Threats Authority File (Version 2.1)

The hierarchical structure of the major threat types listed in the ‘Summary Documentation’ section on the detailed results page for each taxon is shown here.

In using this hierarchical classification of causes of species decline, assessors are asked to indicate the threats that triggered the listing of the taxon concerned at the finest level possible. These threats could be in the past and/or present and/or future, using a time frame of three generations or ten years, whichever is the longer (not exceeding 100 years in the future) as required by the Red List Criteria. Selecting past, present and future for any threat implies that it is an ongoing threat. Updates to this Authority File can be downloaded from:
http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/authority.htm.

0. No Threats

1. Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced)
1.1. Agriculture
1.1.1. Crops
1.1.1.1. Shifting agriculture
1.1.1.2. Small-holder farming
1.1.1.3. Agro-industry farming
1.1.2. Wood plantations
1.1.2.1. Small-scale
1.1.2.2. Large-scale
1.1.3. Non-timber plantations
1.1.3.1. Small-scale
1.1.3.2. Large-scale
1.1.4. Livestock
1.1.4.1. Nomadic
1.1.4.2. Small-holder
1.1.4.3. Agro-industry
1.1.5. Abandonment
1.1.6. Marine aquaculture
1.1.7. Freshwater aquaculture
1.1.8. Other
1.1.9. Unknown
1.2. Land management of non-agricultural areas
1.2.1. Abandonment
1.2.2. Change of management regime
1.2.3. Other
1.2.4. Unknown
1.3. Extraction
1.3.1. Mining
1.3.2. Fisheries
1.3.2.1. Subsistence
1.3.2.2. Artisinal/small-scale
1.3.2.3. Large-scale/industrial
1.3.3. Wood
1.3.3.1. Small-scale subsistence
1.3.3.2. Selective logging
1.3.3.3. Clear-cutting
1.3.4. Non-woody vegetation collection
1.3.5. Coral removal
1.3.6. Groundwater extraction
1.3.7. Other
1.3.8. Unknown
1.4. Infrastructure development
1.4.1. Industry
1.4.2. Human settlement
1.4.3. Tourism/recreation
1.4.4. Transport - land/air
1.4.5. Transport – water
1.4.6. Dams
1.4.7. Telecommunications
1.4.8. Power lines
1.4.9. Other
1.4.10. Unknown
1.5. Invasive alien species (directly impacting habitat)
1.6. Change in native species dynamics (directly impacting habitat)
1.7. Fires
1.8. Other causes
1.9. Unknown causes
2. Invasive alien species (directly affecting the species)
2.1. Competitors
2.2. Predators
2.3. Hybridizers
2.4. Pathogens/parasites
2.5. Other
2.6. Unknown
3. Harvesting [hunting/gathering]
3.1. Food
3.1.1. Subsistence use/local trade
3.1.2. Sub-national/national trade
3.1.3. Regional/international trade
3.2. Medicine
3.2.1. Subsistence use/local trade
3.2.2. Sub-national/national trade
3.2.3. Regional/international trade
3.3. Fuel
3.3.1. Subsistence use/local trade
3.3.2. Sub-national/national trade
3.3.3. Regional/international trade
3.4. Materials
3.4.1. Subsistence use/local trade
3.4.2. Sub-national/national trade
3.4.3. Regional/international trade
3.5. Cultural/scientific/leisure activities
3.5.1. Subsistence use/local trade
3.5.2. Sub-national/national trade
3.5.3. Regional/international trade
3.6. Other
3.7. Unknown
4. Accidental mortality
4.1. Bycatch
4.1.1. Fisheries-related
4.1.1.1. Hooking
4.1.1.2. Netting
4.1.1.3. Entanglement
4.1.1.4. Dynamite
4.1.1.5. Poisoning
4.1.2. Terrestrial
4.1.2.1. Trapping/snaring/netting
4.1.2.2. Shooting
4.1.2.3. Poisoning
4.1.3. Other
4.1.4. Unknown
4.2. Collision
4.2.1. Pylon and building collision
4.2.2. Vehicle collision
4.2.3. Other
4.2.4. Unknown
4.3. Other
4.4. Unknown
5. Persecution
5.1. Pest control
5.2. Other
5.3. Unknown
6. Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)
6.1. Atmospheric pollution
6.1.1. Global warming/oceanic warming
6.1.2. Acid precipitation
6.1.3. Ozone hole effects
6.1.4. Smog
6.1.5. Other
6.1.6. Unknown
6.2. Land pollution
6.2.1. Agricultural
6.2.2. Domestic
6.2.3. Commercial/Industrial
6.2.4. Other non-agricultural
6.2.5. Light pollution
6.2.6. Other
6.2.7. Unknown
6.3. Water pollution
6.3.1. Agricultural
6.3.2. Domestic
6.3.3. Commercial/Industrial
6.3.4. Other non-agricultural
6.3.5. Thermal pollution
6.3.6. Oil slicks
6.3.7. Sediment
6.3.8. Sewage
6.3.9. Solid waste
6.3.10. Noise pollution
6.3.11. Other
6.3.12. Unknown
7. Natural disasters
7.1. Drought
7.2. Storms/flooding
7.3. Temperature extremes
7.4. Wildfire
7.5. Volcanoes
7.6. Avalanches/landslides
7.7. Other
7.8. Unknown
8. Changes in native species dynamics
8.1. Competitors
8.2. Predators
8.3. Prey/food base
8.4. Hybridizers
8.5. Pathogens/parasites
8.6. Mutualisms
8.7. Other
8.8. Unknown
9. Intrinsic Factors
9.1. Limited dispersal
9.2. Poor recruitment/reproduction/regeneration
9.3. High juvenile mortality
9.4. Inbreeding
9.5. Low densities
9.6. Skewed sex ratios
9.7. Slow growth rates
9.8. Population fluctuations
9.9. Restricted range
9.10. Other
9.11. Unknown
10. Human disturbance
10.1. Recreation/tourism
10.2. Research
10.3. War/civil unrest
10.4. Transport
10.5. Fire
10.6. Other
10.7. Unknown
11. Other
12. Unknown