INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION B Y E - L A W S I MEMBERSHIP 1 Applications of countries for adherence to the International Astronomical Union (referred to as the Union) are examined by the Executive Committee and submitted to the General Assembly for approval. 2 Proposed changes in the list of Members are, with due regard to the suggestions of the Presidents of Divisions, submitted for advice to the Nominating Committee, consisting of one representative of each Adhering Country designated by the appropriate adhering body, before decision by the Executive Committee. 3 Commissions may, with the approval of the Executive Committee, co-opt consultants whom they consider may contribute to their work. The adherence of consultants expires on the last day of the ordinary General Assembly next following their admission, unless renewed. 4 An affiliated organization may participate in the work of the Union as mutually agreed between the organization and the Executive Committee. II GENERAL ASSEMBLY 5 The Union meets in ordinary General Assembly, as a rule, once every three years. The place and date of the ordinary General Assembly unless determined by the General Assembly at its previous meeting, shall be fixed by the Executive Committee and communicated to the adhering bodies at least six months beforehand. 6 The President, with the consent of the Executive Committee, may summon an extraordinary General Assembly. The President must do so at the request of one third of the Adhering Countries. 7 The agenda of business for each ordinary General Assembly is determined by the Executive Committee and is communicated to the adhering bodies at least four months before the first day of the meeting. It shall include the proposal of the Executive Committee with regard to the unit of contribution as called for in article 27. 8 (a) Any motion or proposal received by the General Secretary at least five months before the first day of an ordinary General Assembly, whether from an adhering body, from a Commission of the Union, from an Inter-Union Commission on which the Union is represented, must be placed on the agenda. (b) A motion or proposal concerning the administration of budget of the Union which does not appear on the agenda prepared by the Executive Committee, or any amendment to a motion that appears on the agenda, shall only be discussed with the prior approval of at least two thirds of the votes of Adhering Countries represented at the General Assembly and having the right to vote by virtue of Statute 15(a). 9 If there is doubt as to the administrative or scientific character of a question giving rise to a vote, the President determines the issue. 10 Where there is an equal division of votes, the President determines the issue. 11 The President may invite representatives of other organizations, scientists and young astronomers to participate in the General Assembly. Subject to the agreement of the Executive Committee the President may delegate this privilege concerning representatives of other organizations to the General Secretary, and concerning scientists and young astronomers to the adhering national organization or other appropriate bodies. Representatives of other organizations, scientists and young astronomers can participate in the General Assembly but have no voting right. III SPECIAL NOMINATING COMMITTEE 12 (a) Proposals for elections of the President of the Union, the President-elect, six Vice-Presidents, the General Secretary and the Assistant General Secretary are submitted to the General Assembly by the Special Nominating Committee. This Committee consists of the President and past President of the Union, a member proposed by the retiring Executive Committee, and four members elected by the Nominating Committee from among twelve Members proposed by Presidents of Divisions, with due regard to an appropriate distribution over the major branches of astronomy. Except for the President and immediate past President present and former members of the Executive Committee shall not serve on the Special Nominating Committee. No two members of the Special Nominating Committee shall belong to the same country or adhering body. (b) The General Secretary and the Assistant General Secretary participate in the work of the Special Nominating Committee in an advisory capacity. (c) The Special Nominating Committee is appointed by the General Assembly to which it reports directly. It remains in office until the end of the ordinary General Assembly next following that of its appointment, and it may fill any vacancy occurring among its members. IV OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 13 (a) The President of the Union remains in office until the end of the ordinary General Assembly following election to that function. Normally, the President-elect succeeds the President at that moment. The Vice-Presidents remain in office until the end of the second ordinary General Assembly following that of their election. They may not be re-elected immediately to the same offices. (b) The General Secretary and the Assistant General Secretary remain in office until the end of the ordinary General Assembly next following that of their election. Normally the Assistant General Secretary succeeds the General Secretary though both officers may be re-elected for another term. (c) The election takes place at the last session of the General Assembly, the names of the candidates proposed having been announced at a previous session. 14 The retiring President and the retiring General Secretary become advisers to the Executive Committee until the end of the ordinary General Assembly next following that of their retirement. They participate in the work of the Executive Committee and attend its meetings without voting right. 15 The Executive Committee may fill any vacancy occurring among its members. Any person so appointed remains in office until the next ordinary General Assembly. 16 The Executive Committee may draw up and publish Working Rules to clarify the Statutes and Bye- Laws. 17 The Executive Committee appoints the Union's representative to the International Council of Scientific Unions; if not already an elected member of the Executive Committee, this representative will become its adviser. 18 (a) The General Secretary is responsible to the Executive Committee for not incurring expenditure in excess of the funds designated for that office. (b) An Administrative office, under the direction of the General Secretary, conducts the correspondence, administers the funds, and preserves the archives of the Union. V DIVISIONS AND COMMISSIONS 19 (a) The Commissions of the Union shall pursue the scientific objects of the Union by activities such as the study of special branches of astronomy, the encouragement of collective investigations, and the discussion of questions relating to international agreements or to standardization. (b) The Commissions of the Union shall prepare reports on the work with which they are concerned. 20 Each Commission consists of: (a) a President and at least one Vice-President elected by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Executive Committee. They remain in office until the end of the ordinary General Assembly next following that of their election. They are not normally eligible for re-election; (b) an Organizing Committee, whose members are appointed by the Commission subject to the approval by the Executive Committee. The Organizing Committee assists the President and Vice-President(s) in their duties. A Commission may decide that it needs no Organizing Committee; (c) Members of the Union, appointed by the President, Vice-President(s) and the Organizing Committee, in consideration of their special interests; their appointment is subject to the confirmation by the Executive Committee. 21 Between two ordinary General Assemblies, Presidents of Commissions may co-opt, from among Members of the Union, new members to the Organizing Committees and to the Commissions themselves. 22 Commissions draw up their own rules. Decisions within Commissions are taken according to the vote of their members, and they become effective once they are approved by the Executive Committee. 23 Commissions with related scientific or technical tasks form Divisions. The Divisions coordinate the activities of the affiliated Commissions, including the making of proposals for new Commissions, proposals for dissolving or combining Commissions, and proposals for Working Groups. The Divisions also endorse proposals for IAU Symposia and Colloquia and they may organize Joint Discussions during the General Assemblies. 24 Each Division is directed by a board which is composed of up to six persons including the Presidents of the constituent Commissions. This board elects the Division President. 25 The Division Presidents report to and advise the Executive Committee. VI ADHERING BODIES 26 The functions of the Adhering Bodies are to promote and co-ordinate, in their respective territories, the study of the various branches of astronomy, more especially in relation to their international requirements. They are entitled to submit to the Executive Committee motions for discussions by the General Assembly. VII FINANCES 27 Each Adhering Country pays annually to the Union a number of units of contribution corresponding to its category as follows: Category as defined in Statute 8 I II III IV V VI VII VIII VIII 1/2 IX X Number of units of contribution 1 2 4 6 10 14 20 27 30 35 45 If further Categories of Adherence are required in the future, the step in the number of units shall be 10 units/category. 28 The income of the Union is to be devoted to its objects, including (a) costs of publication and expenses of administration; (b) the promotion of astronomical enterprises requiring international co-operation; (c) the contribution due from the Union to the International Council of Scientific Unions. 29 Funds derived from donations are used by the Union in accordance with the wishes expressed by the donors. 30 The Union has copyright to all materials printed in its publications, unless otherwise arranged. 31 Members of the Union are entitled to receive the publications of the Union free of charge or at reduced prices at the discretion of the Executive Committee taking due regard of the financial situation of the Union. VIII FINAL CLAUSES 32 These Bye-Laws enter into force on 20 August 1997. They can be changed with the approval of an absolute majority of the votes of the Adhering Countries having the right to vote by virtue of Statute 15 (a). 33 The present Bye-Laws are being published in French and English versions. In case of doubt, the French version is the only authority.