Habitats Authority File (Version 2.1)

The habitat types listed below are standard terms used to describe the major habitat/s in which taxa occur. If recorded, these habitats are listed in the ‘Summary Documentation’ section on the detailed results page for each taxon.

The two levels of the hierarchy are self-explanatory, as they use familiar habitat terms that take into account biogeography and latitudinal zonation. The aquatic habitats, both marine and inland, are based primarily on the classification system of wetland types used by the Ramsar Convention (see http://www.ramsar.org/key_ris_types.htm). It is acknowledged that the system is not perfect, and that the freshwater and marine habitats in particular need further development. Updates to this Authority File and a more detailed description of the habitat types can be downloaded from: http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/authority.htm.

1. Forest
1.1. Boreal
1.2. Subarctic
1.3. Subantarctic
1.4. Temperate
1.5. Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1.6. Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1.7. Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove
1.8. Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
1.9. Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
2. Savanna
2.1. Dry Savanna
2.2. Moist Savana
3. Shrubland
3.1. Subarctic
3.2. Subantarctic
3.3. Boreal
3.4. Temperate
3.5. Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3.6. Subtropical/Tropical Moist
3.7. Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
3.8. Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
4. Grassland
4.1. Tundra
4.2. Subarctic
4.3. Subantarctic
4.4. Temperate
4.5. Subtropical/Tropical Dry Lowland
4.6. Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland
4.7. Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
5. Wetlands (inland)
5.1. Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks [includes waterfalls]
5.2. Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5.3. Shrub Dominated Wetlands
5.4. Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5.5. Permanent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]
5.6. Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]
5.7. Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]
5.8. Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]
5.9. Freshwater Springs and Oases
5.10. Tundra Wetlands [includes pools and temporary waters from snowmelt]
5.11. Alpine Wetlands [includes temporary waters from snowmelt]
5.12. Geothermal Wetlands
5.13. Permanent Inland Deltas
5.14. Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
5.15. Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats
5.16. Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
5.17. Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
5.18. Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems [inland]
6. Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks]
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic)
7.1. Caves
7.2. Other Subterranean Habitats
8. Desert
8.1. Hot
8.2. Temperate
8.3. Cold
9. Sea
9.1. Open
9.2. Shallow [usually less than 6 m deep at low tide; includes sea bays and straits]
9.3. Subtidal Aquatic Beds [kelp beds, sea- grass beds and tropical marine meadows]
9.4. Coral Reefs
10. Coastline
10.1. Rocky Shores [includes rocky offshore islands and sea cliffs]
10.2. Sand, Shingle or Pebble Shores [includes sand bars, spits, sandy islets, dune systems]
10.3. Estuarine Waters
10.4. Intertidal Mud, Sand or Salt Flats
10.5. Intertidal Marshes [includes salt marshes]
10.6. Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons
10.7. Coastal Freshwater Lagoons
10.8. Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems [marine/coastal]
11. Artificial - Terrestrial
11.1. Arable Land
11.2. Pastureland
11.3. Plantations
11.4. Rural Gardens
11.5. Urban Areas
11.6. Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
12. Artificial - Aquatic
12.1. Water Storage Areas (over 8 ha)
12.2. Ponds (below 8 ha)
12.3. Aquaculture Ponds
12.4. Salt Exploitation Sites
12.5. Excavations (open)
12.6. Wastewater Treatment Areas
12.7. Irrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]
12.8. Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
12.9. Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
12.10. Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems [human-made]
13. Introduced Vegetation
14. Other
15. Unknown