IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:  Rhinoceros unicornis

Rhinoceros unicornis

Summary | Distribution | Other Documentation | References | Comprehensive

Taxonomy
Kingdom ANIMALIA
Phylum CHORDATA
Class MAMMALIA
Order PERISSODACTYLA
Family RHINOCEROTIDAE
Common Name/s GREAT INDIAN RHINOCEROS (E)
INDIAN RHINOCEROS (E)
RHINOCÉROS UNICORNE DE L'INDE (F)
RINOCERONTE UNICORNIO ÍNDICO (S)
Species Authority Linnaeus, 1758
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed

See Rhinoceros unicornis (Eastern subpopulation)

See Rhinoceros unicornis (Western subpopulation)

Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria EN B1+2cde    ver 2.3 (1994)
Year Assessed 1996
Assessor/s Asian Rhino Specialist Group
History
1965-"Very rare and believed to be decreasing in numbers" (Scott 1965)
1986-Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
1988-Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1990-Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1994-Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
Distribution
Country Names Bangladesh [RE]
Bhutan
India
Nepal
Pakistan [RE]
Summary Documentation
System Terrestrial
Major Habitat/s
(terms)
4.5Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Lowland
Major Threat/s
(terms)
1.1.1Habitat Loss/Degradation - Agriculture - Crops (ongoing)
1.1.2Habitat Loss/Degradation - Agriculture - Wood plantations (ongoing)
1.4.2Habitat Loss/Degradation - Infrastructure development - Human settlement (ongoing)
3Harvesting (hunting/gathering) (ongoing)
Detailed Documentation
Range The Indian rhinoceros once existed across the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent from Pakistan to the Indian-Burmese birder, and including parts of Nepal and Bhutan. It may also have existed in Myanmar, southern China, and Indochina. The species now exists in a few small subpopulations in north-eastern India and in Nepal.
Population The total population estimate is currently around 2,000 (Foose and van Strien 1997).
Habitat and Ecology The species inhabits the riverine grasslands of the Terai and Brahmaputra Basins (Foose and van Strein 1997).
Threats Over-hunting combined with conversion of habitat for agricultural, teak plantations, and other developments have been the main threats to the species. These pressures brought the species to the brink of extinction in the early 1900s.
Conservation Measures The species has been included on CITES Appendix I since 1975. The species has been intensely protected by the Indian and Nepalese wildlife authorities.
Links to Other Sources
Databases
Images
Data Sources
Data Sources

Asian Rhino Specialist Group. For more information, see the Specialist Group website

Foose, T.J. and van Strien, N. (eds) 1997. Asian Rhinos. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Asian Rhino Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Groombridge, B. (ed.) 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Scott, P. (ed.) 1965. Section XIII. Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds. In: The Launching of a New Ark, pp. 15–207. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961–1964. Collins, London.


Citation: Asian Rhino Specialist Group 1996. Rhinoceros unicornis. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 February 2007.
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