Prospective association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use and abuse/dependence: A meta-analytic review☆
► We meta-analyzed the prospective effect of childhood ADHD on substance outcomes. ► Children with ADHD were more likely to use substances than children without ADHD. ► Youth with ADHD were also more likely to have substance use disorders. ► This suggests that adolescent/adult substance problems are associated with early ADHD.