Etymology
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stand (v.)

Old English standan "occupy a place; stand firm; congeal; stay, continue, abide; be valid, be, exist, take place; oppose, resist attack; stand up, be on one's feet; consist, amount to" (class VI strong verb; past tense stod, past participle standen), from Proto-Germanic *standanan (source also of Old Norse standa, Old Saxon and Gothic standan, Old High German stantan, parallel with simpler forms, such as Swedish stå, Dutch staan, German stehen [see discussion in OED]), from *stathula, from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Sense of "to exist, be present" is attested from c. 1300. Meaning "encounter without flinching" is from 1590s; weaker sense of "put up with" is from 1620s. Meaning "to submit" (to chances, etc.) is from c. 1700. Meaning "to pay for as a treat" is from 1821. Meaning "become a candidate for office" is from 1550s. Nautical sense of "hold a course at sea" is from 1620s. Meaning "to be so high when standing" is from 1831.

Stand back "keep (one's) distance" is from c. 1400. Phrase stand pat is from poker (1882), earlier simply stand (1824 in other card games). To stand down is from 1680s, originally of witnesses in court; in the military sense of "come off duty" it is first recorded 1916. To let (something) stand is from c. 1200. To stand for is c. 1300 as "count for;" early 14c. as "be considered in lieu of;" late 14c. as "represent by way of sign;" sense of "tolerate" first recorded 1620s. Phrase stands to reason (1620) is from earlier stands (is constant) with reason.

stand (n.)

Old English stand "a pause, delay, state of rest or inaction," from the root of stand (v.). Compare Dutch and German stand (n.). Sense of "action of standing or coming to a position" is attested from late 14c., especially in reference to fighting (1590s). Sense of "state of being unable to proceed" is from 1590s.

Meaning "place of standing, position" is from early 14c.; figurative sense is from 1590s. Meaning "raised platform for a hunter or sportsman" is attested from c. 1400. Meaning "raised platform for spectators at an open-air event" is from 1610s; meaning "piece of furniture on which something is to be set" is from 1690s. Sense of "stall or booth" is first recorded c. 1500. Military meaning "complete set" (of arms, colors, etc.) is from 1721, often a collective singular. Sense of "standing growth" (usually of of trees) is 1868, American English. Theatrical sense of "each stop made on a performance tour" is from 1896. The word formerly also was slang for "an erection" (1867).

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Definitions of stand
1
stand (v.)
be standing; be upright;
We had to stand for the entire performance!
Synonyms: stand up
stand (v.)
be in some specified state or condition;
I stand corrected
stand (v.)
occupy a place or location, also metaphorically;
We stand on common ground
stand (v.)
hold one's ground; maintain a position; be steadfast or upright;
I am standing my ground and won't give in!
Synonyms: remain firm
stand (v.)
put up with something or somebody unpleasant;
Synonyms: digest / endure / stick out / stomach / bear / tolerate / support / brook / abide / suffer / put up
stand (v.)
have or maintain a position or stand on an issue;
Where do you stand on the War?
stand (v.)
remain inactive or immobile;
standing water
stand (v.)
be in effect; be or remain in force;
The law stands!
stand (v.)
be tall; have a height of; copula;
She stands 6 feet tall
stand (v.)
put into an upright position;
Can you stand the bookshelf up?
Synonyms: stand up / place upright
stand (v.)
withstand the force of something;
stand the test of time
Synonyms: resist / fend
stand (v.)
be available for stud services;
2
stand (n.)
a support or foundation;
Synonyms: base / pedestal
stand (n.)
the position where a thing or person stands;
stand (n.)
a growth of similar plants (usually trees) in a particular area;
they cut down a stand of trees
stand (n.)
a small table for holding articles of various kinds;
a bedside stand
stand (n.)
a support for displaying various articles;
Synonyms: rack
stand (n.)
an interruption of normal activity;
Synonyms: standstill / tie-up
stand (n.)
a mental position from which things are viewed;
stand (n.)
a booth where articles are displayed for sale;
Synonyms: stall / sales booth
stand (n.)
a stop made by a touring musical or theatrical group to give a performance;
a one-night stand
stand (n.)
tiered seats consisting of a structure (often made of wood) where people can sit to watch an event (game or parade);
stand (n.)
a platform where a (brass) band can play in the open air;
Synonyms: bandstand / outdoor stage
stand (n.)
a defensive effort;
the army made a final stand at the Rhone
From wordnet.princeton.edu