Commission 46: Teaching of Astronomy    	        21
 5.2.1.	23rd International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA)  21
 5.2.2.	Teaching for Astronomy Development (TAD)   	        22
 5.2.2.	Messages from Commission 46 (Teaching of Astronomy)   	22
 5.3.	Future IAU Scientific Meetings    	                23
 5.3.1.	Deadline  	                                        23
 5.3.2.	Future IAU Symposia    	                                23
 5.3.3.	Future IAU Colloquia    	                        25
 5.3.4.	Past Regional Astronomy Meetings    	                27
	Report of the VIIth Asian Pacific Regional Meeting


 7.	IAU PUBLICATIONS    	                                31

 7.1.	Symposia    	                                        31
 7.2.	Colloquia    	                                        32

 8.	INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS:    	                33
	Report of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS)

 9.	MEMBERSHIP: WWW    	                                35

 10.	OTHER MATTERS    	                                35

 10.1.	Information on UTC - TAI    	                        35
 10.2.	International Geophysical Calendar 1997    	        36



In addition to the usual news from the events and activities of our Union this issue of the Information Bulletin contains some further information on the XXIIIrd IAU General Assembly in August 1997 in Kyoto (see central leaflet). This information supplements the (special) issue No. 78 which contained the preliminary Programme and important practical information for this General Assembly. Colleagues who are interested in attending the XXIIIrd General Assembly and who have not received IB 78, can find IB 78 in this World Wide Web server under "Previous issues of the Information Bulletin". Additional paper copies of IB 78 can be obtained from our Paris office or from the Kyoto Local Organisating Committee.

This issue of the Information Bulletin also contains a short report on the discussions at the last (68th) meeting of the IAU Executive Committee, which took place in June 1996 in Baltimore. Among the decisions taken at this Executive Committee meeting was the approval of a new issue of the Working Rules of the Union. The new text of the Working Rules is given in Section 2.2 of this Information Bulletin. This text contains for the first time explicit rules for the proposal of Resolutions at General Assemblies. As the new working rules took effect with their approval by the Executive Committee, the Rules for Resolutions should be followed, as far as possible, already for all Resolutions to be submitted to the Kyoto General Assembly. However, a regular standing Resolutions Committee, as required by the new rules, can be elected only during the Kyoto General Assembly. Therefore, until the second session of the Kyoto General Assembly, the Executive Committee has asked the Resolutions Committee elected in The Hague to continue to function until August 1997 and the Executive Committee will allow adequate flexibility in the application of the rules during this transition period.

As the publication of this issue of the Information Bulletin marks the beginning of a new year, I would like to close this editorial with my very best wishes for 1997 to all members of our Union and to all readers of this Bulletin.

November, 1996

Immo Appenzeller

General Secretary




On August 12, 1996 V.A. Ambartsumian, IAU's oldest past President, passed away at the age of 87. He had been a Vice-President of the IAU from 1948 to 1955 and President from 1961 to 1964. He became President of the International Council of Scientific Unions in 1968.

Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian was born on September 18, 1908 in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. He graduated in 1928 at Leningrad University, continued as a post-graduate at Pulkovo Observatory (near Leningrad) in the years 1928-1931 and next was associated with the University of Leningrad (now St-Petersburg), from 1934 as a professor. In subsequent years he devoted much of his time to the foundation and construction of the Byurakan Observatory in Armenia of which he became the Director, and from 1947 he also was professor of astrophysics at the State University in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. The observational programme of Byurakan Observatory has been strongly inspired by Ambartsumian's imaginative thinking.

Ambartsumian's scientific achievements are manifold. Whereas his early work was primarily in theoretical astrophysics, in particular on radiative transfer including the theory of light scattering by planetary atmospheres, his interest broadened to include stellar evolution, the problem of star formation, and the origin and evolution of stellar systems. It was particularly in these latter two domains that his unorthodox approach drew much attention. As early as in the years 1941-43, he postulated that certain groups containing stars with similar properties, drifting among the general stellar population like, for instance, the groups of O and B stars called by him stellar associations, are dynamically instable systems and must be of much more recent origin than the stellar population in general. This work has greatly contributed to the now generally accepted view that star formation has been a continuous - and still ongoing - process up to the present. As to the formation process itself, Ambartsumian went even as far as postulating that stellar associations originate from superdense primordial matter, a postulate he then also extended to the formation of galaxies in general.

Ambartsumian received many honours, both from inside the USSR and internationally. Among the first were the Order of Lenin and the Stalin Prize, both awarded soon after the end of World War II. In 1950 he became a Deputy to the Supreme Soviet and in 1961 a member of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1960 he was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, and in the same year the Bruce medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He was a foreign member of many Academies of Science.

Ambartsumian's term as a Vice-President of the IAU coincided with the years of the cold war between western powers and the Soviet Union. It was at that time that the IAU went through a critical stage in its existence as a consequence of the IAU Executive Committee's decision to postpone the General Assembly planned for 1951 in Leningrad. During the subsequent years, although vigorously contesting the EC's decision, Ambartsumian did not fail to continue his support of the Union as the world-wide organisation embracing astronomers from all countries. His election as President of the IAU in 1961 reflected both the appreciation for his efforts in this respect and his outstanding scientific achievements.

Adriaan Blaauw

November 15, 1996



		AUGUST 18-30, 1997

Additions to the Special Issue of Information Bulletin (IB 78) are given on 
Pages [1] to [25] at the end of this Bulletin


We are pleased to inform the members of the Union that the IAU received an
official invitation from the Royal Society to hold its XXIVth General
Assembly in the year 2000 in Manchester, United Kingdom.  The IAU Executive
Committee will propose to the XXIIIrd General Assembly to accept this



The 68th Meeting of the IAU Executive Committee took place on June 23 to 25,
1996 at the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA, on the kind
invitation of its Director, Professor Robert Williams.

Among the main topics discussed at this Executive Committee meeting were the
proposed budget for the years 1998 to 2000, proposed modifications in the
IAU Statutes, By-laws and Working Rules, the selection of the Symposia,
Joint Discussions and Special Sessions of the XXIIIrd General Assembly, the
selection of the other scientific meetings in 1997, the selection of an ISYA
and of TAD programs, and the discussion of bids for the IAU publishing
contract 1998-2003.

The modifications of the Statutes and By-laws and the draft budget 1998-2000
adopted by the Executive Committee will be submitted the XXIIIrd General
Assembly.  The modified Working Rules (which are drawn up and published by
the Executive Committee under its own responsibility) are already in force.
The English version of the new Working Rules is printed below.


	(as amended during the 68th EC, June 23-25, 1996)

I. Non-Discrimination

 1.	The International Astronomical Union follows the International Council
of Scientific Unions (ICSU) regulations and concurs with ICSU statute 5
which defines the basic tenets of non-discrimination and of the universality
of science:

"In pursuing its objectives in respect of the rights and responsibilities of
scientists, ICSU, as an international non-governmental body, shall observe
and actively uphold the principle of the universality of science.  This
principle entails freedom of association, expression, information,
communication and movement in connection with international scientific
activities, without any discrimination on the basis of such factors as
citizenship, religion, creed, political stance, ethnic origin, race, colour,
language, age or sex.  ICSU shall recognise and respect the independence of
the internal science policies of its National Members.  ICSU shall not
permit any of its activities to be disturbed by statements or actions of a
political nature."

Participants in IAU-sponsored activities who feel that they have been
subjected to discrimination are urged in the first instance to seek
immediate clarification of all aspects of the incident, which may have
occurred simply because of misunderstandings due to cultural differences
inherent in an international organization such as the IAU.  If the attempt
to seek clarification does not prove satisfactory, contact should then be
made with the IAU General Secretary who will seek to resolve the issue.

In the last resort, the Chairperson or the Secretary of the ICSU Standing
Committee on the Freedom in the Conduct of Science (SCFCS) should be
approached.  The SCFCS has been created by ICSU in 1963 in order to
safeguard the principle of the universality of science and to assist in the
solution of specific problems.  The SCFCS has, ever since, worked vigorously
to ensure that this principle is upheld by providing advice and taking
appropriate measures.  The Chairperson or the Secretary of the SCFCS can be
reached at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm (Telefax: 46 8

II. Membership

A. Adhering Countries

 2.	Applications of countries for adherence to the Union are examined by the
Executive Committee for:

(a)	the adequacy of the category in which the country wishes to be classified;

(b)	the present state and expected development of astronomy in the applying

(c)	the degree to which the prospective adhering body is representative of
its country's astronomical activity.

 3.	Applications proposing an adequate annual contribution to the Union
shall, with the recommendation of the Executive Committee, be submitted to
the General Assembly for decision.
 B. Members

 4.	Individuals proposed for Union Membership should, as a rule, be chosen
from among astronomers and scientists, whose activity is closely linked with
astronomy taking into account:

(a)	the standard of their scientific achievement;

(b)	the extent to which their scientific activity involves research in

(c)	their desire to assist in the fulfilment of the aims of the Union.

 5.	Young astronomers should be considered eligible for membership after
they have shown their capability (as a rule Ph.D. or equivalent) of and
experience (some years of successful activity) in conducting original research.

 6.	For full time professional astronomers the achievement in astronomy may
consist either of original research or of substantial contributions to major
observational programs.

 7.	Others are eligible for membership only if they are making original
contributions closely linked with astronomical research.

 8.	Eight months before an ordinary General Assembly, adhering bodies will
be asked to propose new Members.  The proposals should reach the General
Secretary not later than five months before the first session of the General
Assembly.  Proposals received after the closing date will only be taken into
consideration if the delay is justified by exceptional circumstances.

9.	Each proposal shall be prepared separately and signed by the proposer.
It should include the name, first names, postal and electronic address of
the candidates, Institute or Observatory, place and date of birth, the
University and the year of Ph.D. or equivalent title, present occupation,
titles and bibliographic data for two or three of the more important papers
or publications, and details, if any, worthy to be considered by the
Nominating Committee.

10.	(a)	Pursuant article 13 of the Statutes Presidents of Union Divisions
wishing to nominate candidates for Membership should address their
suggestions to the General Secretary at least nine months before the first
session of an ordinary General Assembly.  The nominations should contain
particulars as in article 9.

(b)	The General Secretary notifies the adhering bodies about such suggestions.

11.	The General Secretary shall prepare two lists for the Nominating Committee:

(a)	one containing the candidates proposed by the adhering bodies.

(b)	the other containing those suggested by Presidents of Divisions, but not
included among the proposals of the adhering bodies

12.	The Nominating Committee prepares the final proposals for Union
membership from the two lists as mentioned in article 11.

13.	Adhering Bodies should propose the deletion of Members who have left the
field of astronomy for other interests, unless they continue to contribute
to astronomy.  Such proposals should be announced to the Member concerned
and to the General Secretary.

14.	The alphabetical list of Union Members will be published by the General
Secretary following each ordinary General Assembly.

III. Commission Membership

15.	Members of Union Commissions are co-opted by Commissions.  The rules
governing the procedure of such co-option are drawn up by the Commissions

16.	Commissions should choose, or approve of, Commission members taking into
account their special interests, in particular their scientific activity in
the appropriate fields of research and their contribution to the work of the
Commission. They may:

(a)	invite Union Members to become members of their Commission;

(b)	remove Union members who have not contributed to the work of the Commission;

(c)	accept or reject applications for membership from existing or proposed
Union Members;

17.	Members may not, as a rule, be members of more than three Commissions.

18.	Members may apply for Commission membership by writing to the President
of the Commission concerned.  Such applications should only be made if the
Member is actively engaged in the appropriate field of research and is
prepared to contribute to the work of the Commission.

19.	Members of Commissions may resign from a Commission by writing to its

20.	Adhering Bodies, in sending in their proposals for new Members, may also
suggest one Commission for each candidate.

21.	The General Secretary will record and analyse the lists of members of
Commissions. If necessary, the General Secretary will try to resolve any
outstanding anomalies.

22.	The list of Commission members will be published by the General
Secretary in the Transactions of each ordinary General Assembly.

IV. Consultants

23.	Eligible as Consultants are non-astronomers in a position to further the
interest in astronomy.

24.	Proposals of Commissions for the approval of consultants should, as a
rule, reach the General Secretary not later than five months before the
first session of an ordinary General Assembly.

25.	The General Secretary shall prepare a list of those proposed for
admission as consultants and submit it to the Executive Committee for approval.

26.	The Administrative Office will maintain an alphabetical list of consultants.

27.	Consultants may participate in the meetings of the Union.  They may have
voting right in the respective Commission.  They receive, free of charge,
the Information Bulletin of the Union.

 V. Scientific Meetings

28.	The General Secretary shall publish rules for scientific meetings
organized or sponsored by the Union.

VI. Publications

29.	The publications of the International Astronomical Union, approved in
the budget by the General Assembly, are prepared by the Administrative
Office of the Union

30.	Commissions of the Union may, with the approval of the Executive
Committee, issue their publications independently.

31.	The distribution of publications of the Union is decided, on the
proposal of the General Secretary, by the Executive Committee.

32.	Members may purchase the publications of the Union at reduced prices.

VII. External Contacts

33.	No dealings with third parties, attributable to the Union, shall be
undertaken by any Member of the Union except on the authority of the General

34.	Representatives of the Union in other bodies, especially ICSU Committees
and ICSU Inter-Union Committees, shall be appointed by the Executive
Committee.  Nominations are sought from Presidents of appropriate Commissions.

35.	Expenses incurred by Representatives of the Union in other bodies will
be reimbursed at the discretion of the General Secretary, within  the
provisions of the Budget Estimate adopted by the General Assembly.
Representatives are required to obtain prior approval of the General
Secretary before incurring such expenses.

 VIII. General Assemblies

36.	The General Secretary distributes the budget prepared by the Executive
Committee to National or other appropriate Committees of Astronomy and/or
Adhering Organizations for comments eight months before the General Assembly.

37.	The decisions and recommendations of the Union on scientific and
organizational matters are expressed in its Resolutions.  Resolutions are
proposed, evaluated, and approved according to the following guidelines:

(a)	Resolutions fall in three categories:

A:	Resolutions, proposed by Adhering Bodies or by the Executive Committee,

B:	Resolutions, proposed by Divisions or Commissions not attached to a
Division and adopted by the General Assembly,

C:	Resolutions, adopted by Divisions or Commissions, but not presented to
the General Assembly.

(b)	Resolutions should be submitted on standard forms appropriate to
Resolutions of type A, B, and C, respectively. These forms are available
from the IAU Secretariat.

(c)	Resolutions of type A must be placed on the Agenda of the General
Assembly and must be submitted to the General Secretary at least six months
prior to the beginning of the General Assembly.  Resolutions of type A or B
which have implications for the budget of the Union must be submitted to the
General Secretary nine months in advance in order to be considered by the
General Assembly.

All other Resolutions of type B must be submitted to the General Secretary
three months before the beginning of the General Assembly.

(d)	In truly exceptional cases the Executive Committee may consider
accepting late proposals for resolutions of type B.

(e)	At its second session, each General Assembly appoints a Resolutions
Committee consisting of five members of the Union, one of whom should be a
member of the Executive Committee. The Resolutions Committee remains in
office until the end of the following General Assembly.

(f)	The Resolutions Committee will examine the content, wording, and
implications of all resolutions of types A and B to be presented to the
second session of the General Assembly. In particular, it will address the
following points:

	i.	Suitability of the subject for an IAU Resolution,
	ii.	Correct and unambiguous wording,
	iii.	Consistency with previous IAU Resolutions.

The Resolutions Committee may refer a Resolution back to the proposers for
reconsideration or withdrawal, but can neither withdraw nor modify the
substance of a Resolution on its own initiative. The Resolutions Committee
will notify the Executive Committee of any perceived problems with the
substance of a proposed Resolution.

(g)	The Executive Committee will examine the substance and implications of
all Resolutions proposed for adoption by the General Assembly (types A and
B).  The Resolutions Committee presents the proposals with the
recommendations of the Executive Committee to the second session of the
General Assembly for approval..

(h)	Resolutions of type C  have force only within the Commission or Division
of origin.

IX.  Working Groups

38.	The Executive Committee and the Divisions and Commissions may set up
Working Groups for special tasks.  Working Groups established by Divisions
and Commissions have to be approved by the Executive Committee.  All Working
Groups are established initially for a period of three years.  Before each
General Assembly the Divisions and Commissions shall inform the EC which WGs
are to be retained for the next 3-year period and which Working Groups are
to be dissolved.



The 69th and 70th Meetings of the IAU Executive Committee will take place in
connection with the XXIIIrd IAU General Assembly in August 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.

Any matter to be submitted to these meetings should reach the
Office of the General Secretary by May 15th, 1997


Up to now, Divisions V, VIII, X and XI have their own home page within our IAUWWW server. The Division home pages provide news and announcements from the Divisions as well as basic information on their scope and activities.



Commission 24 (Photographic astrometry/Astrométrie Photographique) informed
us that, Dr. Elena Schilbach (Potsdam) has been elected Vice-President of
Commission 24, following the resignation of Dr. Philip Iannam.

5, 8, 19, 24 & 31)





The IAU, at the 1994 General Assembly, accepted a recommendation from the
Working Group on Astronomical Standards (WGAS) that a collection of
authenticated fundamental-astronomy algorithms and astronomical constants be
made freely available, together with arrangements to maintain and develop
the service as new standards emerge.

The initiative was called "Standards of Fundamental Astronomy " (SOFA).  The
SOFA Collection - constants, algorithms, software, test data and
documentation - would, in general, be provided by the community,
appropriately adapted, enhanced and standardized by the SOFA Review Board,
and made available through a facility called the "SOFA Center".

The WGAS is responsible for defining SOFA's terms of reference and
appointing the SOFA Review Board.  The latter has been appointed, and the
WGAS has asked the Board to draw up the present invitation to bid for the
SOFA Center.

The remainder of this statement gives the background to SOFA, and sets out
the functions, terms and conditions of the SOFA Center.


The intention is for SOFA to serve the whole astronomical community.

The principal purpose of SOFA is to define a set of standard (canonical)
positional-astronomy procedures in the form of computer code and reliable
test data, together with an appropriate level of documentation.  SOFA also
maintains the official IAU constants, both canonical and "best estimates".

The aim is to provide procedures which are both rigorous (including
consistency with General Relativity) and of direct practical use.

It must be stressed that SOFA encourages experts and groups working at the
leading edge to continue to develop and use their own state-of-the-art
software.  This private software is a vital resource, as it provides
independent checks on the SOFA routines and guides the development of, and
can form the basis of, future SOFA products.  The existence of SOFA should
not inhibit the independent development and refinement of
fundamental-astronomy algorithms in the community at large, and indeed
should stimulate such work.


The Center shall make available, through anonymous FTP and the WWW the

a) The SOFA collection,
b) The non-confidential part of the review reports,
c) Other useful files, as agreed with the Review Board.

The principal interface between the Center and the outside world shall, for
the present, be the World Wide Web (WWW). There will be a dedicated SOFA
home page, which will provide access to official SOFA software and documents
only (i.e. no links to material which is not part of the SOFA Collection).

The Center shall provide material on machine-readable media on request.  For
the present, a 3.5-inch MS-DOS diskette is the minimum service envisaged.  A
reasonable fee (agreed by the Management Board) can be charged for this copy
service.  This service may be introduced at a later stage.

The Center, at its discretion, may provide SOFA products in paper form.  A
reasonable fee (agreed by the Management Board) can be charged for this service.

On behalf of the Review Board, the Center shall inform the community,
through IAU Bulletins, IAG publications (e.g. Journal of Geodesy) and the
WWW, about:

a) the SOFA collection,
b) how new SOFA procedures may be submitted,
c) news on the activities of the Center and the Review Board,
d) new algorithms and constants.

The Center will be involved in the work of the Review Board, by:

a) receiving new software and associated material,
b) providing access to new software to Review Board members and designated
c) installing new software in the SOFA collection.

The details of these processes have yet to be decided.

The Center shall be able to build the SOFA procedures and execute the suite
of test programs on at least two different platforms, including at least two
different operating systems, one of which must be Unix-based.  An
appropriate set of compilers must be available, currently supporting at
least ANSI C and ANSI Fortran 77 with the DoD extensions.  Additional
computers, operating systems and compilers may be required in the future.

The Center shall maintain an archive of the whole SOFA Collection, past and

The Center shall monitor the use of the SOFA Collection and provide
statistics on request to the SOFA Management Board.

The Center may authorize mirror sites, to provide fast access to SOFA
products to users in different geographical regions.


The Center, located at a suitable institution, is responsible for operating
the SOFA service for the astronomical community worldwide.

The Center will, for the time being, be ranked as one of the formal
functions of the IAU WGAS, as is the SOFA Review Board.

The Director of the Center shall be a member of the IAU WGAS and also a
member of the SOFA Review Board.

The service provided by the SOFA Center will be monitored by a Management
Board.  Reports and assessments will be made at each triennial General
Assembly of the IAU.

The Management Board will initially be the WGAS.  Because IAU Working Groups
exist only for a limited period, it will be necessary in due course to
establish a permanent SOFA Management Board, perhaps in the form of a new
IAU Commission.  Steps to bring about this change will be taken prior to the
IAU General Assembly in 2000.

Electronic access to the SOFA Collection will be free of charge.

All items of the SOFA Collection shall be covered by the GNU general public
license.  The SOFA Management Board will rule on matters of copyright.

The selection of items for the SOFA Collection and their specifications are
the responsibility of the Review Board.

The Center may elect to work in collaboration with other institutions and
individuals, with the Review Board's approval, each providing different
parts of the SOFA service.  However, any distributed mode of operation must
be transparent to the user, who will be able to access all SOFA services
through a single point of contact.

Due notification of significant changes in the Center's service must be
notified and discussed with the Review Board.  Similarly the Review Board
must discuss and give the Center due warning of changes in its requirements.

Notification of termination of the SOFA service, by either the Center or the
Management Board, must be given at least 18 months prior to an IAU General
The Management Board must notify the Center if it finds that the Center is
not providing a suitable service.  The Center will then have 6 months in
which to meet the Management Board's requirements before any steps are taken
to terminate the agreement.

No financial support by the IAU is available.  Bidding institutions must be
prepared to operate the SOFA Center within their existing programs and budgets.

The Center must maintain an effective and efficient service, and must not
bring the IAU into disrepute.


Human resources - The SOFA Center will be expected to provide about 0.5
staff years per year.

Computer resources - adequate processing power and online information
storage capacity must be provided, as well as continuous WWW and anonymous
FTP accessibility at acceptable bandwidths, and the capability to build and
test the SOFA Collection on a variety of platforms.


Bids must be submitted, in writing, to the SOFA Review Board Chair by 1997
April 1.  Electronic transmission is acceptable (and indeed encouraged).
Bidding institutions must describe in detail how they propose to set up and
operate the SOFA Service and what level of resources will be committed.

The SOFA Review Board intends to announce the successful bidder to host the
Center at the IAU General Assembly in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 August.  (At that
time it is hoped that development of the first tranche of SOFA algorithms
will be nearing completion).

Patrick Wallace, Chair
SOFA Review Board
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, UK

1996 December 10




Within the limitations imposed by the budget of the Commission as approved
by the Executive Committee of the International Astronomical Union, funds
are available to Commission 38 toward grants to qualified individuals to
enable them to visit institutions abroad.  It is intended, in particular,
that the visitors should have ample time and opportunity to interact with
the intellectual life of the host institution so that maximum benefit is
derived by both sides.  It is a specific objective of the programme that
astronomy in the home country be enriched after the applicant returns.

1.	Candidates may be faculty/staff members, post-doctoral fellows, or
graduate students at any recognised educational/research institution or
observatory.  All candidates must have an excellent record of research and
must have made permanent and professional commitments to astronomy.  The
programme is designed to support both the work of young astronomers and
established astronomers whose visits may benefit the country or institution
visited.  It is emphasised that all recipients should return to their home
institutions or home countries upon the completion of their visits.

2.	All visits must normally consist of a stay of at least 3 months at a
single host institution.  In special cases, shorter visits can be
considered; stopover at other institutions en route may be permitted.

3.	All visits must be formally agreed to by the Directors of the home and
host institutions involved.  Such endorsements must confirm that the
proposed plan of study is a reasonable one and will be of benefit to astronomy.

4.	All applicants must give details of funds currently available to her/him
to finance her/his proposed visit including supporting documents.  In
particular, s/he must state what other applications s/he has submitted in
efforts to obtain support from other sources and the status of such
applications.  In the event that an applicant receives funds, which may be
used, in whole or in part, for the same proposed purpose from another
source, s/he is required to revise her/his application or make a refund to
the IAU.  If dependants are to accompany the applicant, details must be given.

5.	The amount of the grant will be governed by the cost of one return
economy air fare and limited to the least expensive fare (such as PEX, APEX,
etc.) between home and host institutions and normally is to be used by the
applicant for such travel.  With prior approval, the funds can instead be
used wholly or in part for subsistence costs during the visit.

Some grants may be awarded on the basis of a one-way fare.  An example is
the case where highly qualified graduate students apply for funds to go
abroad to begin graduate studies at an institution where they have been
formally accepted.

6.	Grants to attend symposia, summer schools, conferences, society meetings,
etc. are outside the scope of the programme.

Grants will not normally be made for the sole purpose of obtaining
observational data.

An individual should normally not expect to receive an IAU award for a
second visit.

7.	Each recipient is required to submit a brief report to the President of
Commission 38 after her/his return from the visit.  Acknowledgement of
support from the Exchange of Astronomers Programme of the IAU should be made
in any published paper resulting from the visit.

Application Procedure

1.	An individual who wishes to apply for a grant under the IAU Exchange of
Astronomers Programme should read the rules carefully to ensure that the
circumstances of her/his case conform to the conditions under which IAU
grants can be made.  S/he should then proceed by formally submitting her/his
request for a grant in the form of a letter to the President of Commission
38 (see § 4, below).
Each candidate must submit a curriculum vitae showing that s/he is
professionally qualified, and must submit a viable plan of scholarly
activity to be carried out during the visit.

The information supplied in those documents should be complete and detailed
as it will be used to judge whether the proposal is in conformity with the
aims of the programme, whether the minimum initial requirements are being
met, and whether the guidelines will permit a favourable decision.  Any
special circumstances must be carefully set forth.

2.	It is the applicant's responsibility to arrange for the two confidential
letters of endorsement from senior officials of the home and host
institutions.  These are to be sent without delay directly to the President
of Commission 38.  The letters from both institutions should confirm that
the applicant's proposed visit has the knowledge and support of the
directors or senior academic/research officers of the institutions involved.
Further they should state whether the applicant will be returning to a
position at the home institution at the conclusion of the visit.  Finally,
they should confirm to the President of Commission 38 that the senior
officials themselves have made every effort to obtain the necessary travel
funds from their own institutions and from other resources within the
respective countries.

The applicant must state who is responsible for her/his subsistence during
the prolonged visit at the host institute, i.e. subsistence paid by the home
or by the host institute, by a grant or fellowship or by any other means.
Copies of the relevant documents should be submitted with application.  In
addition the applicant should provide information on the lowest available
travel fare required.

3.	As noted above, care should be taken to make the application as complete
as possible and to include detailed statements rather than generalities.
Material should be typed and single spaced.  The application will be
considered as quickly as possible, but it should be recognised that
information and opinions must be exchanged among the President,
Vice-Presidents, and/or other Members of the Organising Committee of
Commission 38.

4.	In summary, the application should include:

i.	plan of scientific activity,
ii.	curriculum vitae,
iii.	letters of support from home and host institutions,
iv.	information on responsibility for subsistence at the host institution,
v.	information on lowest available travel fare.

and should be submitted in time for the Officers of the Commission to
consult by post. 
5.	All correspondence, including the endorsements referred to above, should
be directed to the President of Commission 38, International Astronomical
Union, with copy to the Vice-President.  For the period August 1994-July
1997, the addresses are:

	President	Vice-President

	Prof. H.E. Jorgensen	Dr. Morton S. Roberts
	Juliane Maries Vej 30	Edgemont Road
	DK 2100 Copenhagen O	Charlottesville VA 22903
	Denmark	USA

Fax:	45 35 32 3989	1 804 296 0278


5.2.1.	23rd IAU International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA)

The 23rd IAU International School for Young Astronomers will be held at the
Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences at Zanjan, Iran, Director
Y. Sobouti, during July 4-24, 1997.  Language: English.  Topics to be
emphasized:  Stars and stellar atmospheres, radio astronomy, cosmology, MHD
with emphasis on the Sun, planetary system, practical observational
training.  Applications should include your achieved level of studies in
physics and astronomy, any topic of special interest, plus e-mail and/or fax
address if available.  Local costs will be born by the host.  To apply for
cost of travel, a letter of reference is needed which evaluates your
academic standing and your proficiency in English.  Applications and letters
of reference should arrive by April 21, 1997 and should be sent to both
Donat G. Wentzel, secretary for ISYA, by air-mail at Department of
Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742, USA, or by fax to
(International 1) 301 314 9067, or preferably by Internet e-mail to
wentzel@astro.umd.edu and also to Mrs. Z. Zahedi, Executive Secretary,
Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, by air-mail at PO Box
14155-3834, Tehran, Iran, or by fax to (International 98) 21 641 4650.

 5.2.2.	Teaching for Astronomy Development (TAD)

After evaluating the TAD proposals received in response to the announcement
published in 1995 the Executive Committee selected at its June 1996 meeting
programmes for Vietnam and Central America as the first actions in the TAD

1. Vietnam:  The Vietnamese astronomers and astronomy teachers have been
scientifically out of touch for 30 years.  At a conference September 1 - 14,
1997 we plan to up-date at least one professor from each astronomy-teaching
university and pedagogical college and several of the best current physics
students.  A computer, slide projector, many books and journals have already
been provided.  Saunders Publ. Co. donated 45 textbooks.  Project
coordinator is Prof. N. Q. Rieu, Paris.
2. Central America:  The IAU will support students from five Central
American countries and a faculty member from Spain for an observing course
at the Observatory of the National University of Honduras, Tegucigalpa,
during January 1997.  A photometer has been bought for use on the
European-donated telescope.  Project coordinator is Prof. Armando Arellano
F., Guanajuato, Mexico.

Discussions are proceeding how to help establish academic astronomy
programmes in Sri Lanka and Morocco.

D. Wentzel, Secretary for TAD

5.2.3.	Messages from Commission 46 (Teaching of Astronomy)

Thanks to the help of Dr. Andrew J. Norton, The Open University, UK,
Commission 46 (Teaching of Astronomy) now has a Web site:


Please visit!

John R. Percy
President, Commission 46




5.3.1.	Deadline

*                                                                        *
*   Proposals for IAU Symposia, Colloquia, Regional Meetings, and        * 
*   co-sponsored meetings planned for 1998 (and beyond) should reach     *     
*   the Assistant General Secretary                                      *
*                     no later than May 15, 1997                         *

in order to be considered at the 1997 Executive Committee meeting.
Proposals should be complete, with all supporting documents,
at that time (cf. the Rules for IAU Scientific Meetings).

5.3.2.	Future IAU Symposia

January 13 - 17, 1997, Sydney, Australia

Scientific Organising Committee: J. Andersen (Denmark), Y. Balega (Russia),
B. Barbuy (Brazil), M. Bessell (Australia), C. Chiosi (Italy), J.
Christensen-Dalsgaard (Denmark), J. Davis (Australia; Chair), R. P.
Kudritzki (Germany), D.L. Lambert (U.S.A.), M. Spite (France), D.A.
VandenBerg (Canada)

Principal Topics:
 Stellar Distances 
 Stellar Masses, Angular Diameters and Radii 
 Flux Distributions, Effective Temperature Scales 
 Stellar Atmospheres, Chemical Abundances 
 Stellar Oscillations  
 Stellar Models versus Observed Stars  
 Stellar Interiors and Advanced Evolutionary Stages 
 Stellar Chemical Evolution 
 Stars as Indicators of Ages in the Universe 
Chairperson, Local Organising Committee: A. Booth

Contact address:  Dr. A.J. Booth, Astronomy Department, School of Physics,
A28,University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Phone:	61-2 9351 7726
Fax:	61-2 9351 3849
E-mail:	fsp97@physics.usyd.edu.au
WWW: 	http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/astron/

January 20 - 26, 1997, Chamonix, France.

See IB 76, p. 16.

August 18 - 22, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 9.

August 18 - 22, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 11.

August 18 - 22, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 13.

August 26 - 30, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 15.

August 26 - 30, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 18.
Symposium 188  THE HOT UNIVERSE
August 26 - 30, 1997, Kyoto, Japan

See IB 78, p. 20.

5.3.3.	Future IAU Colloquia

April 21 - 26, 1997, Socorro, NM, USA.

See IB 76, p. 19, and IB 77, p. 33.

April 21 - 25, 1997, Garching, Germany

Scientific Organising Committee: F. Boulanger (France), D. Breitschwerdt
(Germany), P. Frisch (USA), U. Mebold (Germany), J. Lequeux (France), C.
McKee (USA), Y. Tanaka (Japan), J. Trümper (Germany; Chair), J. Vallerga (USA)

Principal Topics:
 Observations of the Local Bubble
	Soft X-rays and EUV
	UV and optical line measurements
	IR, mm and radio
 Origin and Evolution of the Local Bubble
	Distribution of hot and cold matter
	Magnetic field structure
	Shock waves and energetic particles
	Plasma emission models
	Dynamical evolution
 The Local Bubble Environment
	Boundary of the Local Bubble
	Evolution of superbubbles
	Local vs. general ISM
	Galactic halo(s)

Chairperson, Local Organising Committee: D. Breitschwerdt

Contact address: Dr. D. Breitschwerdt, Max-Planck-Institut für
Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D - 85740 Garching, Germany
Phone:	49 89 3299 3321
Fax:	49 89 3299 3569
E-mail:	breitsch@rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de
WWW:	http://ftp.rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de/local-bubble/

April 28 - May 4, 1997, Aussois, France

Scientific Organising Committee: E. Cliver (USA), O. Engvold (Norway), V.
Gaizauskas (Canada), I. Kim (Russia), Z. Mouradian (France), G. Peres
(Italy), D.M. Rust (USA; Co-chair), T. Sakurai (Japan), B. Schmieder
(France; Co-chair), R. Schwenn (Germany), Wang J.-X. (China)

Principal Topics:
 Filaments and their Environment
	Thermal and magnetic aspects
	Theory and observations from X-ray to radio and optical wavelengths
 Birth and Death of Filaments
	Origin of filament mass and magnetic field
	Eruption of filaments
 Global Patterns of Filaments
	Magnetic helicity and filaments

Chairperson, Local Organising Committee: B. Schmieder

Contact address: Dr. D.M. Rust, The Johns Hopkins University, Applied
Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723, USA
Phone:	1 301 953 5414
Fax:	1 301 953 6670
E-mail:	david.rust@jhuapl.edu
WWW:	http://www.in2pr3.fr/~drevon/CPL.html

 5.3.4.	Past IAU Regional Astronomy Meeting

Report on the VIIth Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting of the IAU

The 7th Asian-Pacific IAU Regional Meeting of the IAU was held at the
Conference Halls of Pusan National University, Korea, during August 19-23,
1996. This meeting was one of the most important events commemorating the
50th anniversary of the Pusan National University.  About 300 people (160
from 26 foreign countries and 140 from Korea) participated in the meeting.
The Korean Astronomical Society contributed greatly to the organization of
the meeting, in collaboration with the SOC and LOC.

There were 24 regular sessions of 1/2 hour duration and a 1 hour summary
session. There were 44 invited talks and over 180 contributed papers (47
were oral papers). The scientific program covered entire area of astronomy
and astrophysics, ranging from Solar System to Cosmology.  There were also
two sessions on Astronomical History and Education. 

Several satellite meetings were held concurrently with main sessions. These
included a Radio Frequency Allocation Committee Meeting for the
Asian-Pacific Region, a Space Schmidt Telescope Project Discussion Meeting,
a meeting on Large-Scale Facilities in the Future, a Workshop for School
Teachers, and a Star Party for the General Public. The Space Schmidt
Telescope Discussion Group proposed a resolution for the promotion of an
all-sky survey in the UV frequency range with a Space Schmidt telescope.
This resolution was discussed at the final session of the meeting and
adopted unanimously by the participants. 

The papers presented at the meeting will be published in a supplementary
issue of the Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society. 

Hyung Mok Lee
Chairperson of the SOC


January 7 - 10, 1997, Padova, Italy.
Contact address: C. Barbieri, Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of Padova, Vicolo
dell'Osservatorio 5, I 35122 Padova, Italy.
Tel:	39 49 875 4343
Fax:	39 49 875 4345
E-mail: 	barbieri@astrpd.pd.astro.it

January 13 - 17, 1997, Sydney, Australia.
Contact address:  Andrew Booth, Chatterton Astronomy Dpt, School of Physics,
University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
Tel:	61 2 351 3849
Fax:	61 2 660 2903
E-mail:	booth@physics.usyd.edu.au

The Fifth CTIO/ESO Workshop SN 1987A: TEN YEARS AFTER
February 22 - 28, 1997, La Serena, Chile.
Contact address:  M.M Phillips or N.B. Suntzeff, CTIO, Casilla 603, La
Serena, Chile.
Tel:	56 51 225 415
Fax:	56 51 205 212
E-mail:	mphillips@noao.edu or nsuntzeff@noao.edu
WWW:	HTTP://www.ctio.noao.edu/SN1987A_conf.html

April 21 - 25, 1997, Garching, Germany.
Contact address: D. Breitschwerdt, Max-Planck-Institut für
Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1603, D 85740 Garching bei München, Germany.
Tel:	49 89 3299 3317
Fax:	49 89 3299 3569
E-mail: 	breitsch@rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de
April 27 - 30, 1997, Williamsburg, VA, USA.
Contact address: James Kurfess, Naval Research Lab., Code 4150, 4555
Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320, USA.
Tel:	1 202 767 3182
Fax:	1 202 767 6473
E-mail: 	kurfess@osse.nrl.navy.mil

April 28 - May 4, 1997, Aussois, France.
Contact address: D.M. Rust, The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics
Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723, USA.
Tel:	1 301 953 5414
Fax:	1 301 953 6670
E-mail: 	david.rust@jhuapl.edu

June 16 - 20, 1997, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
Contact address: Joyce A. Guzik, Los Alamos National Laboratory, X 2 MS
B220, Los Alamos, NM 87545-2345, USA.
Tel:	1 505 667 8927
Fax:	1 505 665 4080
E-mail:	joy@lanl.gov

June 30 - July 2, 1997, Chicago, USA.
Contact address: Annual Meeting ASP, 390 Ashton Ave, San Francisco, CA
94112, USA.
Tel:	1 415 337 1100
Fax:	1 415 337 5205
E-mail:	bally@nebula.Colorado.edu

July 15 - 19, 1997, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Contact address: A.K. Dupree, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street,
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Tel:	1 617 495 7489
Fax:	1 617 495 7049
E-mail: 	adupree@cfa.harvard.edu
August 4 - 14, 1997, Uppsala, Sweden.
Contact address: Wilfried Schröder, Geophysical Station, Hechelstrasse 8, D
28777 Bremen Rönnebeck, Germany

International Conference on VARIABLE STARS, dedicated to the 90th
anniversary of V.P. Tsessevich (1907 - 1983)
September 1 - 5, 1997, Odessa, Ukraine.
Contact address: Prof. V.G. Karetnikov, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa
State University, T.G. Shevchenko Park, Odessa 270014, Ukraine.
Tel:	7 0482 228 442
E-mail:	root@astro.odessa.ua

September 7 - 10, 1997, Sonneberg, Germany.
Contact address:  Constanze la Dous, Sonneberg Observatory,
Sternwartestrasse 32, D 96515 Sonneberg, Germany.
Tel:	49 3675 81210
Fax:	49 3675 81219
E-mail:	aldiii@stw.tu-ilmenau.de

August 26 - 31, 1998, Montpellier, France.
Contact address:  C. Waelkens, Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan
200B, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
Tel:	32 16 20 0656
Fax:	32 16 20 1241
E-mail:	christoffel@ster.kuleuven.ac.be


Special offer from Kluwer Academic Publishers to IAU Members on IAU publications: Members of the IAU receive a discount of 33 1/3% off the price of the hardbound Symposia and Highlights volumes. They may purchase paperback copies of Symposium proceedings at NLG 70.00 per copy and paperback copies of the Highlights at NLG 105.00 per copy. The Transactions may be purchased at NLG 115.00 per copy.


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	Hardback	USD  199.00	GBP 135.00	0-7923-4026-4
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Vol. 84
Eds. J. Chapman, R. Cannon, S. Harrison & B. Hidayat
Hardback	1-886733-05-8, 1995


Vol. 104
Eds. B.O.S. Gustafson & M.S. Hanner
Hardback	1-8886733-24-4


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	Hardback	USD  220.00	GBP 150.00	0-7923-4195-3





During its ninth year of existence, the International Earth Rotation Service
(IERS) organized a review of its activities and missions. External experts
were invited to report on current activities and possible future extensions
of tasks, under the following six topics. 

1. IERS Missions
2. Astronomical reference frames
3. Vertical terrestrial references
4. Monitoring crustal deformations
5. Unification of national geodetic datums
6. Monitoring global geophysical fluids

The reports were discussed at the 1996 IERS Workshop, held at Paris
Observatory, 14-16 October 1996, and attended by about 80 invited
scientists.  The Workshop adopted a number of recommendations. The IERS
Directing Board started to work on their implementation. The major aspects
of the foreseen evolution are as follows.

- Taking over the maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame
(ICRF) based on VLBI-derived directions of extragalactic radio sources, and
of the tie of the Hipparcos galactic reference frame, as will be recommended
by the IAU Working Group on Reference Frames to the 1997 IAU General Assembly.
- Coordinating the use of astronomical observations for tying the Solar
System reference frames to the ICRF.
- Fostering the provision of global vertical terrestrial references and of
global horizontal references for the monitoring crustal deformations, in
close cooperation with the International Association of Geodesy.
- Monitoring the global geophysical fluids that influence the Earth's
rotation, an extension of the current activity on atmospheric data.
- Monitoring the motion of the Earth's centre of gravity. 
 While some extensions of activities in the fields of astronomy, geodesy and
geophysics were recommended, the Workshop also recognised the great success
of IERS in providing timely and accurate data on Earth rotation, and in the
establishment and maintenance of accurate terrestrial and celestial
reference frames.

A detailed report of the Workshop will be published as an IERS Technical
Note in January 1997. Extra copies of the report are available from 

Christoph Reigber
Chairman, Directing Board of IERS
Central Bureau of IERS, Observatoire de Paris 
61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France 
Fax: 33 1 4051 2291. Internet: iers@obspm.fr 


We would like to remind all colleagues that addresses of individual IAU Members can be obtained from the IAU World Wide Web server (URL address: see back cover of this IB).



No positive leap second will be introduced at the end of December 1996.  The
difference between UTC and the International Atomic Time TAI is :

	from 1996 January 1, 0h UTC, until further notice : UTC-TAI = - 30 s

Leap seconds can be introduced in UTC at the end of the months of December
or June, depending on the evolution of UT1-TAI.  Bulletin C mailed every six
months, either to announce a time step in UTC, or to confirm that there will
be no time step at the next possible date.

Martine FEISSEL	
Central Bureau of IERS


Pages [1] to [25] : XXIIIrd General Assembly, Updates

Date: August 18-30, 1997


Kyoto International Conference Hall (KICH)

Takaraga-ike, Sakyo-ku

Kyoto 606



+    This sign indicates:

+ A new item
+ An amended topic
+ More complete iformation

                           HOST ORGANIZATIONS:

Science Council of Japan & Astronomical Society of Japan


Yoshio Fujita, Chairperson (President of the Japan Academy)

Kenji Akabane (Prof. Emeritus, NAO)	Chushiro Hayashi (Prof. Emeritus,Kyoto=
Yoshihide Kozai (Prof. Emeritus, NAO)	Shinya Obi (President, University of
the Air)
Minoru Oda (Prof. Emeritus, ISAS)	Yasuo Tanaka (Prof. Emeritus, ISAS)


Daiichiro Sugimoto, Chairperson (University of Tokyo)

Satoru Ikeuchi (Osaka University)	Toshio Matsumoto (ISAS)
Masato Ishiguro (NAO-NRO)	Yoji Osaki (University of Tokyo)
Norio Kaifu (NAO)	Humitaka Sato (Kyoto University)
Keiichi Kodaira (NAO)	Katsuhiko Sato (University of Tokyo)
Yoshihide Kozai (NAO)	Mine Takeuti (Tohoku University)
Fumiyoshi Makino (ISAS)	Yutaka Uchida (Science University of Tokyo)

Toshio Fukushima, Chairperson (NAO)

Nobuo Arimoto (University of Tokyo)	Kouji Ohta (Kyoto University)
Izumi Hachisu (University of Tokyo)	Sadanori Okamura (University of Tokyo)
Toshihiro Handa (University of Tokyo)	Kozo Sadakane (Osaka Kyoiku=
Tetsuo Hasegawa (University of Tokyo)	Toshikazu Shigeyama (University of=
Shogo Inagaki (Kyoto University)	Yoshinori Suematsu (NAO)
Junji Inatani (NAO-NRO)	Naoshi Sugiyama (Kyoto University)
Hajime Inoue (ISAS)	Shunsaku Suzuki (NAO)
Jun Jugaku (Tokai University)	Tomoharu Suzuki (University of Tokyo)
Takeo Kosugi (NAO-NRO)	Yoshiaki Taniguchi (Tohoku University)
Hideyo Kunieda (Nagoya University)	Hiroshi Tsunemi (Osaka University)
Shin Mineshige (Kyoto University)	Takeshi Tsuru (Kyoto University)
Ken'ichi Nomoto (University of Tokyo)	Munetaka Ueno (University of Tokyo)
Ryusuke Ogasawara (NAO)	Jun-ichi Watanabe (NAO)

	NAO:	National Astronomical Observatory
	NAO-NRO:	Nobeyama Radio Observatory of National Astronomical Observatory
	ISAS:	Institute of Space and Astronautical Science




+	SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME    	            



E-mail information service    	    

Importance advice    	    
+	Visas    	    
+	Getting to Kyoto    	    
Transportation in Japan    	    
+	Transportation in Kyoto city    	    
Weather and clothing    	    
+	Consumer's Tax    	    

Financial support to attend the General Assembly    	    
IAU Grants    	    
+	LOC Grants    	   
How to register    	   

+	Japan Travel Bureau    	   
List of Hotels & Hotel Accommodation    	   
Social & Cultural Events    	   
Programme for accompanying persons & optional tours    	   

Low price accommodations    	   
Sharing hotel rooms in Kyoto    	   
Daily life - Low price food    	   

Venue of the General Assembly    	   
Registration desk & general information    	   
Travel desk    	   
+	Banking & currency exchange facilities    	   
Mail boxes    	   
+	Mail, phone, facsimile & electronic mail    	   
Daily newspaper    	   
Coffee & tea breaks    	   
Lunch facilities    	   
Medical Aid    	   
Child care    	   
+	Exhibitions    	   


Selection of posters & publication of poster abstracts    	   
Preparation of abstracts    	   



FIGURE 1:  Connection Map to/from Airports   	          see IB 78
FIGURE 1:  Connection Map to/from Seaports   	          see IB 78
FIGURE 3:  Guide Map of Kyoto City and Hotel Locations    see IB 78

REGISTRATION FORM                                         see IB 78                            
APPLICATION FORM FOR AN IAU GRANT     	                  see IB 78             
+	APPLICATION FORM FOR A LOC GRANT         please contact LOC  	   
                                                  (address see below)



The twenty-third General Assembly of the IAU will take place in Kyoto, Japan
from August 18 to 30, 1997.  An extensive and attractive programme of six
Symposia, twenty-six Joint Discussions and Special Sessions, as well as
three Invited Discourses, on essentially all topics of contemporary
Astronomy should have a widespread scientific appeal.  The total programme
contains some seventy days worth of programmed activities, so attendees will
have many difficult choices to make.  As a result, whether your interest is
the sun or the planets, stellar or interstellar, galactic or extra, there is
something for everyone

Perhaps even more important the General Assembly will give Astronomers from
around the world an opportunity to meet to discuss common interests, to
organise co-operative ventures or just to renew old friendships.  All of
this will be much facilitated by an excellent social programme organised by
our Japanese hosts.

Astronomers who are not IAU Members will be very welcome to attend by
invitation.  An invitation may be extended by the relevant National
Committee for the IAU or in special circumstances by the President through
the IAU Secretariat in Paris.  Participants of the General Assembly Symposia
and Joint Discussions may be invited by the corresponding Scientific
Organising Committee Chairperson.

It is sometimes thought that the General Assembly is primarily an
organisational or even bureaucratic meeting.  Nothing is further from
reality.  It is true that some Commissions will have to deal with
organisational questions.  It is after all important that we all agree on
the definition of Universal Time or on the names of geographical features on
the planets.  Also the General Assembly provides a much needed opportunity
to set up collaborations in science or instrumentation.  But the
overwhelming part of the time is devoted to the presentation and discussion
of new scientific results.

I am looking forward to meeting many of you in Kyoto.

Lo Woltjer




Submission of poster abstracts	February 15, 1997
IAU Grant applications	February 15, 1997
LOC Grant applications	February 15, 1997
Early registration	April 30, 1997
Hotel/Tour reservation	June 30, 1997
Registration by Mail/Facsimile/E-mail/WWW	July 15, 1997


For inquiries concerning the XXIIIrd General Assembly in general and the
Scientific Programme, please contact:

Prof. Immo Appenzeller, General Secretary	Telephone:  33 1 43 25 8358
International Astronomical Union (IAU)	Facsimile:  33 1 43 25 2616
98 bis, bd Arago, F 75014 Paris, France	E-mail:  iau@iap.fr

For all inquiries concerning registration and local arrangements in Kyoto
except hotel/tour reservations, please contact:

Prof. T. Fukushima, Chair	Telephone:  81 422 34 3027
Local Organizing Committee, 	Facsimile:  81 422 34 3027
the XXIIIrd General Assembly of the IAU	E-mail:  iau97@tenmon.or.jp
National Astronomical Observatory
2-21-1, Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181, Japan

+	For all inquiries concerning hotel/tour reservations in Kyoto, please

Japan Travel Bureau, Inc.	Telephone:  81 3 5620 9429
International Travel Division	Facsimile:  81 3 5620 9499
Convention Center (CD100993-543)	+   E-mail:  jtbiau@mxd.meshnet.or.jp
5-5-2, Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo135, Japan



The Preliminary Programme of the XXIIIrd General Assembly has been published
in the Information Bulletin No. 78 (Special Issue).  The final programme
will be available at the Registration Desk in Kyoto.  Since the publication
of IB 78 our Secretariate has received updates concerning the programmes of
Symposium No. 187 and of Joint Discussion No. 24.  These updates have been
implemented in the WWW version of IB 78 (which will remain available through
the WWW homepage under "Previous issues of the Information Bulletin" and
which will be updated at regular intervals, if needed.  Members who have not
access to the WWW can get information on the changes concerning Symposium
187 and Joint Discussion 24 directly from the contact addresses listed in IB=


Please note that the contact address for Joint Discussion No. 15 has changed=

Dr. R. Spurzem	Phone:  49 6221 405 230 (Office)
Astronomisches Rechen-Institut	49 6221 405 0 (Switchboard)
Moenchhofstrasse 12-14	Email:  spurzem@relay.ari.uni-heidelberg.de
D-69120 Heidelberg
WWW: http://www.astrophysik.uni-kiel.de/pershome/supas028/iau.html


Please note that the meeting of the Working Group:  Encouraging the
International Development of Antarctic Astronomy, initially scheduled
Wednesday August 27th, has been put forward to Friday August 22nd, 14:00 to
17:30, room J.


Various Symposium and Joint Discussion No. 3 and 19 SOCs have informed us
that they will accept poster papers or other contributions.  Anybody
interested in presenting a poster at one of the General Assembly scientific
events should submit an abstract to the corresponding contact address (see
IB 78) before February 15, 1997.



In order to ease the comprehension of the following, the signification of
the acronyms quoted and the Japanese words (transcribed in Roman characters)
which are printed in italics, are given at the end of this leaflet.  This
list also gives the phonetics of these transcribed words.

The next issue of the Information Bulletin will comprise Chinese characters



We provide the latest information by way of the World-Wide Web (WWW) through
the Astronomical Society of Japan.  
The URL of the LOC WWW page  is:


From this page, you can also visit other servers providing useful
information about Kyoto and Japan.  Note that tenmon means astronomy in
Japanese.  Registration and reservation for accommodation and tours are also
possible through the WWW which is frequently up-dated.


We provide the latest information also by e-mail.  Information is itemized
as General Information, Registration, Accommodation, Forms, LaTeX Template,
etc.  Each request is automatically sent back a reply to anyone who sent an
e-mail with a specific digit code in its Subject field to the following
address (no mail body is necessary):


The detailed usage of this service is obtained by sending any (blank) e-mail
with "help" in its Subject field.  The released information is frequently



The week around August 15 is one of the busiest tourist periods in Japan. A
lot of Japanese are travelling in Japan and abroad. On the weekend of August
16 and 17 most people will be travelling back home.  Therefore, it is
strongly advised to reserve seats on international flights well in advance.


As of November1996, no visa is required for short-stay visitors to Japan
from the following countries:  Argentine, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados,
Belgium, Brunei (within 14 days), Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands,
New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain,
Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United
States of America, Uruguay.  The length of stay allowed without a visa is
limited to three or six months for these countries, with the exception of
Brunei (14 days).  As visa regulations may change, we recommend prospective
participants from these countries to check at the nearest Consular Office or
Embassy of Japan that no visa is required.

Those from other countries and regions are requested to contact the nearest
Consular Office or Embassy of Japan at least THREE MONTHS IN ADVANCE of
their trip.  The Local Organizing Committee will make any possible efforts
to assist participants in obtaining visas when necessary.  In some cases,
documents prepared by the LOC will be required by the Consular Offices in
visa applications.  Note that the documents from the LOC only prove the
purpose of your visit to Japan and do not guarantee any financial support.

If you need assistance, please contact the LOC by providing the following

1.	full name and home address	5.	date of issue and passport number
	of the visa applicant	6.	date and place (and preferably number
2.	date and place of birth		of visa application)
3.	citizenship	7.	trip schedule
4.	affiliation and office address	8.	facsimile number and/or E-mail address



There are two major international airports in Japan:  Kansai International
Airport (KIX), close to Kyoto and New Tokyo International Airport (Narita:
NRT), close to Tokyo.

Kansai International Airport (KIX)

How to get from KIX airport to Kyoto? Train is highly recommended.  There
are three possibilities to get to Kyoto.

-	Although there are several train services from Kansai International
Airport to Kyoto, we strongly recommend to use the limited express Haruka
because it is the only direct service to Kyoto.  Its fare, including the
supplemental charge, is 3,500 Yen.  It takes 75 minutes from Kansaikuko
station (JR) in Kansai International Airport to Kyoto station.  As of
November 1996, the service hours of Haruka from/to the airports are as

From	To	Service Hours	Typical Interval
KIX	Kyoto	6:29 - 22:18	30 min
Kyoto	KIX	5:31 - 20:16	30 min

-	A more economical way to get to Kyoto station is to use one of the two JR
rapid trains (these trains show the pictogram of an airplane) from the
Kansaikuko train station (JR) in Kansai International Airport, although
there is a change at the Osaka station, i.e.

either the rapid train Kanku-Kaisoku to Osaka or Kyobashi

or the special rapid train Kanku-Tokkai Wing, in the direction of Kyobashi.
In both cases, check that you get on the right wagon (for Kyobashi) as some
of the wagons of this train go to JR Namba.  Do NOT take a train for=

	At Osaka station you should change to the new rapid trains Shin-Kaisoku of
JR Kyoto line in the direction of Kusatsu, Maibara, Nagahama, Omi-shiozu, or
Yasu.  The blue Shin-Kaisoku logo with black background appears at a small
window on the wagon side but only in Chinese characters (Kanji).  The trains
stop at track number 8 or 9 at Osaka Station.

	The fare of this route is 1,800 Yen and it is a 2 hour ride in total.  The
tickets for the Kyoto train station can be bought at the Kansaikuko station

-	The least expensive way to travel from Kansai International Airport to
Kyoto is by combination of 3 railways, namely Nankai, Osaka-subway, and
Hankyu to Karasuma station in Kyoto.  Although we do not recommend this last
solution, as it is a rather complicated one, should you decide to reach
Kyoto following this particular way, please ask the information service desk
at Kansai International Airport for details.  The fare of this route is
1,490 Yen and it takes 2 hours in total.  Tickets for Karasuma (Hankyu Kyoto
line) can be bought at the Kansaikuko station (Nankai).

New Tokyo International Airport (Narita:NRT), close to Tokyo.

How to get from NRT airport to Tokyo? Here again, train is highly
recommended.  There are two possibilities to get to Tokyo train station:

-	The Narita express trains for Shinjuku, Yokohama, Ikebukuro, and Ofuna
which all stop in Tokyo train station are the most convenient.  Its fare,
including the supplemental charge is 2,900 Yen.  It takes 60 minutes from
Naritakuko station (JR) in NRT to Tokyo Station.  As of November 1996, the
service hours of Narita express from/to the airport are as follows:

From	To	Service Hours	Typical Interval
NRT	Tokyo	7:43 - 21:43	30 or 60 min
Tokyo	NRT	6:30 - 20:03	30 or 60 min

-	A more economical way to get to Tokyo is to use JR rapid trains with the
sign Airport Narita.  The fare of this route is 1,260 Yen and it takes about
90 minutes.

Fare and travelling time are shown in Figure 1:  Connection Map to/from
Airports.  The latest schedules are available through the WWW.

All trains are through Tokyo station and you can take Shinkansen trains
there to reach Kyoto (see Transportation in Japan below).


Some regular ship services are available to Japan from Russia, China, and=

Port (Country)	Port in Japan
Vladivostok (Russia)	Niigata, Fushiki
Shanghai (China)	Osaka, Kobe, Nagasaki
Tsingtao (China)	Shimonoseki
Tientsin (China)	Kobe
Pusan (Korea)	Hakata, Shimonoseki
Nota:  From Taiwan no direct access is available to Japan main islands.

From the ports to Kyoto, trains are highly recommended (See also 
Transportation in Japan below).  Fare and travelling time are given in
Figure 2  (Connection Map to/from Seaports) in IB 78.



Regular domestic flights are available to all major cities in Japan.  As
regards transportation from Narita Airport (NRT, Tokyo) to Kansai
International Airport (KIX, Osaka), and as only four flights are available
per day, we recommend the train (See following).

Flights from Tokyo Airport (Haneda) to Osaka Airport (Itami) take 60 min and
cost 15,600 Yen.  Air travel on this route is recommended only when its fare
is included in the fare of your international flight, since there are more
frequent Shinkansen trains than planes and since access to these airports is
rather complicated.


Train is the most convenient public form of transport in Japan.  Most trains
are monoclass ones although some of them have higher class cars named green
cars, for which a supplement is charged.

Major cities in Japan are connected by a railway network operated by Japan
Railway (JR) companies, which includes Shinkansen (Bullet trains),
connecting big cities like Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka.  There are more than 5
services per hour between Tokyo and Kyoto, Osaka (Shin-osaka station) from
6:00 to 21:18.  A non-limited mileage pass called JR pass can be purchased
in advance outside of Japan.  Please contact your nearest travel agent for

Some smaller railway companies operate lines connecting major sightseeing
spots and cities.  Hankyu and Keihan operate between Kyoto and Osaka,
Kintetsu between Kyoto, Osaka and Nara, Nankai between Kansai International
Airport (KIX) and Osaka.  More information will appear on the WWW home page
of the LOC.


Driving is on the left-hand side.  We discourage driving a car, because of
heavy traffic jams and parking problems.  However, should you decide to
drive a car, an international driving license is required.  We also strongly
recommend to take out an unlimited liability insurance.


In order to reduce your expenses the usage the bus of and subway services is
recommended.  The bus network covers the whole city.  Several independent
companies/authorities operate buses, subways and railways in a single city
area.  Their fares are usually paid separately.


Single ride

The bus fare in the central zone of Kyoto costs 220 Yen per ride. Kyoto
International Conference Hall (KICH) is located at the north edge of this
central zone.  No single fare tickets exist, the fare being paid with coins.

 One day tickets

One day tickets for Shi bus in the central zone cost 700 Yen and can be
bought at any subway station and at a Shi bus ticket office in Kyoto station
of JR line.

Multifare tickets (Kaisuken) are useful for bus usage.

The 5 fare tickets, 15.5 fare tickets and 26 fare tickets cost 1,000 Yen,
3,000 Yen, and 5,000 Yen, respectively (0.5 fare means that you can get one
ride if you add 110 Yen in coins).  The multi-ride tickets are acceptable
for all buses covering Kyoto city operated by the following 6
companies/authority, those are Shi bus, Keihan bus, Kyoto bus, Kyoto Kotsu,
Hankyu bus and JR bus.  The multi-ride tickets can be shared with several

All the buses are operated by a driver only and you are requested to get on
from the rear door and get off from the front door at a bus stop.  Your
request to stop at the next bus stop is noticed by a push button buzzer at
the window pillar.  When getting off, you should pay the fare by dropping
coins or a single fare part of multi-fare tickets into a fare box beside the
bus driver, or by showing a one-day or two-day ticket.  Note that some bus
routes extend up to the suburbs beyond the central 220 Yen zone.  For such
buses you should take a code tag called Se-i-riken from a small box close to
the entrance of the bus.  The fare depends on your mileage and the
automatically scrolling fare table near the exit shows your fare to the next
stop in terms of the tag code.  Your code tag must be dropped in the box
together with your fare.  The multi-fare tickets are accepted for this case
but need additional coins.

Major bus routes to Kyoto International Conference Hall are presented in
Figure 3 of IB 78 but they may change between now and the date of the General
Assembly.  The latest bus routes connecting to Kyoto International
Conference Hall will be shown in the LOC WWW page.


A subway line across the city in the north-south direction is available. Its
service hours are 5:30 to 23:00 and the frequency is four to seven minutes.
The subway is scheduled to be extended up to Kyoto International Conference
Hall (KICH) by June 1997 and the closest station will then be
Kokusai-Kaikan, which means international conference hall in Japanese, just
in front of Kyoto International Conference Hall.  The fare is between 200
Yen and 290 Yen depending on the distance.  One-day and two-day tickets are
also available.

Combined bus/subway tickets

Discount tickets are available for a connected ride of Subway and Shi bus
(the city bus, operated by Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau)

One day and two day tickets for Shi bus, Kyoto bus & subway in the central
zone & suburb are 1,200 Yen and 2,000 Yen per person, respectively, and can
be bought at subway stations and any Shi bus ticket office in the Kyoto
train station.


The network of the subway and other railways in Kyoto city are shown in
Figure 3 of IB 78  (Guide Map of Kyoto City and Hotel Location).

Note that not all stations are presented in the map.


Taxis are also available, but they are much more expensive than other means
of transportation, approximately ten times of the corresponding subway
and/or bus fare.  It costs roughly 630 Yen for the first 2 km and 320 Yen/km
for additional distance, for example 3,000 Yen from Kyoto station to Kyoto
International Conference Hall.


Kyoto is usually hot and humid in August.  The average temperatures in
August are 24 C (75 F) and 33 C (91 F).  The average humidity is=
 69%.  Rain
showers are frequent in the evening.  Light and casual clothing is
appropriate.  Kyoto International Conference Hall and all major hotels,
buildings, trains, and buses are air-conditioned.  A light sweater or
cardigan can be useful there.


The voltage in Japan is 100 V AC.  The frequency is 60 Hz in the western
half of Japan including Kyoto and Osaka.  In the eastern half including
Tokyo, it is 50 Hz.  The plugs are of the flat pin type and are similar, but
not identical, to those used in the US, the difference being that both
blades are the size of the narrower one of US type blades.


At some stores the displayed price does not include the consumer's tax
(Shohizei), which is 3 % at present but is expected to be raised to 5 % by
the time of the General Assembly. Be aware of this when paying.



Attendance at the XXIIIrd General Assembly is open to all members of the IAU
and to non members invited by the IAU.  Invitations can be provided by the
Adhering Organizations/National Committees for the IAU, the Scientific
Organization Committees of the Symposia and Joint Discussions or, if
necessary, by the President of the Union through the IAU Secretariat. Please
note that an invitation to attend the General Assembly does not imply any
financial commitment towards the participant by the IAU or the Local
Organizing Committee.

Each participant (IAU member or invited participant) may register one adult
and/or child(ren) as guest(s).  Registered guests cannot attend the
scientific meetings (except for the Invited Discourses), but otherwise
enjoys the same privileges as participants.



A limited number of IAU travel grants to attend the XXIIIrd General Assembly
will be available for participants who cannot obtain necessary travel funds
from national sources.  Those who plan to contribute actively to one of the
Symposia should send their grant application to the corresponding Symposium
Scientific Organizing Committee.  Colleagues who plan to participate
actively in Joint Discussions, Special Sessions, Divisions, Commissions, and
Working Groups are requested to send their grant application to the General
Secretary.  The deadline for grant applications is in both cases February
15, 1997.  For grant applications the white form attached at the center of
this issue has to be used.


Thanks to donations from companies in Japan and individuals, including
astronomers, the LOC is pleased to be in a position to offer a limited
amount of travel grants called LOC Grant. 

The LOC Grants will support the expenses covering one week stay in cheap
lodgings (youth hostel class) and the registration fee of the General
Assembly.  A few of them will cover the fare to/from Japan.  The deadline
for applying is February 15, 1997, the same as that of the IAU Grants.  The
LOC Grants support young participants and those encountering difficulties
with hard currencies.  You may apply to both the IAU and the LOC Grants,
although any applicant who obtains an IAU Grant cannot receive a LOC Grant.
The green application form for the LOC Grant is attached as central page of
this issue or is available through our WWW/E-mail (see the section on WWW
and E-mail Information Service above).  Please complete this green form and
send it to the following address:

The LOC Grant Committee	Facsimile:  81 422 34 3027
c/o LOC of IAU 23rd General Assembly
National Astronomical Observatory
2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181, Japan 


Participants should complete the (blue) Registration Form attached in this
issue and return it to the LOC no later than July 15, 1997. Note that the
return addresses are different between blue and yellow forms.  We accept
forms sent by regular mail, facsimile, and e-mail and registration through
our WWW registration page: 
LOC WWW page.  After that date,
advance registrations by mail/facsimile/e-mail/WWW are no longer accepted.
However late registration will still be possible upon arrival in Kyoto at
the Registration Desk in the conference hall until August 29.

Each person attending any portion of the XXIIIrd General Assembly or the
associated symposia must register and pay the appropriate fee, as shown=

Registration & payment received	before April 30, 1997	May 1 or later
IAU Member	        Yen 30,000	                   Yen 35,000
Invited Participant *	Yen 30,000	                   Yen 35,000 
Registered Guest**	Yen 10,000	                   Yen 15,000
Child(ren) less than 12 y  Free	                              Free

	* 	invited by the IAU, Adhering Organizations or National Committee or =
	** 	must be registered on the same form as the IAU member or the invited
	*** 	must be registered on the same form as the IAU member or the invited
participant; For most of the tours, children aged 6 and under do not pay and
children aged 6 to 11 get about 20-50 % discount.

Applications should be accompanied by a remittance covering the registration
fee. No registration will be confirmed in the absence of this payment.
Personal checks are NOT accepted. All payments must be in Japanese Yen.
Payment should be in one of the following forms (in the case of E-mail/WWW
registration, only credit cards may be used):

- A bank draft payable at a Japanese bank (Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi,
preferably) to the order of "Dai 23 Kai Kokusai-Tenmongaku-Rengo Soukai
Soshiki-Iinkai Kaikei Arimoto Nobuo"
- A bank transfer to "Dai 23 Kai Kokusai-Tenmongaku-Rengo Soukai
Soshiki-Iinkai Kaikei Arimoto Nobuo", account at the Bank of Tokyo
Mitsubishi, Musashi-Sakai Branch (Branch 221) 2-2-3, Kyohnan, Musashino,
Tokyo 180, Japan, (Account 0837975).
- Credit cards:  VISA, MasterCard, and AMEX 


Registrations will be confirmed via e-mail/facsimile/mail by the LOC within
two weeks after receipt of the registration form and payment.  If any
confirmation does not arrive six weeks after you sent it, please contact the
LOC by e-mail/facsimile.

Cancellation & Refunds

For notices sent before June 15, 1997 (postmark date), a charge of transfer
of 2,000 Yen or so will be deducted before refunding. For late notices sent
before August 1, 1997 (postmark date), the half of payment will be refund.
Regrettably, no refund requests will be accepted after that date.

also: How to reduce your travel expenses?)


Reservations for accommodation and most tours are under the responsibility
of the Japan Travel Bureau (JTB), which has been appointed as the official
travel agent for the General Assembly:

Japan Travel Bureau, Inc.	Telephone:  81 3 5620 9429
International Travel Division	Facsimile:  81 3 5620 9499
Convention Center (CD100993-543)	+  E-mail:  jtbiau@mxd.meshnet.or.jp
5-5-2, Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo135, Japan

JTB will accept reservation requests during the period November 1, 1996 to
June 30, 1997. Forms for accommodation and tours, whose E-mail version are
available through the WWW and automatic E-mail service, may be sent to this
address.  Please contact JTB for any query on these two subjects.
Unfortunately, the LOC cannot answer any requests concerning these matters,
which are exclusively handled by JTB.


If you want to enjoy a traditional Japanese style hotels, please see Low
Price Accommodations below, although NEITHER LOC NOR JTB will arrange them
for you.



All participants and their registered guests are welcome to attend the
social and cultural events. No formal dress is required at any events of the
General Assembly.  We request participants to wear their badge at all
events.  Further to the badge, a ticket is required for the Japanese Music
Concert.  Some of these events are handled by the LOC, the others by the
Japanese Travel Bureau.  Please use the appropriate form as indicated.

 Reception, Monday August 18, evening	Free of charge

All participants and registered guests are welcome to the reception to be
held on the evening of August 18 (Monday).  Please tick the corresponding
box of the (blue) Registration Form.

Welcome Brass Concert, Wednesday August 20, evening	Free of charge

Following the first General Assembly meeting, a brass concert will be held
in the evening of August 20 (Wednesday) at Kyoto International Conference
Hall.  Please tick the corresponding box of the (blue) Registration Form.

Japanese Music Concert, Monday August 25, evening	Adults: 1,500 Yen
Children (Age 11 and under) 800 Yen

An evening Japanese music concert will be performed at a hall kindly offered
by the Kyoto School of Computer Sciences near Kyoto Station.  The programme
will contain two parts. A team of "Taiko" (Japanese traditional drums)
players will show their skills. Exhibitions of "Kyogen" (Japanese classical
comic plays) are also planned. Please tick the corresponding box of the
(blue) Registration Form in this issue.  Seats will be reserved on a first
received first served basis.  Please note that only 500 seats can be

Banquet, Wednesday August 27, evening	Free of charge

All participants and registered guests are welcome to the banquet to be held
on the evening of August 27 (Wednesday).  Please tick the corresponding box
of the (blue) Registration Form.

Recreational Tour to Nara, Sunday August 24, all day	Free Transportation

The LOC arranges a Sunday tour in Nara on August 24.  Some Japanese
astronomers will accompany this tour.  Nara was the imperial capital of
Japan in the 8-th century.  There are many famous old temples and shrines in
Nara.  Free transportation by train between Kyoto and Nara (a round trip) is
provided by the LOC.  After arriving at Nara, you are free to visit the
places you are interested in. Admissions, lunch and bus or taxi fees are to
be paid individually.  A detailed guide map will be provided.  Please tick
the corresponding box of the (blue) Registration Form.

ST-1 Science Tour to the Nobeyama Radio Observatory
Saturday August 23 & Sunday August 24 	Adults: 12,000 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  6,000 Yen
Accommodation (4 up to 7 persons in a room) is included in this price

A visit to the Nobeyama Radio Observatory is planned from August 23
(Saturday) to August 24 (Sunday).  The observatory belongs to the National
Astronomical Observatory and is located in Nagano Prefecture.  The Nobeyama
45 meter radio telescope, the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (interferometer with
six 10 meter dishes), and the Radio Heliograph are in operation.  The tour
is planned to leave Kyoto in the morning by bus.  We go through expressways
and arrive at the observatory after lunch.  After a few hours of science
visits, participants can enjoy an outdoor walking in cool atmosphere of
highland and an evening beer party.  Accommodations are booked near the
observatory.  They are of the type of youth hostels, a room being shared by
4-7 persons.  The tour leaves Nobeyama next morning and comes back to Kyoto
in the evening of August 24.

You can get more information on the observatory itself through the WWW.  Its
URL is:


The fare of tour includes two lunches, one breakfast as well as
accommodation.  Participants to the Nobeyama tour do not need to keep their
hotel room(s) in Kyoto on August 23 (but please wait for confirmation of the
trip before canceling your reservation for that night).  Minimum:  30
persons, maximum:  90 persons.  Please register using the (yellow)
Application Form.


Walking Tours in Kyoto, August 21, 22, 25 & 26, half day	Individual payment

Half day walking visits in various spots (temples, shrines, gardens, museums
and shopping centers) in Kyoto are planned for accompanying persons on
August 21, 22, 25, and 26.  Japanese volunteers will post relevant
information on these wlaking tours in the entrance hall of Kyoto
International Conference Hall.  Admissions and transportation (bus, subway,
and taxi) fees are to be paid individually. No pre-registration for these
tours is required.

Optional Tours

The following tours are handled by the Japanese Travel Bureau.  Please use
the (yellow) Application Form to register.

OP-1 Kyoto morning, Daily 8:55 - around 12:40	Adults:  5,000 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  4,000 Yen

Tour visits Nijo Castle, once used as the Tokugawa Shogun's accommodations;
Golden Pavilion, a gilded structure, originally an Ashikaga Shogun's villa;
Kyoto Imperial Palace, a former residence of Emperors (on Sat. and Sun.:
visit Higashi Honganji Temple instead);  and Kyoto Handicraft Center to
watch demonstrations by skilled craftspersons.  Tour disbands on arrival at
Kyoto Handicraft Center.  Sending services to major hotels in Kyoto are
offered by the Handicraft Center.

OP-2 Kyoto 1 Day, Daily 8:55 - around 17:30	Adults:  10,800 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  8,700 Yen

The same as OP-1 for the morning. Lunch at Kyoto Handicraft Center.  Tour
visits Vermilion Heian Shrine, a magnificent structure strongly influenced
by Chinese architecture; Sanjusangendo Hall and its 1,001 impressive statues
of Buddha; and Kiyomizu Temple to enjoy a sweeping view of the city from its
lofty terrace.

OP-3 Nara afternoon, Daily 13:40 - around 18:40	Adults:  5,900 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  4,900 Yen

Tour visits Todaiji Temple, the world's largest wooden building that houses
the 50-feet-high Great Buddha; Peaceful Deer Park, where many tame deer roam
the grounds; Vermilion-hued Kasuga Shrine,with its thousands of lanterns.
Countryside drive, an informative junket to Nara and return.

OP-4 Kyoto & Nara 1 Day, Daily 8:55 - around 18:40	Adults: 11,700 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  9,400 Yen

The same as OP-1 for the morning. Lunch at Kyoto Handicraft Center.  The
same as OP-3 for the afternoon.

OP-5 Rapid Shooting, Daily 13:40 - around 18:00	Adults:  9,800 Yen
Children (Age 6-11):  8,500 Yen

Transfer to JR Kyoto Station and boarding a local train for Kameoka.  Then,
an exciting eight-mile, ninety-minute trip downstream, shooting the Hozu
Rapids aboard a flat-bottomed boat from Kameoka to scenic Arashiyama.
Return by local train to Kyoto.  Non-reserved seats on local trains.  This
tour will not operate if the total number of participants does not reach 2.

OP-6 Special Night
Tuesday, Thursday & Saturday, 18:40 - around 22:00	10,000 Yen

Being a guest at Tea Ceremony in the Japanese inn "Yoshiima".  Supper at the
Japanese inn "Yoshiima".  Enjoy various kinds of Japanese traditional arts
at Gion Corner.

This tour will not operate if the total number of participants does not reach 2.

Tour Conditions

Tour fare include (1) Sightseeing and transfers as shown in the itineraries,
by motorcoach and/or sightseeing boats on a seat-sharing basis, plus
admission fees to temples, shrines, etc.;  (2) Railways:  tourist-class
reserved seats;  (3) Meals as specified in each itinerary;  (4)
English-speaking guide.

Payment, confirmation, cancellation & refunds


Participants wishing to reserve hotel accommodations and tours should
complete the (yellow) Application Form and return it to reach JTB no later
than June 30, 1997.  Note that the return addresses are different between
blue and yellow forms.  Application should be accompanied by a remittance
covering the hotel deposit of 20,000 Yen and/or total tour fare and a
handling charge of 500 Yen due JTB.  No reservation will be confirmed in the
absence of this payment.  Personal checks are NOT accepted.  All payment
must be in Japanese Yen.  The hotel deposit will be credited to your bill
when checking out.  Payment should be in the form of:

- A bank transfer to the Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. (Ref: CD100993-543)
account at the Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi, Shin-Marunouchi Branch 1-4-2,
Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (Account number:  1025740):
- A bank check payable to the order of the Japan Travel Bureau, Inc.:
- The following credit cards are acceptable:  

MasterCard	VISA
Diners Club	AMEX


JTB will confirm your reservations within 2 weeks after receipt of your
accommodation form and payment for requests received at the latest by July
15, 1997.  If confirmation is not received six weeks after mailing the form
and payment, please contact JTB by e-mail:  <jtbiau@mxd.meshnet.or.jp> or
facsimile:  81 3 5620 9499.

Cancellation & Refunds

In the event of cancellation, written notification should be sent to JTB.
The following cancellation fees will be deducted before refunding.


Up to 9 days before the first night of stay	2,000 Yen
2 to 8 days before	20% of daily room charge (minimum 2,000 Yen)
Less than 2 days before, or no notice	100% of daily room charge


Up to 21 prior to departure day	2,000 Yen
20 - 8 days	10% of tour fare (minimum 2,000 Yen)
7 - 1 days	20% of tour fare (minimum 2,000 Yen)
Prior to starting time, or no notice	100% of tour fare


A common thought is that the cost of living in Japan is very high.  The
following suggestions may reduce this cost to a reasonable level.



If you stick to a western style hotel, we recommend you to choose one from
the list of hotels in this issue.  Among them youth hostels are the least
expensive.  We remind you that reservation of accommodation among this list
is handled by JTB.


Japanese style hotels:  Ryo-kan (or Min-shuku)

These hotels are less expensive than Western style hotels.  There are at
least 7 suitable Ryo-kans in Kyoto, their prices ranging from 3,300 to 4,500
Yen/night (meals not included).  Most of them have only Japanese style
public bath. men and women being separate.

Dormitory style lodgings

There are at least 5 of such suitable lodgings in Kyoto, their prices
ranging from 1,500 to 3,000 Yen/night.

 Buddhist temple lodging:  Shukubo

There are at least 3 of such suitable lodgings in Kyoto.  Your religion is
of no concern if you accept the Buddhist atmosphere.  Their prices range
from 3,000 to 3,500 Yen/night (meals not included).

If you want to know the contact addresses of these three types of low cost
accommodations, please access our 

LOC WWW page.

or e-mail request to:

iau97-info@tenmon.or.jp (with the word "help" in subject field).

If you cannot access electronically, contact one of the following addresses
for information.  In some cases, you are expected to return a small
contribution covering the postal fee.

For Ryo-kans and Dormitory style lodgings, please send a request for the
Directory of Welcome Inns - Kyoto Area to the following office:

Welcome Inn Reservation Center	Phone: 81 3 3211 4201
c/o International Tourism Center of Japan	Facsimile: 81 3 3211 9009
9th floor Tokyo Kotsu Kaikan Building
2-10-1 Yurakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan

For Shukubo accommodation, please send a request for the List of Buddhist
temple lodgings in Kyoto city to the following office:

Tourist Information Center	Phone:  81 75 371 0480
Kyoto Tower Building 1st floor	Facsimile:  81 75 343 6847
Karasuma-Shichijo sagaru
Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600, Japan

Please note that whereas the LOC provides the contact addresses, it will NOT
take care of any reservation for these accommodations.  NEITHER will JTB.


While historic Kyoto will provide a very pleasant environment for the
XXIIIrd General Assembly, accommodation is not inexpensive in this city.  A
way to reduce costs is sharing hotel rooms, since twin rooms are
significantly less expensive in Japan than two single rooms.  We expect that
in the great majority of cases participants who wish to share a room will
make such arrangements directly with colleagues from the same institutions
or the same country.  However, if individual members, who wish to share a
hotel room in Kyoto have problems finding a colleague with the same
intention, they are welcome to contact the IAU Secretariat (Attn. Ms. Julie
Saucedo) providing their address and all relevant information.  The
Secretariat will then provide a list of other colleagues interested in
sharing a room.


The easiest way is to make Japanese friends, particularly students living in
Kyoto, during your stay.  The reception organized Monday August 18, evening
is one of the best chances to meet them.  They know well about inexpensive
daily life in Kyoto.

One of the inexpensive ways to eat in Japan consists in buying a lunch box
sold at a Kombini (mini-markets such as Seven-Eleven or Lawson).  A pack of
sandwiches costs about 150 250 Yen, a rice ball (Onigiri) about 100-120 Yen,
a pre-cooked noodle in a plastic cup (Cup Ra-a-men) about 200 Yen, and
Japanese style lunch box (Bento) about 500 Yen.


Another way is to go and eat out downtown, in a low-price restaurant
(Shokudo-o), mainly located near universities.  Most of such restaurants
display imitation dishes with their prices in the showcase.  Some of them
offer only noodles (Udon, Soba), some offer only rice bowl with meat
(Katsudon, Gyudon), some offer only Japanized-western meals such as curry &
rice (Kare-i Ra-isu), hamburger steak with rice (Hamba-a-gu Te-i-shoku), and
fried pork with rice (Tonkatsu Te-i-shoku), etc.  Most of the dishes are a
complete set.  The average price is 700 1,000 Yen.


Cheap western style restaurants, called family-restaurants, are located in
the suburbs.  They offer western meals in the Japanese style.  The average
price is 900-1,500 Yen.


American style fast food restaurants, such as McDonald's and Lotteria, may
also be found in the city. Take out food and drink can be bought from these
restaurants.  The average price is about 300-600 Yen.

The LOC will hand you a list and a map of low-priced restaurants and
mini-markets around Kyoto International Conference Hall at the time of the



The XXIIIrd General Assembly of the IAU is to be held in "Kyoto Kokusai
Kaikan (Kyo-o-t- Kokusa-i Ka-i-kan)", which means Kyoto International
Conference Hall (KICH) in Japanese, Takaraga-ike, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto.  Full
details of the facilities and services available to participants of the
XXIIIrd IAU General Assembly will be given in the final programme.


The registration desk will be open from Sunday afternoon, August 17 through
Friday afternoon, 29 August.  It will be closed on Saturday afternoon August
23 and on Sunday August 24.  All participants, including those who already
registered by mail, e-mail or WWW, must first report to the registration
desk and collect their registration package containing the final program,
badges, the Abstract Book, etc. Badges will be required for entering the
Conference Hall and for all General Assembly meetings and events.


A desk for general tourist information and travel assistance will be
organized by the official travel agent, the Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. (JTB).


Major shops accept VISA, Mastercard, Amex & JCB credit cards.  Some banks
have automatic teller machines (ATM) for most international credit cards.
Please refer carefully in detail to your credit card instructions before

Immediate exchange of most of the major currencies and traveller's checks
(including Japanese Yen travellers checks) to Japanese Yen can be made in
some banks and post offices.  Limited amounts of foreign currencies and
traveller's checks can also be exchanged at the financial office (Ke-i-rika)
of Kyoto International Conference Hall.  The exchange rates are the same in
banks and post offices.

The following currencies and corresponding traveller's checks can be
exchanged to Japanese Yen in some banks and post offices in Kyoto:

Australian Dollar, Austrian Schilling, Belgian Franc, Canadian Dollar,
Danish Krone, Finnish Markka, French Franc, German Mark, Hong Kong Dollar,
Italian Lira, Dutch Guilder, New Zealand Dollar, Norwegian Krone, Portuguese
Escudo, Singapore Dollar, Spanish Peseta, Swedish Krone, Swiss Franc, Thai
Baht, Pound Sterling, US Dollar.

Downtown banks are open from Monday through Friday from 9:00 to 15:00.  They
are closed on Saturday and Sunday.  At Kansai International Airport (KIX),
the Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi and other major banks are open from 6:00-22:30,
7 days a week whereas they are open from 6:00-23:00, 7 days a week at New
Tokyo International Airport (Narita airport, NRT).

Banking services of post offices are open from Monday through Friday from
9:00 to 16:00, whereas the Kyoto-chuo post office is open from Monday
through Friday from 9:00 to 18:00.  All the banking services of post offices
are closed on Saturday and Sunday.


Each participant will have his/her own mailbox in the Kyoto International
Conference Hall.


The postal address of participants during the XXIIIrd General Assembly will be

IAU XXIIIrd General Assembly
Kyoto International Conference Hall
Takaragaike, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606 Japan

Note that this address is only valid during the General Assembly.

There are some public phone boxes at the Kyoto International Conference Hall.

 Facsimile service is available at Kyoto International Conference Hall with
a charge.  Participants to the General Assembly may receive urgent messages,
using the (LOC) facsimile number at the Kyoto International Conference Hall:

Facsimile (LOC):  81 75 705 1250

Note that this number is  valid only during the General Assembly.

A limited number of terminals will be available to participants to
send/receive e-mail messages.


Photocopying machines will be available at the Kyoto International
Conference Hall.  Participants will be charged for using this service.


The General Assembly Newspaper will appear daily at the time of the
Assembly.  It will carry articles of general interest to the astronomical
community, reports on scientific and social programme of the days to come.
The editors of the daily Newspaper are Drs Jun Jugaku and G. Seth Shostak.


Cold green tea, cold water, and coffee will be served at the Kyoto
International Conference Hall.


The Kyoto International Conference Hall hosts a restaurant, named "Grill",
and a cafe.  Prices are about 700-1,000 Yen per dish.  There are also some
small restaurants and coffee shops within 1 km of the Conference Hall. If
you want to reduce your expenses, please see also the section of "Daily Life
- Low Price Food" above.


First Aid is available in the Kyoto International Conference Hall.


Please inquire at your hotel.  Child care is available at Miyako Hotel and
Kyoto ANA Hotel.  There is no child care service available at the Kyoto
International Conference Hall.


Scientific and technical materials of interest to the participants will be
exhibited during the General Assembly. Many institutions, such as
observatories and space agencies, will present mock-ups, observational
results and related publications.  Many companies, such as optical firms,
computer companies and publishers, will exhibit their products as well.

The exhibition fee is 200,000 Yen per unit booth (1.8 m x 1.8 m) or 40,000
Yen per square meter.  For the non-profit exhibitors such as observatories
and agencies, the fee is 50 % off.  Deadline for registration is February
28, 1997.

If you plan to register to exhibit during the General Assembly, please
contact the following address:

IAU LOC Exhibitions	Phone:  81 52 789 2918
c/o Dr. Hideyo Kunieda	Facsimile: 81 52 789 2919
Department of Physics, Nagoya University	E-mail:
Furo-cho, Chikusa,  Nagoya 464 Japan



Overhead and slide projectors will be available in all the rooms for oral
presentation.  Microphones will be available in large rooms.  Video
equipment will not be available in the lecture halls.  However, a video
corner will be set up in the poster room (see below).


A limited number of video monitors will be available for poster
presentations.  They will be set up at a corner of the poster room.  Those
who want to use them are requested to add a line "(Video presentation
planned)" at the end of the abstract as well as to attach a memo in
submitting poster abstracts.  Please be sure to include your e-mail address
in the abstract for further contacts.  Only videos recorded on normal-sized
VHS (not S-VHS) cassettes in NTSC mode can be displayed.  The presentation
time will be assigned to one of the breaks.  
Detailed instructions will be given later.


Only posters prepared by actual participants of the General Assembly and
related to one of the scientific events or related to business sessions of
Commissions will be accepted.  A room for 600 poster presentations is
reserved.  The present plan is to share one poster space by 4 papers in
turn.  Hence a total number of 2,400 poster papers can be accommodated.
Simple arithmetics results, on average, in 200 papers for a Symposium and 50
for a Joint Discussion of one-day length.  If this is not enough, then we
can offer more space by changing posters more frequently.  Each poster will
be assigned a number referring to the poster board in the Congress building.
The poster board for a paper will be 90 cm x 90 cm.


Selection of poster papers will be made by the Scientific Organizing
Committees (SOCs) of Symposia and Joint Discussions, on the basis of Poster
Abstracts received before February l5, 1997 at the SOC contact address given
in the Information Bulletin 78.  Poster papers accepted by an SOC and
communicated to the Local Organizing Committee will be accepted for display
and registered by the LOC when at least one of the authors has registered
and paid his/her registration fee before June 15, 1997.  Only the registered
poster papers will be included in the Abstracts Book and the WWW page and
will be allocated a poster board.  Hence, authors of poster papers have to
register no later than by June 15, 1997.

 Copies of the Abstract Book containing the Abstracts of all posters
accepted by Symposium and Joint Discussion SOCs, and a floor plan of the
poster area, will be distributed at the Assembly.  For publication in the
Abstract Book, poster abstracts must be prepared following the instructions
given below.


Each page of the Abstract Book will contain four abstracts.  
The page size is A4:  21.0 cm x 29.7 cm.  The actual size for each abstract
in print is 7.8 cm wide and 10.6 cm high.  Please send the abstract to the
SOCs by E-mail in the following two forms:

(1) a LaTeX file following a template available on the WWW page or by E-mail
from LOC,


(2) a plain ASCII text for inclusion in the WWW page.

You are requested to send BOTH the above files by e-mail.  If e-mail is not
available, however, please send the SOC a camera-ready copy being 11 cm wide
and 15 cm high, which will be reduced by 70.7 % before printing.  Any
typeface, font sizes, and line spacings will be accepted, but oversized
manuscripts will be shortened for printing.

The manuscript must include a title, author name(s), institute(s), e-mail
address(es), and main text.  Each abstract must be shorter than 200 words.


The next issue of the Information Bulletin will contain the same list, along
with corresponding Chinese characters:


JR	Japan Railways, the largest railway companies covering the whole of Japan
(successors of the Japan National Railway). They are JR Hokkaido, JR East,
JR Tokai, JR West, JR Shikoku, JR Kyushu, and JR Freight.  JR East operates
lines around Tokyo.  JR West operates lines around Kyoto and Osaka.  JR
Tokai operates Shinkansen between Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka. 

KICH	Kyoto International Conference Hall, the venue of the XXIIIrd 
Kokusai-Kaikan	IAU General Assembly.
Kokusa-i-Ka-i-kan	Address:  Takaraga-ike, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606

KIX	The international airport abbreviation code for Kansai International
Kansaikuko	Airport, the new international airport close to Kyoto.
Kansa-i-ku-u-ko-o	Built on a man-made island.

NRT	The international airport abbreviation code for New Tokyo International
Airport, called also "Narita Airport".  The largest international airport
near Tokyo.


Awaji	A railway station crossing Hankyu Kyoto line and Osaka city subway.

Haneda	Tokyo Airport.  For domestic flights and China Air. 

Hankyu	One of railway companies operating lines connecting
Hankyu-u	between Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe.
	Also operating a bus network around its railways. 

Haruka	Limited express trains connecting KIX and Kyoto, which require a
supplement charge. Operated by JR. 

Itami	Osaka Airport.  Only for domestic flights. 

JR Namba	A railway terminal of JR line in Osaka.  One of the destinations of
trains from KIX to Osaka. 

Kaisatsu	A gateway to/from platforms at railway stations where 
Ka-i-satsu	your ticket is checked or collected.

Kaisuken	A multi-fare ticket which costs roughly 10 % less. 

Kansaikuko	The same as KIX but in Japanese.

Kanku-Kaisoku	Rapid trains connecting KIX and Osaka, which do not require
any supplement charge.
Kanku-u-ka-i-soku	Operated by JR. 

Kanku-Tokkai Wing	Special rapid trains connecting KIX and Osaka, 
Kanku-u-tokka-i	which require no supplement charge. 
	Operated by JR. 

Karasuma	Street in Kyoto. 
	Also the name of a station on the Hankyu Kyoto line which is close to the
Shijo station of Kyoto Subway. 

Kawaramachi	Street in Kyoto. Also the name of railway terminal of the Hankyu
Kyoto line. 

Keihan	One of the railway companies operating lines connecting
Ke-i-han	Kyoto and Osaka. 
	Also operating a bus network around its railways. 

Kintetsu	One of the railway companies operating lines connecting Kyoto,
Nara, Osaka and Nagoya. 
	Also operating a bus network around its railways. 

 Kokusai-Kaikan	The same as KICH but in Japanese. 

Kusatsu	A city near Kyoto. 
	One of the destinations of the trains from Osaka to Kyoto. 

Kyobashi	A railway station of JR Osaka Loop line. 
	One of the destinations of trains from KIX to Osaka. 

Kyoto Kotsu	One of the transporter companies operating a bus network
Ko-o-tsu-u	covering Kyoto. 

Maibara	A town near Kyoto. One of the destinations of trains from 
Ma-i-bara	Osaka to Kyoto. 

Nagahama	A city near Kyoto. One of the destinations of trains from 
	Osaka to Kyoto. 

Namba	A railway terminal of Nankai line in Osaka. 
	One of the destinations of trains from KIX to Osaka. 

Nankai	One of the railway companies operating lines connecting
Nanka-i	KIX and Osaka. 
	Also operating a bus network around its railways. 

Omi-shiozu	A railway station near Kyoto. 
O-omi-shiozu	One of the destinations of trains from Osaka to Kyoto. 

Seiriken	A code tag to account your mileage on bus in the case
Se-i-riken	of a bus line beyond the central zone. 

Shi bus	The largest bus network in Kyoto. 
	Operated by the Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau. 

Shijo	Street in Kyoto. 
	Also the name of station of Kyoto Subway which is close to Karasuma station
of Hankyu Kyoto line. 

Shin-Kaisoku	Special rapid trains connecting Osaka and Kyoto, 
Shin-Ka-i-soku	which require no supplement charge. 
	Operated by JR. 

Shinkansen	The name of lines and trains with high speed around 300 km/h
connecting Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. Operated by JR.

Tengachaya	A railway stations crossing Nankai line and Osaka city Subway.

Tennoji	A railway station of a JR line in Osaka.
Ten-no-o-ji	One of the destinations of trains from KIX to Osaka.

Yasu	A town near Kyoto.
	One of the destinations of trains from Osaka to Kyoto.


Min-shuku	Japanese style lodgings operated by individuals.

Ryo-kan	Japanese style hotels.

Shukubo	Buddhist temple lodgings.


Bento	A box lunch. 
Bento-o	Usually contains rice, vegetables and meat and/or fish.

Gyudon	A rice bowl with beef.

Hamba-a-gu Te-i-shoku	A set menu of Hamburg steak with rice.

Kare-i Ra-isu	curry and rice.

Katsudon	A rice bowl with fried pork. 

Kombini	A small sized supermarket like Seven-Eleven,
	the origin of this word being Convenience Store.

Onigiri	A ball of steamed rice with small pieces of fish,
	salty plum, etc... 
	One popular and traditional fast food in Japan.

Ra-a-men	Chinese noodles.  One popular fast food in Japan.

Shokudo-o	Low price Japanese style restaurants.
	Less sophisticated but more friendly and frank atmosphere than the western
stly restaurants.

Soba	Thin and grey coloured Japanese noodles made from buckwheat flour.  A
popular and traditional fast food in Japan.  There are many variations of
Soba, such as Soba with Tempura.

Tempura	Light tasty fritter made from shrimp, fish or (and) vegetable.

Tonkatsu Te-i-soku	A set menu of fried pork with rice.

Udon	Thick and white coloured Japanese noodles made from wheat flour.  A
popular and traditional fast food in Japan.  There are many variations of
Udon, such as Udon with Tempura.


Shohizei Comsumer's Tax	Exists in some shops.  3 % at present but is
expected to 
Sho-o-hize-i	be raised to 5 % by the time of the General Assembly.



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